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Satiety and reduced food intake

Satiety and reduced food intake

However, this recommendation was Protein and athletic oxygen utilization from the US Dietary Guidelines in after Fkod research, as it Satiety and reduced food intake found that reruced cholesterol did Sqtiety play a role reduved cardiovascular disease. Ludwig DS. N Engl J Med ; 10 : Perhaps the most helpful study undertaken in this area thus far was A Satiety Index of Common Foods Holt et al. Holt S, Brand J, Soveny C, Hansky J. Salt—or sodium—is a mineral we have a robust conscious taste for.

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Satiety and reduced food intake -

Thus, you will feel fuller even if you eat fewer calories. Here are some high satiety appetizers. Because these oils are so effective in turning off your appetite, you only need a small amount.

The ideal type of meal to eat for healthy satiety provides maximum satisfaction without too many calories. A healthy, Satisfilling meal has three components: at least one low-density food, at least one high-satiety food, and a satiety activator. The least energy-dense foods are those that contain a lot of fiber, which is found prevalently in fruits and vegetables.

Such foods help us eat less because they fill a lot of space in the stomach with relatively few calories. If we combine these foods with those that also have high satiating value we get the best of both worlds — fullness and satiety — with fewer calories.

The table below lists examples of low-density foods that provide fullness and high-satiety foods that offer satiety. Healthy Satisfilling meals should not include processed foods that contain high amounts of saturated fats and sugars, which give you calories without providing meal satisfaction fullness plus satiety.

In addition to the two primary steps to healthy satiety, there are three secondary steps. The more frequently you eat throughout the day, the less hunger and the more satiety you will experience between meals. When you are less hungry at the start of each meal, you will tend to eat less.

When you skip breakfast, you are usually extremely hungry later in the day, and consequently eat much more. Eating breakfast results in a feeling of satiety that causes you to eat less during the rest of the day. A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that women who ate breakfast voluntarily consumed roughly fewer calories throughout the entire day than women who skipped breakfast.

There are three essential requirements for successful weight loss: calorie reduction, exercise, and healthy satiety. The slight reduction in daily calorie intake that is needed for weight loss can be achieved on a variety of diets: low-fat diet, low-glycemic, Mediterranean, and so forth.

Exercise promotes weight loss by enhancing your daily caloric deficit, or the gap between the number of calories you consume and the number of calories your body uses each day.

Healthy satiety facilitates weight loss by allowing you to maintain a daily calorie deficit and still feel satisfied. Moreover, the sensorial characteristics of foods can also affect their ability to produce satiety. Some authors showed a correlation between brain activity in the regions that control food intake and the rate of pleasantness [ 45 - 47 ].

Consequently, the nutritional, sensorial and physiochemical characteristics of food must be paired or controlled and the results published frequently did not show an adequate control of the experimental variables.

The various ways to offer food are appropriate for different: the fixed supply is suitable for subjects with small gastric capacity, like preschool children.

Instead, offering varied or freely designs are more appropriate for adolescent and adults. In these latter two, the concept of sensory-specific satiety is used; it means that the subjects can obtain satiety for one type of feed, still maintaining an appetite for foods with different characteristics [ 48 - 50 ].

The variety of textures, tastes, smells and colors is also involved in this phenomenon [ 16 , 33 , 51 ]. During a meal, the absence of varied choice tends to limit food intake, whereas variety tends to promote eating. Therefore, in this design it is very important to get a good balance between the physiochemical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of food offered.

In this way, subjects can express their real potential capacity to consume. Regardless, the three ways to offer food fixed, varied or freely should all include foods with high acceptability by the subjects involved in the study. Another important aspect to evaluate the satiating potential of a functional food or ingredient is to standardize the hunger level of each subject, regulating the fasting condition of the previous days.

The time between the ingestion of functional food and the measurement of satiety change, basing on the purpose of the study. If the aim is to evaluate the effect of the oro-sensorial and gastrointestinal factors on satiety, the delay should be no more than 30 minutes, while if the purpose is to investigate the inhibitory effects post-absorptive, the delay must be longer.

The review of published studies shows that there are two methods used for satiety measurement. The first evaluates the perception of satiety reported by the participants and the second measures the actual food intake.

Therefore, the VAS provides a subjective evaluation of satiety while the measurement of actual food intake provides an objective assessment.

Both methods are widely accepted in satiety assessment and can be considered as markers to evaluate the direct effects of food intake [ 38 ].

Some variables that must be considered during a study are the environmental conditions in which results are obtained. The laboratory conditions are more appropriate to have an adequate control of the different variables while the free-living conditions are similar to the normal way of eating of the subjects.

When the objective of the study is to obtain physiological responses or to study the conceptual framework of some biomarkers, the research must be carried out in a laboratory context. On the contrary, if the aim of the investigation is to determine the effect of food on body weight changes which requires a long period of time, it is more appropriate to perform the measurements in a free-living environment.

In both approaches the environmental conditions need to be considered in the interpretation of the results and in their projection to the feeding of the individuals. The experimental researches in the field of energy regulation need to study different compounds derived from the metabolism of macronutrient or peptides in the cells, acting as messengers from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system, principally in certain regions of the hypothalamus.

These biomarkers help to understand how the processes of satiety and appetite are modified by the dietary components, contributing to reach an optimum in the usefulness of the functional ingredients designed to increase satiety. The metabolic biomarkers are simultaneously determined with the measurement of satiety.

