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Energy metabolism and micronutrients

Energy metabolism and micronutrients

Here, we Endurance nutrition for recovery optimization developed a model micronnutrients postnatal multiple miceonutrients deficiencies and simultaneously investigated metaabolism that may aid Enervy our understanding metabollism metabolic disease in host and microbiome. Green Science. A Energy metabolism and micronutrients table of human studies and animal experiments with zinc deficiency and supplementation is provided in Supplementary Table S3. While in others, deficiency persisted despite supplementation, suggesting our understanding of the underlying biology is incomplete. The mineral also plays a role in enabling glucose transporter proteins like GLUT4 to transport glucose across cell membranes so that cells can absorb and use it. Energy metabolism and micronutrients

Energy metabolism and micronutrients -

Coenzymes and cofactors are essential in catabolic pathways i. breaking down substances and play a role in many anabolic pathways i. building substances. Table 9. Nutrients Involved in Energy Metabolism. B Vitamins. Role in Energy Metabolism.

Thiamin B 1. Assists in glucose metabolism and RNA, DNA, and ATP synthesis. Riboflavin B 2. Assists in carbohydrate and fat metabolism.

Niacin B 3. Assists in glucose, fat, and protein metabolism. Pantothenic Acid B 5. Assists in glucose, fat, and protein metabolism, cholesterol and neurotransmitter synthesis.

Assists in the breakdown of glycogen and synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters, and hemoglobin. Biotin B 7. Assists in amino acid synthesis and glucose, fat, and protein metabolism,.

Folate B 9. Assists in the synthesis of amino acids, RNA, DNA, and red blood cells. Protects nerve cells and assists in fat and protein catabolism, folate function, and red blood cell synthesis. Assists in metabolism, growth, development, and synthesis of thyroid hormone.

Assists in carbohydrate and cholesterol metabolism, bone formation, and the synthesis of urea. A component in sulfur-containing amino acids necessary in certain enzymes; a component in thiamin and biotin. Assists in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism, DNA and RNA synthesis.

Assists in metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and synthesis of DNA and RNA. Vitamins and minerals involved in energy metabolism and the role they each play. Because B vitamins play so many important roles in energy metabolism, it is common to see marketing claims that B vitamins boost energy and performance.

This is a myth that is not backed by science. As discussed, B vitamins are needed to support energy metabolism and growth, but taking in more than required does not supply you with more energy. A great analogy of this phenomenon is the gas in your car.

Does it drive faster with a half-tank of gas or a full one? It does not matter; the car drives just as fast as long as it has gas. Similarly, depletion of B vitamins will cause problems in energy metabolism, but having more than is required to run metabolism does not speed it up.

And because B vitamins are water-soluble, they are not stored in the body and any excess will be excreted from the body, essentially flushing out the added expense of the supplements. The B vitamins important for energy metabolism are naturally present in numerous foods, and many other foods are enriched with them; therefore, B vitamin deficiencies are rare.

Similarly, most of the minerals involved in energy metabolism and listed above are trace minerals that are not frequently deficient in the diet. However, when a deficiency of one of these vitamins or minerals does occur, symptoms can be seen throughout the body because of their relationship to energy metabolism, which happens in all cells of the body.

A lack of these vitamins and minerals typically impairs blood health and the conversion of macronutrients into usable energy i. Deficiency can also lead to an increase in susceptibility to infections, tiredness, lack of energy, and a decrease in concentration.

Because of their water-solubility, toxicities of most of these nutrients are also uncommon, as excess intake is often excreted from the body. Large quantities, particularly through supplements, can lead to adverse side effects or cause interactions with medications. For example, too much niacin can cause flushing of the skin or dangerous drops in blood pressure, and a high intake of B 6 can lead to neuropathy.

When taking vitamin or mineral supplements, always pay attention to the recommended dietary allowance and avoid exceeding the tolerable upper intake level UL. Folate, or vitamin B 9 , is a required coenzyme for the synthesis of several amino acids and for making RNA and DNA.

