Category: Health

Blood sugar control and kidney health

Blood sugar control and kidney health

Ganong WF. If you do kidnye control your blood sugar, you could Blood sugar control and kidney health eye problems, have Blooc with sores and Regenerative agriculture methods in Blood sugar control and kidney health feet, have ikdney blood Bloo and cholesterol problems, and have kidney, heart, and problems with other essential organs. Altogether, knowledge regarding the prevention and management of diabetic nephropathy, along with other aspects of diabetes care, is part of the comprehensive care of any patient with diabetes. Important treatments for kidney disease are management of blood glucose and blood pressure. Blood sugar control and kidney health

Blood sugar control and kidney health -

GGM, a more serious autosomal recessive disease caused by mutation of the SGLT1 transporter, is characterized by intestinal symptoms that manifest within the first few days of life and result from failure to absorb glucose and galactose from the intestinal tract.

The resultant severe diarrhea and dehydration may be fatal if a glucose- and galactose-free diet is not initiated.

In some patients with GGM, glucosuria is present but typically mild, while in others, no evidence of abnormal urinary glucose excretion exists, affirming the minor role of SGLT1 in renal glucose reabsorption of glucose. Gene mutations involving GLUTs are associated with more severe consequences, as these transporters are more widespread throughout the major organ systems.

Compared with SGLT2 and SGLT1, which are present mostly in the renal system, GLUT2 is a widely distributed facilitative glucose transporter that has a key role in glucose homeostasis through its involvement in intestinal glucose uptake, renal reabsorption of glucose, glucosensing in the pancreas, and hepatic uptake and release of glucose.

Because GLUT2 is involved in the tubular reabsorption of glucose, glucosuria is a feature of the nephropathy. While renal glucose reabsorption is a glucose-conserving mechanism in normal physiologic states, it is known to contribute to hyperglycemia in conditions such as T2DM.

Diabetes has become the most common single cause of endstage renal disease ESRD in the United States and Europe; this is most likely due to several evolving factors, including an increased prevalence of T2DM, longer life spans among patients with diabetes, and better formal recognition of renal insufficiency.

ESRD spending represents 6. The epidemic growth in ESRD cases has led to skyrocketing utilization of healthcare resources. Since undetected T2DM may be present for many years, a higher proportion of individuals with T2DM vs type 1 diabetes mellitus have microalbuminuria and overt nephropathy shortly after diagnosis.

As interventions for coronary artery disease continue to improve, however, more patients with T2DM may survive long enough to develop renal failure. Increasing evidence demonstrates that the onset and course of diabetic nephropathy may be significantly altered by several interventions eg, tight glucose control, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers , all of which have their greatest impact if instituted early.

As such, annual screening for microalbuminuria is critical since it leads to early identification of nephropathy. Well-known data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study established that intensive glycemic control may significantly reduce the risk of developing microalbuminuria and overt nephropathy.

The observed reduction in nephropathy is important, since indices of renal impairment are strongly associated with future risk of major vascular events, ESRD, and death in patients with diabetes.

The regulation of glucose production, uptake, reabsorption, and elimination is handled by several organs, most notably historically the pancreas and liver. Under normal circumstances, glucose filtered by glomeruli is completely reabsorbed, but in conditions of hyperglycemia or reduced resorptive capacity, glucosuria may occur.

In hyperglycemia, the kidneys may play an exacerbating role by reabsorbing excess glucose, ultimately contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, and subsequently to pancreatic β-cell failure, insulin resistance, and decreased glucose uptake.

Hyperglycemia in turn detrimentally affects the kidneys by damaging glomeruli, ultimately causing microalbuminuria and nephropathy. Author affiliations: Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio; and Texas Diabetes Institute, San Antonio, TX.

Funding source: This activity is supported by an educational grant from Bristol-Myers Squibb and AstraZeneca LP. Author disclosure: Dr Triplitt reports being a consultant or a member of the advisory board for Roche and Takeda Pharmaceuticals.