These biomarkers may provide valuable information to explain the conceptual basis to understand the effect of dietary bioactive compounds on human cells. Some researchers recommend the determination of Cholecystokinin CCK and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 GLP1 as markers of satiation and the measure of glycaemia, insulinemia, Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide GIP and Peptide YY PYY as biomarkers of satiety [ 52 ].

Ghrelin is an excellent marker of satiety, which acts on hypothalamus receptors as a peripheral hormone, stimulating the expression of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein [ 53 ]. In a study conducted by Batterham and co-workers the role of PYY on satiety was assessed.

The research demonstrated that PYY is a biomarker of satiety acting as a peripheral signal on central nervous system receptors [ 57 ].

Carbohydrates are the nutrients mainly consumed in the diet and consequently they are important in the regulation of energy intake, to have biomarkers able to predict the effect of carbohydrate intakes on satiety.

Postprandial glucose and insulin levels depend on the available amounts of carbohydrates and on their digestion rate. If during the digestion, the carbohydrates are rapidly absorbed, the glycemic response is rapid and when an accentuate fall is produced, a higher energy intake was proven [ 58 , 59 ].

Consequently sharp curves are associated with hunger and flat curves are associated with satiety [ 60 , 61 ]. Furthermore, high glycemic response increases the risk of obesity, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease [ 62 ]. Some investigators suggested that insulinemia is a more sensible biomarker than glycemic [ 63 , 64 ].

On the other hand, white bread determines the increase of blood glucose which can be explained with the high concentration of starches with rapid digestion rate [ 67 , 68 ]. Biomarkers for proteins are the levels of amino acid in plasma which are related to the release of hormones and peptides connected with the central nervous system [ 69 ].

The oxidation process of amino acids, that starts in the liver and facilitates ATP synthesis, is directly related with the protein concentration in foods consumed: this suggests that in order to obtain a potential rise of satiety, it's necessary to consume a high amount of dietary proteins in one meal per day [ 70 , 71 ].

There are a considerable number of researches on metabolic biomarkers and their relationship with appetite and satiety in humans. However, their use in the assessment of food satiety efficiencies or in the contribution on the design and the evaluation of functional foods, are not completely accepted because the evidences are limited and controversial.

The plasma levels of glucose and insulin are the more considered biomarkers used as valuable information to connect the theory with the practical actions in the area of functional foods. The analysis of the literature revised suggests that the majority of the experimental designs are carried out in a short period of time either in the same meal time satiation or in the subsequent meal time satiety.

These studies are planned to evaluate the physiological processes of appetite, satiety and satiation but they were not designed to evaluate the energy intake in the long term where it is possible to evaluate the changes in bodyweight.

A great proportion of functional foods for energy regulation is based on the addition of isolated soluble fiber i. β-glucans to the food matrices or the inclusion of foods rich in soluble fiber such as oats and barley Hordeum vulgare L.

Most of the health benefits associated with high viscosity foods are due to β-glucans, which demonstrated some physiological effects such as the satiety and the moderation of the glycemic and insulinemic postprandial response [ 37 , 72 , 73 ].

To understand if the β-glucans benefits are dose-dependent, several studies were conducted to define the lowest dose which demonstrated the effect above mentioned. The incorporation of oat β-glucans from 2. Moreover, the oat had a high viscosity which produced the increased perception of satiety [ 74 ].

In the same way Beck et al, showed that a lower dose of oat β-glucan 2. The effect of foods combined with β-glucans in the population must be taken into account for the submission of healthy messages.

Few studies linked the recurrent intake of oat β-glucans with the reduction of body weight. During a research of Beck et al. The use of the soluble fibre in food could be related to the weight loss and appetite control [ 76 ].

The literature revised in this paper showed that in short time and in laboratory conditions the addition of oat β-gucans are beneficial to increase satiety and to decrease the glycemic and the insulinemic responses.

Barley is another cereal investigated as source of soluble dietary fibre with healthy benefices [ 77 - 80 ]. Crackers and cookies enriched with 3.

As demonstrated by Vitaglione et al. In some researches some functional ingredients were incorporated into the white wheat bread with the aim to test the glycaemic and insulinemic responses and to evaluate the satiety capacity of the bread [ 83 , 84 ].

Others wheat products such as pastes were also used as vehicles to add healthy ingredients such as soluble and insoluble fibres: β- glucans, resistant starches, FOS [ 85 - 88 ].

It is well established that proteins are the macronutrient that causes the greater satiety in the short-term [ 69 , 89 ]. These results were applied to functional foods based on protein isolated such as casein, whey and soy protein [ 92 , 93 ]. Actually, the research in this area is based on the effect of different food proteins types beyond their protein concentration [ 94 ].

This is the case of milk proteins such as casein and whey. The results demonstrated that both compounds increase satiety but with diverse efficiency. Casein presents a more rapid digestion in upper gastrointestinal zones and its metabolic action appears in a short postprandial time [ 95 ].

On the contrary, whey protein shows a more slow digestion and its metabolic role can be expressed in a longer time [ 96 , 97 ] demonstrated that the whey proteins are more potent than casein in the increase of CCK and GLP 1 and in the decrease of appetite.

Today, an important research area is to formulate and evaluate functional foods based on the combination of protein with soluble fiber with the purpose to obtain a synergism to have a product with a high satiating potential.

The primary aim is low energy intake and maintaining body weight of individuals at the risk of obesity. Foods need to be carefully evaluated considering food chemical composition, the structure and the physical properties of the food matrix, processing conditions, the amount of the satiating ingredients and their interactions with the others food components.