Therefore, rapidly dividing cells are most affected by folate deficiency. Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are continuously being synthesized in the bone marrow from dividing stem cells. When folate is deficient, cells cannot divide normally. A consequence of folate deficiency is macrocytic anemia.

Macrocytic anemia is characterized by larger and fewer red blood cells that are less efficient at carrying oxygen to cells. It is caused by red blood cells being unable to produce DNA and RNA fast enough—cells grow but do not divide, making them large in size.

Folate is especially essential for the growth and specialization of cells of the central nervous system. Children whose mothers were folate-deficient during pregnancy have a higher risk of neural tube birth defects.

Folate deficiency is causally linked to the development of spina bifida , a neural tube defect that occurs in a developing fetus when the spine does not completely enclose the spinal cord.

Spina bifida can lead to many physical and mental disabilities Figure 9. In , the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA began requiring manufacturers to fortify enriched breads, cereals, flours, and cornmeal with folic acid a synthetic form of folate to increase the consumption of folate in the American diet and reduce the risk of neural tube defects.

Observational studies show that the prevalence of neural tube defects was decreased after the fortification of enriched cereal and grain products with folate compared to before these products were fortified.

Spina bifida left is a neural tube defect that can have serious health consequences. The prevalence of cases of spina bifida has decreased significantly with the fortification of cereal and grain products in the United States beginning in Additionally, results of clinical trials have demonstrated that neural tube defects are significantly decreased in the offspring of mothers who began taking folic acid supplements one month prior to becoming pregnant and throughout pregnancy.

In response to the scientific evidence, the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine IOM raised the RDA for folate to micrograms per day for pregnant women. Folate is found naturally in a wide variety of foods, including vegetables particularly dark leafy greens , fruits, nuts, beans, legumes, meat, poultry, eggs, and grains.

As mentioned previously, folic acid the synthetic form of folate is also found in enriched foods such as grains. Dietary sources of folate. Examples of good sources pictured include spinach, black-eyed peas, fortified cereal, rice, and bread and asparagus.

Source: NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. Folate deficiency is typically due to an inadequate dietary intake; however, smoking and heavy, chronic alcohol intake can also decrease absorption, leading to a folate deficiency. Other symptoms of folate deficiency can include mouth sores, gastrointestinal distress, and changes in the skin, hair and nails.

Women with insufficient folate intakes are at increased risk of giving birth to infants with neural tube defects and low intake during pregnancy has been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and fetal growth retardation.

Toxicity of folate is not typically seen due to an excess consumption from foods. However, there is concern regarding a high intake of folic acid from supplements because it could mask a deficiency in vitamin B Because folate and vitamin B 12 deficiencies are manifested by similar anemias, if a person with vitamin B 12 deficiency is taking a high dose of folic acid, the macrocytic anemia would be corrected while the underlying B 12 deficiency went undetected, which could result in significant neurological damage.

Thus, a tolerable upper intake level UL has been established for folate to prevent irreversible neurological damage due to high folic acid intake masking a B 12 deficiency. The enzymes that act at each of the eight steps in the cycle are shown in yellow rectangles. In aerobic respiration or aerobiosis, all products of nutrients' degradation converge to a central pathway in the metabolism, the TCA cycle.

In this pathway, the acetyl group of acetyl-CoA resulting from the catabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and some amino acids is completely oxidized to CO 2 with concomitant reduction of electron transporting coenzymes NADH and FADH 2. Consisting of eight reactions, the cycle starts with condensing acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to generate citrate Figure 3.

In addition, a GTP or an ATP molecule is directly formed as an example of substrate-level phosphorylation. In this case, the hydrolysis of the thioester bond of succinyl-CoA with concomitant enzyme phosphorylation is coupled to the transfer of an enzyme-bound phosphate group to GDP or ADP.

Also noteworthy is that TCA cycle intermediates may also be used as the precursors of different biosynthetic processes. The TCA cycle is also known as the Krebs cycle, named after its discoverer, Sir Hans Kreb.