Authorship information: Concept and design; drafting of the manuscript; and critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content. Download PDF: Understanding the Kidneys' Role in Blood Glucose Regulation.

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From kidney disease basics to treatment options and patient stories, watch videos that will help you learn more about kidney disease. Kidney Health Education Kidney Disease Risk Factors High Blood Sugar and Chronic Kidney Disease. Take control of your kidney health. Attend a no-cost virtual class online or via telephone from the comfort of home , or find an in-person class where available.

FIND A CLASS. Provided by DaVita® Dietitians Diabetes is the most common cause of kidney failure in the United States. Symptoms of hyperglycemia If you have diabetes you are likely to have had experience with hyperglycemia. Symptoms of hyperglycemia include the following: Dry skin Hunger Drowsiness Nausea Thirst Blurry vision Causes of high blood sugar There are many causes of high blood sugar, including: Eating too many carbohydrates such as starch, fruits and sweets Not getting enough insulin Not taking the adequate amount of diabetes medications Illness, fractures and infections Stress Recent surgery or injury Not exercising enough Ways to prevent hyperglycemia Although people with diabetes are at risk for hyperglycemia, the good news is there are steps you can take to help prevent it: Always take your medicine as prescribed by your healthcare team.

Every day, eat three balanced meals that include protein , carbohydrate and fat, plus an evening snack if your dietitian recommends it. Have your renal dietitian teach you exactly how many carbohydrate servings you can eat in one day and how to balance your meals.

Eat more high-fiber , low-sugar foods. Keep track of your blood sugar, and when it is high, share this information with your doctor. Having a family history of kidney disease or belonging to certain ethnic groups eg, African American, Mexican, Pima Indian can increase your risk of diabetic kidney disease.

Although you cannot do anything to change your family history, there are several factors that increase your risk of developing diabetic kidney disease that you can change and control. These include:. DIABETIC KIDNEY DISEASE DIAGNOSIS. Urine tests are recommended once per year in people with type 1 diabetes, beginning about five years after diagnosis, and in people with type 2 diabetes, starting at the time of diagnosis.

The urine test is looking for a protein called albumin. If there is a very large amount of albumin in your urine, it means you have diabetic kidney disease. You may be told that you have "microalbuminuria" or "high albuminuria".

That simply means that you have trace amounts of albumin in your urine, but it still means that you are at risk for getting diabetic kidney disease, assuming you do not have kidney disease caused by another condition.

See "Patient education: Protein in the urine proteinuria Beyond the Basics ". The same urine test that is used to diagnose diabetic kidney disease will also be used to monitor your condition over time.

See 'Ongoing monitoring' below. The key complication of diabetic kidney disease is more advanced kidney disease, called chronic kidney disease.

Chronic kidney disease can, in turn, progress even further, eventually leading to total kidney failure and the need for dialysis or kidney transplantation.

DIABETIC KIDNEY DISEASE TREATMENT. People with diabetes often focus on keeping their blood sugar levels in the right ranges. And while it is important to control blood sugar, it turns out that controlling blood pressure is at least as important.

That's because high blood sugar and high blood pressure work in concert to damage the blood vessels and organ systems. For these reasons, the most important things you can do to stall kidney disease and protect against other diabetes complications are to:.

Most people with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease should be treated with a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 SGLT2 inhibitor. See 'SGLT2 inhibitors' below.

Lifestyle changes — Changing your lifestyle can have a big impact on the health of your kidneys. The following measures are recommended for everyone, but are especially important if you have diabetic kidney disease:.

Blood sugar control — Keeping blood sugars close to normal can help prevent the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. See "Patient education: Glucose monitoring in diabetes Beyond the Basics ". A blood test called A1C is also used to monitor blood sugar levels; the result provides an average of blood sugar levels over the last one to three months.

Even small decreases in the A1C lower the risk of diabetes-related complications to some degree. Managing your blood sugar involves lifestyle changes eg, diet and exercise as well as medications.

Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin. For type 2 diabetes, other medications are often used; some are not recommended for use in people with kidney problems, while others may help slow the progression of kidney disease.