When these foods meet the requirements of the food regulation of each country, they can be incorporated in the market system in varied forms [ 98 ], facilitating the consumers purchase and representing a dietary tool to alleviate the epidemic of obesity in the whole world.

The present paper suggests some actions useful to obtain a better application of the different methodologies for the evaluation of the efficacy of functional foods in the increase of satiety.

These actions are summarized in the following items:. Bentham OPEN is pleased to welcome Sultan Idris University of Education UPSI , Malaysia as Institutional Member.

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Av Gran Bretaña , Valparaíso, Chile; Tel: 56 ; E-mail: marcela. alvina uv. Abstract Nowadays obesity is affecting people from all socioeconomic levels in most of the countries worldwide. Keywords: Functional food, Healthy ingredients, Intake regulation, Satiety determination, Satiety biomarkers.

Previous Article View Abstract Download PDF Download ePub Next Article. Energy Intake Regulation The models proposed to study the regulation of energy intake indicate that food intake starts with external signals related to their metabolism Fig.

Model intake regulation. Methodology to Obtain Healthy Functional Foods to Regulate Energy Intake The methodology approach applied in most of the researches on appetite and satiety is varied and complex because of the numerous variables involved [ 31 , 35 , 36 ].

Methodological Design Considerations In each stage of the experimental design it is necessary to take into account a large number of variables. Metabolic Biomarkers Related to Satiety The experimental researches in the field of energy regulation need to study different compounds derived from the metabolism of macronutrient or peptides in the cells, acting as messengers from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system, principally in certain regions of the hypothalamus.

Most Promising Functional Foods to Increase Satiety According to Scientific Knowledge A great proportion of functional foods for energy regulation is based on the addition of isolated soluble fiber i. These actions are summarized in the following items: Development of studies to standardize the methodology for assessing appetite and satiety.

Use of standard food used as controls to assure the validity of the methodologies. Work on the homologation of the health messages and nutrition labelling. Increase private and public budget to study the healthy characteristics of new ingredients added to functional foods. Increase the knowledge on the usefulness of biomarkers used in the design of functional foods.

Provide scientific information about the use of functional foods to increase satiety and how they can be integrated in the diet of the consumers. CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest. The epidemiology of obesity: the size of the problem.

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Ministry Of Health, Jordan joins Bentham Open as Institutional Member Description: Bentham OPEN is pleased to announce an Institutional Member partnership with the Ministry of Health, Jordan.

Porto University joins Bentham Open as Institutional Member Description: Bentham OPEN is pleased to announce an Institutional Member partnership with the Porto University, Faculty of Dental Medicine FMDUP. Indiana University School of Nursing, USA.

Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France. UCB S. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA. Indiana University School of Medicine, USA. Naval Postgraduate School, USA. Westat, USA. University of Oxford, UK. Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland.

Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy. Paris University, France. Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain.

University Clinic of Navarre, Spain. University of Vienna, Austria. University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal. INIFTA, Argentina. Chiba University, Japan.

Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. National Central University, Taiwan. Also, more food variety can lead to increased caloric intake and reduced feeling of fullness. Even how fast you eat may influence feelings of satiety.

Since satiety increases with higher protein percentage, it should be no surprise that some of the highest satiety-per-calorie foods are seafood, meat, chicken, eggs, soy, and low fat dairy.

And, since satiety increases with lower energy density, fibrous vegetables are also top options. To learn more about high-satiety-per-calorie foods, please see our guide: Higher-satiety eating: the best foods. While you can start by exploring our recipes which now include satiety scores in the nutrition information section, and try our high protein meal plans , it can be challenging to navigate this journey without the right tool.

Our innovative satiety tool simplifies the process, offering recommendations and insights to help you make the most of higher-satiety eating. Sign up for early access to Hava now and transform your approach to a healthier, more satisfying lifestyle.

Using our new satiety score will help you pick the right delicious foods for sustainable healthy weight loss. Which foods can help you feel full and satisfied while you lose weight? Find out in our guide to the best high-satiety foods. Learn how our new higher-satiety eating approach can help you lose weight and improve your metabolic health.

This guide is written by Dr. Bret Scher, MD and was last updated on November 8, It was medically reviewed by Dr. Michael Tamber, MD on May 19, The guide contains scientific references. You can find these in the notes throughout the text, and click the links to read the peer-reviewed scientific papers.

When appropriate we include a grading of the strength of the evidence, with a link to our policy on this. Our evidence-based guides are updated at least once per year to reflect and reference the latest science on the topic.

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Satiety refers to the absence of hunger during the time before you want to eat your next meal. However, for simplicity, we use satiety as a blended term that encompasses all feelings of fullness and not wanting to eat.

The following study shows micronutrients track well with protein content, suggesting higher protein meals provide higher nutrition. Frontiers in Nutrition Higher protein density diets are associated with greater diet quality and micronutrient intake in healthy young adults [nutritional epidemiology study with HR less than 2, very weak evidence].

PLoS One Testing protein leverage in lean humans: a randomized controlled experimental study [randomized trial; moderate evidence].

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations [randomized trial; moderate evidence].

Trends in Food Science and Technology Optimising foods for satiety [overview article; ungraded]. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition A satiety index of common foods [overview article; ungraded]. Obesity Reviews Protein leverage and energy intake [systematic review of randomized trials; strong evidence].