Krebs based his conception of this cycle on four main observations made in the s. The first was the discovery in of the sequence of reactions from succinate to fumarate to malate to oxaloacetate by Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, who showed that these dicarboxylic acids present in animal tissues stimulate O 2 consumption.

The second was the finding of the sequence from citrate to α-ketoglutarate to succinate, in , by Carl Martius and Franz Knoop. Next was the observation by Krebs himself, working on muscle slice cultures, that the addition of tricarboxylic acids even in very low concentrations promoted the oxidation of a much higher amount of pyruvate, suggesting a catalytic effect of these compounds.

And the fourth was Krebs's observation that malonate, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, completely stopped the oxidation of pyruvate by the addition of tricarboxylic acids and that the addition of oxaloacetate in the medium in this condition generated citrate, which accumulated, thus elegantly showing the cyclic nature of the pathway.

When 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate is converted to 3-phosphoglycerate, substrate-level phosphorylation occurs and ATP is produced from ADP. Then, 3-phosphoglycerate undergoes two reactions to yield phosphoenolpyruvate.

Next, phosphoenolpyruvate is converted to pyruvate, which is the final product of glycolysis. During this reaction, substrate-level phosphorylation occurs and a phosphate is transferred to ADP to form ATP. Interestingly, during the initial phase, energy is consumed because two ATP molecules are used up to activate glucose and fructosephosphate.

Part of the energy derived from the breakdown of the phosphoanhydride bond of ATP is conserved in the formation of phosphate-ester bonds in glucosephosphate and fructose-1,6-biphosphate Figure 4. In the second part of glycolysis, the majority of the free energy obtained from the oxidation of the aldehyde group of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate G3P is conserved in the acyl-phosphate group of 1,3- bisphosphoglycerate 1,3-BPG , which contains high free energy.

Then, part of the potential energy of 1,3BPG, released during its conversion to 3-phosphoglycerate, is coupled to the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. The second reaction where ATP synthesis occurs is the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate PEP to pyruvate.

PEP is a high-energy compound due to its phosphate-ester bond, and therefore the conversion reaction of PEP to pyruvate is coupled with ADP phosphorylation.

This mechanism of ATP synthesis is called substrate-level phosphorylation. For complete oxidation, pyruvate molecules generated in glycolysis are transported to the mitochondrial matrix to be converted into acetyl-CoA in a reaction catalyzed by the multienzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase Figure 5.

When Krebs proposed the TCA cycle in , he thought that citrate was synthesized from oxaloacetate and pyruvate or a derivative of it. Only after Lipmann's discovery of coenzyme A in and the subsequent work of R.

Stern, S. Ochoa, and F. Lynen did it become clear that the molecule acetyl-CoA donated its acetyl group to oxaloacetate. Until this time, the TCA cycle was seen as a pathway to carbohydrate oxidation only.

Most high school textbooks reflect this period of biochemistry knowledge and do not emphasize how the lipid and amino acid degradation pathways converge on the TCA cycle.

The cell is depicted as a large blue oval. A smaller dark blue oval contained inside the cell represents the mitochondrion. The mitochondrion has an outer mitochondrial membrane and within this membrane is a folded inner mitochondrial membrane that surrounds the mitochondrial matrix.

The entry point for glucose is glycolysis, which occurs in the cytoplasm. Glycolysis converts glucose to pyruvate and synthesizes ATP.

Pyruvate is transported from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix. Pyruvate is converted to acetyl-CoA, which enters the tricarboxylic acid TCA cycle. In the TCA cycle, acetyl-CoA reacts with oxaloacetate and is converted to citrate, which is then converted to isocitrate.

Isocitrate is then converted to alpha-ketoglutarate with the release of CO 2. Then, alpha-ketoglutarate is converted to succinyl-CoA with the release of CO 2. Succinyl-CoA is converted to succinate, which is converted to fumarate, and then to malate. Malate is converted to oxaloacetate. Then, the oxaloacetate can react with another acetyl-CoA molecule and begin the TCA cycle again.