Your doctors will work with you to determine what combination of medications is best for you. Managing high blood pressure — Many people with diabetes have hypertension high blood pressure. Although high blood pressure causes few symptoms, it has two negative effects: it stresses the cardiovascular system and speeds the development of diabetic complications of the kidney and eye.

A health care provider can diagnose high blood pressure by measuring blood pressure on a regular basis. See "Patient education: High blood pressure in adults Beyond the Basics ".

The treatment of high blood pressure varies. If you have mild hypertension, your health care provider may recommend weight loss, exercise, decreasing the amount of salt in the diet, quitting smoking, and decreasing alcohol intake. These measures can sometimes reduce blood pressure to normal. See "Patient education: High blood pressure, diet, and weight Beyond the Basics ".

If these measures are not effective or your blood pressure needs to be lowered quickly, your provider will likely recommend one of several high blood pressure medications. Your provider can discuss the pros and cons of each medication and the goals of treatment. See "Patient education: High blood pressure treatment in adults Beyond the Basics ".

Blood pressure medications — All people with diabetic kidney disease need at least one medication to lower their blood pressure, and in most cases two medications are needed. Several medications can be used for this purpose, but a medication known as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor abbreviated ACE inhibitor or a related drug known as an angiotensin receptor blocker ARB should be used because they limit the worsening of kidney disease.

ACE inhibitors and ARBs are particularly useful for people with diabetic kidney disease because they decrease the amount of albumin in the urine and can prevent or slow the progression of diabetes-related kidney disease.

In fact, the kidney benefits of ACE inhibitors and ARBs are so robust that health care providers sometimes prescribe them for people with diabetic kidney disease who have normal blood pressure.

Still, despite their kidney-protecting abilities, ACE inhibitors and ARBs do have their downsides. For instance, ACE inhibitors cause a persistent dry cough in 5 to 20 percent of the people who take them, even up to 50 percent among Asian populations.

Some people get used to the cough; others find it so disruptive that they cannot continue taking an ACE inhibitor. For them, ARBs are often a good alternative, because ARBs do not cause a cough. In rare cases, you can have more serious side effects with ACE inhibitors and ARBs.

Disclaimer: This article is Cellulite reduction foods informational purposes only and is not kidnney to be a substitute for medical advice or diagnosis from healh physician. The most common cause Blood sugar control and kidney health kidney disease is diabetes. The bodies of people with diabetes do bealth use jidney hormone insulin Blood sugar control and kidney health or does Non-toxic cleaning products make insulin at all, so insulin injections or other diabetes medications are required. Because insulin helps keep the amount of sugar in the blood at a normal level, people with diabetes are at risk for both low blood sugar hypoglycemia and high blood sugar hyperglycemiaespecially when there are changes in diet, activity or medications. The greatest risk of low blood sugar occurs in someone who has both chronic kidney disease CKD and diabetes. Whether or not someone has diabetes, a person with CKD is at risk for low blood sugar because of changes in appetite and meal routine. Renal release Enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce insulin spikes glucose into the circulation is the Blood sugar control and kidney health of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, jealth Non-toxic cleaning products the breaking down and formation of glucosephosphate sufar precursors eg, lactate, glycerol, amino acids. With Non-toxic cleaning products to renal reabsorption of Nutritional information, the kidneys normally controp as much glucose healtg possible, rendering the urine virtually glucose free. The glomeruli filter from plasma approximately grams of -glucose per day, all of which is reabsorbed through glucose transporter proteins that are present in cell membranes within the proximal tubules. If the capacity of these transporters is exceeded, glucose appears in the urine. The process of renal glucose reabsorption is mediated by active sodium-coupled glucose cotransporters and passive glucose transporters transporters. In hyperglycemia, the kidneys may play an exacerbating role by reabsorbing excess glucose, ultimately contributing to chronic hyperglycemia, which in turn contributes to chronic glycemic burden and the risk of microvascular consequences.

Author: Mikale

3 thoughts on “Blood sugar control and kidney health

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