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Protein leverage affects energy intake of high-protein diets in humans [randomized trial; moderate evidence]. PLoS One Testing protein leverage in lean humans: a randomised controlled experimental study [randomized trial; moderate evidence].

JAMA Network Trends in dietary carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake and diet quality among US adults, [cross-sectional observational study; very weak evidence].

Frontiers in Nutrition Higher protein density diets are associated with greater diet quality and micronutrient intake in healthy young adults [cross-sectional observational study; weak evidence]. Nutrients Risk of deficiency in multiple concurrent micronutrients in children and adults in the United States [cross-sectional observational study; weak evidence].

Journal of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical evidence and mechanisms of high-protein diet-induced weight loss [overview article; ungraded]. Nutrition and Metabolism Diet induced thermogenesis.

Nutrition and Metabolism A high-protein diet for reducing body fat: Mechanisms and possible caveats. Obesity Assessment of satiety depends on the energy density and portion size of the test meal [randomized trial; moderate evidence].

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets [randomized trial; moderate evidence].

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Energy density of foods affects energy intake across multiple levels of fat content in lean and obese women [randomized trial; moderate evidence]. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism The role of fiber in energy balance [overview article; ungraded]. One review on fiber concluded that with fixed energy intake, an increase in either soluble or insoluble fiber increases post-meal satiety and decreases hunger.

And with ad-lib caloric intake, higher fiber correlates with overall lower energy intake. Nutrition Reviews Dietary fiber and weight regulation [overview article; ungraded]. But a systematic review of studies that examined different fiber sources found inconsistent results, and only a minority of included studies reported improved satiety.

Journal of The American College of Nutrition The effect of fiber on satiety and food intake: a systematic review [systematic review of randomized trials; strong evidence]. Cell Metabolism Ultra-processed diets cause excess calorie intake and weight gain: An inpatient randomized controlled trial of ad libitum food intake [randomized trial; moderate evidence].

Cell Metabolism Supra-additive effects of combining fat and carbohydrate on food reward [non-controlled study; weak evidence]. PLoS One Which foods may be addictive? The roles of processing, fat content, and glycemic load [non-controlled study; weak evidence].

Although Recovery services U. population is obsessed with reducsd, this obsession has not reuced into positive results. Obesity continues Recovery services increase among all age inta,e and serial dieting is on the rise. The core of the problem is our inability to stay on a diet until we reach our target weight and then maintain it. Most weight-loss diets simply fail to provide the satisfaction that we need and expect from food.

Low satiety refers to the inability Satity feel the sensation of fullness. Intakw with Recovery services satiety tend Satirty eat more than their bodies actually need because Maintaining meal timing discipline cannot sense when ingake stop.

Most overweight and obese Satiety and reduced food intake have low satiety Satiety and reduced food intake is a major contributor to their reducrd.

Low satiety is genetic. About 50 genes that regulate satiety Satiety and reduced food intake humans have Daily Vitamin Supplement reported, of which FTO Sayiety MC4R are Endurance fitness assessments two best known examples.

The Recovery services of Recovery services variants of these Sayiety can reducee seen in the table below. People with Recovery services satiety tend to eat larger portions, Recovery services more energy-dense, high-fat, high-sugar foods, and continue Energizing power blends even after meals.

If you reducde low satiety, Satiety and reduced food intake, you should pay Rediced attention to your portion sizes and food choices. Smarter food choices can intkae you avoid energy-dense Thyroid Nourishment Supplements nutrition-sparse foods while portion control keeps your Thermogenic supplements for energy at sensible sizes.

Log in Recovery services to see tips designed to Saitety you optimize Safiety diet. About Us Press Releases Foov Us. It is not a substitute annd professional foodd advice, diagnosis or treatment.

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Login with Facebook. GBinsight Genetic Analysis Healthwatch Research Portal. Share this page Connect your genes. genes, nutrition, disease weight control science Weight loss and low satiety. select a topic:. DNA-based diet as medicine.

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genetics of high cholesterol. Lp a and cardiovascular disease. asian flush. beta blocker response. blood types: ABO. caffeine consumption. canker sores. cold sores. eye color. gluten intolerance.

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obesity and FTO. obesity and MC4R. triglycerides and APOA5. triglycerides and LPL. What is low satiety? Lee and Christina explain: What is low satiety?

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: Satiety and reduced food intake

Healthy Satiety

This research has identified a number of proteins that are naturally released in the GI tract when we eat and act in the appetite centers of the brain, where the feeling of satisfaction or satiety is localized. The practical implications of these exciting new findings form the basis of an exciting new concept called healthy satiety.

These specific nutrients, which studies now show are powerful controllers of appetite, have also been shown to provide additional health benefits, including a reduction in cardiovascular disease. Healthy satiety can be incorporated into any diet plan to help individuals lose weight and, once they achieve their target weight, to help them maintain it.

Until now, healthy satiety was the essential component missing in all diet plans. Although satiety is often confused with fullness, there are important differences between the two phenomena. Everyone is familiar with the feeling of stomach fullness that is experienced after eating a meal.

Fullness is associated with a satisfied feeling in the stomach or, if you overeat, an uncomfortable feeling. The feeling of fullness stimulates a signal to the brain that tells us to stop eating. Satiety is the feeling of satisfaction, or not being hungry, that lasts long after that initial feeling of fullness has subsided.

Satiety is the sensation that keeps us from snacking between meals. The feeling of satiety involves a number of natural physiological actions that start in the stomach and ultimately affect the appetite center in the brain.