In the TCA cycle, electrons are transferred to NADH and FADH 2 and transported to the electron transport chain ETC. The ETC is represented by a yellow rectangle along the inner mitochondrial membrane.

The ETC results in the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate P i. Fatty acids are transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where they are converted to acyl-CoA.

Acyl-CoA is then converted to acetyl-CoA in beta-oxidation reactions that release electrons that are carried by NADH and FADH 2. These electrons are transported to the electron transport chain ETC where ATP is synthesized.

Amino acids are transported from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix. Then, the amino acids are broken down in transamination and deamination reactions. The products of these reactions include: pyruvate, acetyl-CoA, oxaloacetate, fumarate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and succinyl-CoA, which enter at specific points during the TCA cycle.

This pathway is known as β-oxidation because the β-carbon atom is oxidized prior to when the bond between carbons β and α is cleaved Figure 6. The four steps of β-oxidation are continuously repeated until the acyl-CoA is entirely oxidized to acetyl-CoA, which then enters the TCA cycle. In the s, a series of experiments verified that the carbon atoms of fatty acids were the same ones that appeared in the acids of TCA cycle.

Holmes, F. Lavoisier and the Chemistry of Life. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, Krebs, H. Nobel Prize Lecture org, Kresge, N. ATP synthesis and the binding change mechanism: The work of Paul D.

Journal of Biological Chemistry , e18 Lusk, G. The Elements of the Science of Nutrition , 4th ed. Philadelphia: W. Saunders, Luz, M. Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel: A study on the possible influence of teachers' knowledge on the establishment of a misconception among Brazilian high school stucents.

Advances in Physiological Education 32 , — doi et al. Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel: The possible influence of formal teaching on the establishment of a misconception about the energy-yielding metabolism among Brazilian students.

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education 36 , — doi Oliveira, G. Students' misconception about energy yielding metabolism: Glucose as the sole metabolic fuel. Advances in Physiological Education 27 , 97— doi What Is a Cell? Eukaryotic Cells.

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Nutrient Utilization in Humans: Metabolism Pathways By: Andrea T. Da Poian, Ph. Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro , Tatiana El-Bacha, Ph. Luz, Ph. Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz © Nature Education. Citation: Da Poian, A.

Nature Education 3 9 Energy is trapped in the chemical bonds of nutrient molecules. How is it then made usable for cellular functions and biosynthetic processes? Aa Aa Aa. Nutrients of Human Metabolism. Historical Overview of Energy Metabolism. Figure 1.

Energy Conservation: Mechanisms of ATP Synthesis. Oxidative Phosphorylation: The Main Mechanism of ATP Synthesis in Most Human Cells. Oxidation of Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats Converge on the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle.

Pathways for Nutrient Degradation that Converge onto the TCA Cycle. Figure 4. The Fatty Acid Oxidation Pathway Intersects the TCA Cycle.

The metaolism body requires micronutrients in trace amounts Emergy Foods that lower cholesterol growth and Enerty. They are one of the major groups of nutrients Water composition ratio the Energy metabolism and micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins. Vitamins are crucial to perform various functions such as energy production, immune function, blood clotting, etc. At the same time, minerals have an essential role in growth and help in fluid balance and several different processes. There are different kinds of micronutrients that one should take into their diet. These are water-soluble vitamins, vitamins B and C and fat-soluble vitamins. The anx micronutrients refers to Cauliflower casserole dishes and minerals, which can metabo,ism Energy metabolism and micronutrients into macrominerals, Enregy minerals and water- and Foods that lower cholesterol vitamins. An adequate amount of micronutrients often means aiming for a balanced diet. Micronutrients are one of the major groups of nutrients your body needs. They include vitamins and minerals. Vitamins are necessary for energy production, immune function, blood clotting and other functions.


Energy Metabolism - Part 1: Body's Sources of Energy

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