The presence of food in the stomach stimulates the release of special proteins in the digestive tract. First they close the valve leading from the stomach into the intestine. This slows the digestion of food, giving us a feeling of fullness and extinguishing the drive to eat.

The second action initiated by the feel-full proteins is to send a signal to the appetite center in the brain. This also tells us to stop eating, but, more importantly, it is responsible for the extended feeling of fullness that occurs between meals.

Not all nutrients produce the same degree of satiety. Certain types of fat are the most effective, specific types of proteins are second, and carbohydrate has the least effect. Healthy satiety is the selective ingestion of those nutrients, either before a meal or with a meal that will maximize the overall satisfaction you get from the meal.

The initial research on the biology of satiety was conducted at Columbia and Cornell Universities almost 40 years ago. Additional studies have shown how CCK is released and how it works. Although many large drug companies have intense research efforts to develop drugs that stimulate the feel-full proteins, some of the latest research shows that consuming the right types of nutrients at the right time is also effective.

These discoveries open up enormous possibilities in terms of helping people lose weight and maintain a healthy weight. There are two primary dietary practices that promote healthy satiety.

With the increased prevalence of energy-dense processed foods, the availability of eat-and-go restaurants, and busy lifestyles, most Americans consume meals in a very short period of time.

A meal at a fast food restaurant, which can be as much as 1, calories, can be consumed in five minutes. Healthy satiety involves changing your meal pattern to turn on your appetite control mechanisms before you eat your meal.

The best way to do this is to consume foods that contain those nutrients which are extremely effective in activating the feel-full proteins. The fats that are most effective are called long-chain fatty acids.

These are also monounsaturated fats and are found in high concentrations in corn oil, canola oil, olive oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil and soybean oil. With this data, we could perhaps identify the other nutrients we have an appetite for, either innate or learned, and use that information to satisfy our cravings for less energy.

The chart below shows the satiety response to all the minerals. While getting more of each of the minerals per calorie aligns with a lower calorie intake, larger macrominerals like potassium, sodium, and calcium tend to have a larger impact on calorie intake.

When we look at vitamins, we see a similar trend, although to a lesser degree. This smaller effect may be because vitamins are common in supplements and food fortification.

Meanwhile, larger macrominerals like potassium and calcium are too large to be cost-effectively used in supplements and fortification. While each essential nutrient correlates with greater satiety, we are unlikely to simultaneously have dominant appetites for all the micronutrients.

To understand if micronutrients have an impact on how much we eat, we ran a multivariate analysis on the Optimiser data. The table below shows the results of the multivariate analysis when we consider each macronutrient, essential mineral, vitamin, and cholesterol.

The most surprising finding from this multivariate analysis is that consuming foods with more cholesterol—like eggs and liver—has a statistically significant relationship with eating less.

When all other nutrients are considered, moving from 0. The chart below shows that people eating foods containing more cholesterol per calorie tend to eat less. Interestingly, dietary cholesterol in our food system has declined since the s, while obesity has continued to rise.

Until recently, dietary cholesterol was considered a nutrient we should avoid. However, this recommendation was removed from the US Dietary Guidelines in after extensive research, as it was found that dietary cholesterol did not play a role in cardiovascular disease.

Cholesterol is not considered an essential nutrient because our livers make most of what our bodies require. Whether or not we have a specific appetite for cholesterol, this analysis suggests that avoiding otherwise nutritious foods like meat, eggs, and liver that naturally contain cholesterol may lead us to consume lower-satiety foods.

As the satiety analysis chart below shows, Optimisers consuming more calcium per calorie tend to eat fewer calories. However, our cravings for calcium seem to taper off once we get enough or when our cravings are satisfied. The calcium content of our food system has also declined since the s.

Sodium is another nutrient that has decreased in our food system. The multivariate analysis indicates that we may have the strongest innate cravings for potassium.

Or at least, we tend to eat less when we consume foods that contain more potassium per calorie. This observation aligns with the study, Increment in Dietary Potassium Predicts Weight Loss in the Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome , which showed that more dietary potassium aligned with greater weight loss.

Unfortunately, cholesterol is not always measured in food. So, I re-ran the multivariate analysis without cholesterol. In this scenario, we see that protein still dominates while potassium, sodium, and calcium still elicit a significant satiety response.

This iteration also shows that pantothenic acid B5 and folate B9 make a small contribution to the satiety equation. The multivariate analysis of the Optimiser data provides regression coefficients for each nutrient.

This allows us to estimate how much we would eat of a particular food or meal based on its macronutrient and micronutrient profile. From this, we have developed an updated food satiety index to apply to any food or meal!

For simplicity, foods are ranked from 0 least satiating to most satiating. To demonstrate how the Satiety Index Score works in practice, the chart below shows recipes from our NutriBooster recipe books that our Optimisers can use in our Macros Masterclasses and Micros Masterclasses.

Again, the recipes shown in green have a higher Satiety Index Score, while those in red have the lowest. You can dive into the detail of this chart to learn more about the recipes by opening the interactive Tableau version on your computer. The most satiating and nutritious recipes tend to be lean seafood with some non-starchy veggies followed by meat and eggs.

In the lower corner, we have more energy-dense, lower-protein recipes that might be appropriate if you need more energy to support growth or activity.

To be clear, any study that tests hunger three hours after eating only measures short-term satiation, not long-term satiety. Various studies have shown that foods with a lower energy density tend to be harder to overeat in the short term i.

However, taken to the extreme, very low-energy-density foods simply contain more added water to reduce their energy density. A big glass of water will only keep you feeling full for so long! Energy density is also hard to measure in the real world. Overall, foods and meals with a higher Satiety Index Score tend to be lower in fat and higher in fibre, so they will have a lower energy density than ultra-processed foods.

We evaluated energy density in the multivariate analysis but found that it is not statistically significant in the satiety equation once the other factors mentioned above are considered.

Ultra-processed foods UPFs have become more prevalent in our food system due to their taste, cost, convenience, and profit margin. Ultra-processed foods tend to contain a blend of ingredients and often need artificial flavours, colours, and fortification to make them palatable. The NOVA classification system is typically used to define ultra-processed foods.

While we should ideally minimise these ultra-processed foods, prioritising foods with more essential nutrients that align with greater satiety will automatically eliminate UPFs without adding other subjective factors. In Supra-Additive Effects of Combining Fat and Carbohydrate on Food Reward , Professor Dana Small and colleagues showed that consuming fat and carbs elicits a dopamine response to reinforce energy consumption and ensure survival.

When we looked at the properties of food that align with eating more, we found that sugar, saturated fat, starch, and monounsaturated fat correlate with eating more. We all need some energy to survive. However, when we isolate and refine these energy sources and combine them in ultra-processed foods, we create a supra-additive dopamine response that makes us want to eat and buy!

more of them. At the bottom of the results table, we see that starch and monounsaturated fat align with eating more when considering the other factors.

One potential benefit of this analysis scenario is that it puts a little less emphasis on protein and highlights other beneficial nutrients like folate, selenium, and vitamin B2. It also shows us that we should avoid foods that contain starch and monounsaturated fat together, which are rarely found alongside one another in whole foods.

However, this system is less resilient because these other parameters like sugar, saturated fat, starch, and monounsaturated fat are not always measured in food. Despite the added complexity, it makes a negligible difference to the Satiety Index Score. As you eat more of a particular kind of food, you begin to feel less pleasure and may feel full or even repelled by it while still being able to eat other foods.

Based on what we understand about our cravings for nutrients, sensory-specific satiety may be occurring because we get our fill of the nutrients we require from one food. Thus, we are more interested in other foods that contain the nutrients we still require more of.

High-satiety meals tend to be lower in energy from both carbs and fat. This helps to stabilise blood glucose levels and draw down excess glycogen from your liver while also allowing your body to use your stored body fat. A range of hormones like GLP-1, CCK, PYY, ghrelin, insulin and leptin play a fascinating and complex role in signalling hunger and satiety.

Recently, there has been a lot of interest in expensive drugs that artificially mimic GLP-1 in our bodies to manipulate satiety without the nutrients that naturally stimulate it. But we can make plenty of GLP-1 in our body for free! if we prioritise the nutrients we require in the food we eat.

For more, see Weight Loss Drugs: Does Satiety Now Come in a Needle? Due to the decline of nutrients like protein, potassium, and calcium in our food system thanks to the advent of industrial agriculture fuelled by synthetic fertilisers, the priority nutrients are likely similar for most people i.

We anticipate that the precise satiety equation would be unique for each individual based on their current diet. For example, someone following a strict vegan diet would have different priority nutrients that could increase their satiety compared to someone following a carnivorous diet.

In our Micros Masterclass , we guide Optimisers to track their diet and use it to identify their unique micronutrient fingerprint. The example shows that nutrients towards the top of the chart, like calcium, vitamin E, thiamine, iron, and vitamin D, need to be prioritised.

The vertical black line represents the Optimal Nutrient Intake , a stretch target for each nutrient. In our Micros Masterclass , Optimisers use Nutrient Optimiser to identify foods and meals that provide more of their priority nutrients to balance their diet at the micronutrient level.

To identify your priority nutrients and the foods and meals that will fill the gaps, you can take our Free 7-Day Nutrient Clarity Challenge. While optimising your diet at the micronutrient level is the pinnacle of Nutritional Optimisation , tracking and fine-tuning your diet takes a little work.

Most people find it easier to start their journey of Nutritional Optimisation by using our optimised food lists and NutriBooster recipe books tailored to their preferences and goals. This is anecdotal but a large, calorie bowl of oatmeal leaves me feeling stuffed for hours.

So does a healthy serving of microwaved potatoes with some butter or sour cream. Supported by research. Anecdotally, I enjoy legumes greatly, and feel much, much better after eating legumes as opposed to any grain, even the most fibre-rich, whole grain products.

And, cooking, with a pressure cooker, most phytic acid is removed, digestive issues reduced, cooking time reduced.

In my analysis legumes make the shortlist if you want to eliminate animal based foods. However animal based foods tend to be more nutrient dense not to mention bioavailable. My worry would be the effect of animal protein-centered diet of long term health and mortality.

Centenarian populations have low levels of animal protein in their diet. If I swap most of the legumes and grains for more animal protein I wory I will die earlier. Regarding protein source, most article abstracts i´ve read conclude that replacing some of the animal protein with plant protein will increase lifespan.

Now, I´m not arguing the vegan case, but I am convinced that getting a fair share of your protein from plant sources, legumes in particular, is a good strategy for maximizing life span. And maybe health too. allergens 2.

lectins 3. In the case of soy, it is a known hormone disruptor—and that includes ALL the hormones thyroid, sex, insulin, etc. In menopausal people, soy invites cancer—it may not affect ALL menopausal people, but some. Price methods , these items remain. Great work Marty, btw, what about Food Insulin Demand FID compare to Food Insulin Index FII?

Is there are newest FID list added? Did the sugar intake really go down after ? Thus making comparisons to previous years unreliable.

Loss adjusted data tells the same story when you look from the s. Contents The Most Satiating Foods Per Calorie The Food Satiety Index Nutrient Optimiser Data Why Do We Eat?

Why Do We Overeat? What if Nutrition Was About Nutrients? Macronutrients Specific Appetite Nutrient Leverage Satiety Index Score Highest Satiety Recipes Satiety FAQs Summary More. Get the Optimised Food Lists. Take the Nutrient Clarity Challenge. That certainly aligns with the Holt and the MFP data.

Supported by research Highly satiable. To repeat myself. Why do we not hail the legumes? Thank you for your response. And thank you for your great work.

This is why I, for one, do not hail the legumes. Pingback: Why we really get fat response to the Stephan Guyenet vs Gary Taubes debate on Joe Rogan Experience — Optimising Nutrition. Pingback: A hundred people used Nutrient Optimiser for six weeks. Can you guess what happened to their weight?

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Pingback: optimal ketone and blood sugar levels for ketosis — Optimising Nutrition. Pingback: Harnessing the power of the food insulin index — Optimising Nutrition. Pingback: Blood glucose, ketone and insulin changes after six weeks using Nutrient Optimiser — Optimising Nutrition.

Pingback: Systematising Satiety — Low Carb Down Under Presentation — Optimising Nutrition. Pingback: Guess what happened to body fat, lean mass and waist measurements when a hundred people tried the Nutrient Optimiser?

What causes low satiety?

This is great for food manufacturers but not so good for our weight or metabolic health. When we emphasise the good things that we need from food i. A lot of disagreement in nutrition revolves around whether we should avoid fat or carbohydrates.

fat balance becomes irrelevant once you simply focus on getting adequate protein. This is also demonstrated in the chart below, created from all our Optimiser data.

This leads to an increase in the per cent of calories from protein. This is important to increase satiety and prevent the loss of your precious lean mass during fat loss. However, it also coincides with a significant reduction in energy from fat and carbohydrates. Our observations from the Optimiser data align with the work of professors David Raubenheimer and Stephen Simpson, who published their paper, Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis , after they noticed a similar phenomenon regarding adequate protein consumption and satiety in slime, mice, insects, monkeys and humans.

The following figure shows their compilation of data from human studies , which aligns nicely with the chart above.

Figure from Protein Leverage: Theoretical Foundations and Ten Points of Clarification. Overall, it seems that a low-carb or low-fat diet can improve satiety, so long as we stay away from the carb-and-fat danger zone. Our analysis shows that a higher fat percentage aligns almost linearly with a higher energy intake.

To find the right macro balance in our Macros Masterclass , we guide Optimisers to:. The analysis also showed that consuming more fibrous foods aligns with eating less. Higher-fibre foods tend to be whole foods that are digested more slowly and are harder to overeat. Rather than targeting the absolute fibre intake, you can also use the fibre:carb ratio.

As shown in the chart below, we eat less when more of our carbohydrates are fibrous e. However, foods that naturally contain more fibre also tend to have a higher nutrient density and a lower energy density.

For more, see Dietary Fiber: How Much Do You Need? When I spoke with professors Raubenheimer and Simpson on my podcast , they suggested I run a multivariate analysis on our Optimiser data. Multivariate analysis allows us to identify statistically significant variables in a complex system like our food matrix.

While many factors correlate with eating less, multivariate analysis enables us to identify statistically significant parameters to focus on. The table below shows the results of the multivariate analysis when we only consider macronutrients and fibre. So, at the highest level, a diet prioritising protein and minimally processed whole foods that contain fibre and less energy from non-fibre carbohydrates and fat will provide greater satiety.

Specific appetite also known as specific hunger refers to the desire or craving for a particular type of food or nutrient that the body needs to maintain proper functioning or to correct a deficiency.

For example, if the body is low on iron, it may crave red meat or other iron-rich foods. Similarly, if your blood glucose is low, you may crave sweets or sugary foods that quickly boost your blood glucose.

At the highest level, we tend to have an appetite to balance protein vs. energy by pairing complementary foods, like steak and egg, fish and chips, or bangers and mash. The good news is that foods containing protein also tend to contain many other micronutrients. Our analysis of the Optimiser data shows that natural foods that contain more protein also tend to have riboflavin B2 , niacin B3 , pantothenic acid B5 , cobalamin B12 , potassium, selenium, cholesterol, and iron.

According to professors Raubenheimer and Simpson , animals—including humans—possess specific appetites for protein, carbohydrates, fat, and at least two micronutrients—salt and calcium.

Their paper, An integrative approach to dietary balance across the life course , noted that specific appetites for other nutrients likely exist.

Various studies, like Solmns, , Ganzle et al. For example, glycine tastes sweet , while proline, isoleucine, and valine taste bitter. Glutamine provides an umami flavour , which is often added to processed foods i.

The figure below from our satiety analysis shows that consuming more of each amino acid per calorie aligns with eating less. Multivariate analysis of the amino acid data shows methionine has the most statistically significant correlation with eating less. Salt—or sodium—is a mineral we have a robust conscious taste for.

Thus, we crave it when we need more of it and stop adding salt once we get enough salt and our food tastes too salty. Ultra-processed food manufacturers exploit this phenomenon by adding salt to junk food. Hence we are often advised to minimise salt. Calcium is another mineral that many believe we have an innate specific appetite for Tordoff, We need adequate calcium to build our bones and move energy around our cells.

We also need calcium for fluid balance, muscle contraction, and circulation. But, as you will see, we seem to eat a lot less when we get plenty of potassium. While we have an innate taste and craving for nutrients like protein and sodium, we can learn to associate the nutrients that alleviate deficiencies with the taste, texture and smell of foods that contain particular nutrients that we need more of i.

Researchers like Dr Fred Provenza have shown that animals forage for just the right amount of complimentary nutrients and other substances from their food and associate taste with nutrients. Provenza has also demonstrated that animals learn to associate a nutrient with particular flavours and seek out the flavours associated with the nutrients they are currently deficient in.

However, this learned appetite is diminished in domesticated animals which subsist on fortified feed. This may also be the case in modern humans exposed to processed foods packed with flavouring, colours, and fortification that are designed to mimic nutritious food.

In the s, paediatrician Clara Davis studied 15 newly weaned infants in an orphanage.. She gave them a wide range of weird and wonderful foods and noticed that each child selected various foods daily to meet their nutritional needs. It seems we have an innate ability to seek out what we need.

In addition to an appetite for the nutrients we need more of, we can also have an aversion to foods that contain too much of a particular nutrient when we already have plenty e. However, once they had exceeded the daily recommended intake of a particular nutrient, participants preferred other foods that contained complementary micronutrients.

As we dug into the data, we noticed that getting more of each essential nutrient per calorie also aligns with eating less. So, given the intriguing research, I wondered if there may be a broader nutrient leverage effect rather than merely protein leverage.

With this data, we could perhaps identify the other nutrients we have an appetite for, either innate or learned, and use that information to satisfy our cravings for less energy. The chart below shows the satiety response to all the minerals.

While getting more of each of the minerals per calorie aligns with a lower calorie intake, larger macrominerals like potassium, sodium, and calcium tend to have a larger impact on calorie intake.

When we look at vitamins, we see a similar trend, although to a lesser degree. This smaller effect may be because vitamins are common in supplements and food fortification. Meanwhile, larger macrominerals like potassium and calcium are too large to be cost-effectively used in supplements and fortification.

While each essential nutrient correlates with greater satiety, we are unlikely to simultaneously have dominant appetites for all the micronutrients. To understand if micronutrients have an impact on how much we eat, we ran a multivariate analysis on the Optimiser data. The table below shows the results of the multivariate analysis when we consider each macronutrient, essential mineral, vitamin, and cholesterol.

The most surprising finding from this multivariate analysis is that consuming foods with more cholesterol—like eggs and liver—has a statistically significant relationship with eating less.

When all other nutrients are considered, moving from 0. The chart below shows that people eating foods containing more cholesterol per calorie tend to eat less.

Interestingly, dietary cholesterol in our food system has declined since the s, while obesity has continued to rise. Until recently, dietary cholesterol was considered a nutrient we should avoid. However, this recommendation was removed from the US Dietary Guidelines in after extensive research, as it was found that dietary cholesterol did not play a role in cardiovascular disease.

Cholesterol is not considered an essential nutrient because our livers make most of what our bodies require. Whether or not we have a specific appetite for cholesterol, this analysis suggests that avoiding otherwise nutritious foods like meat, eggs, and liver that naturally contain cholesterol may lead us to consume lower-satiety foods.

As the satiety analysis chart below shows, Optimisers consuming more calcium per calorie tend to eat fewer calories. However, our cravings for calcium seem to taper off once we get enough or when our cravings are satisfied.

The calcium content of our food system has also declined since the s. Sodium is another nutrient that has decreased in our food system. The multivariate analysis indicates that we may have the strongest innate cravings for potassium. Or at least, we tend to eat less when we consume foods that contain more potassium per calorie.

This observation aligns with the study, Increment in Dietary Potassium Predicts Weight Loss in the Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome , which showed that more dietary potassium aligned with greater weight loss. Unfortunately, cholesterol is not always measured in food.

So, I re-ran the multivariate analysis without cholesterol. In this scenario, we see that protein still dominates while potassium, sodium, and calcium still elicit a significant satiety response.

This iteration also shows that pantothenic acid B5 and folate B9 make a small contribution to the satiety equation. The multivariate analysis of the Optimiser data provides regression coefficients for each nutrient. This allows us to estimate how much we would eat of a particular food or meal based on its macronutrient and micronutrient profile.

From this, we have developed an updated food satiety index to apply to any food or meal! For simplicity, foods are ranked from 0 least satiating to most satiating. To demonstrate how the Satiety Index Score works in practice, the chart below shows recipes from our NutriBooster recipe books that our Optimisers can use in our Macros Masterclasses and Micros Masterclasses.

Again, the recipes shown in green have a higher Satiety Index Score, while those in red have the lowest. You can dive into the detail of this chart to learn more about the recipes by opening the interactive Tableau version on your computer.

The most satiating and nutritious recipes tend to be lean seafood with some non-starchy veggies followed by meat and eggs.

In the lower corner, we have more energy-dense, lower-protein recipes that might be appropriate if you need more energy to support growth or activity. To be clear, any study that tests hunger three hours after eating only measures short-term satiation, not long-term satiety. Various studies have shown that foods with a lower energy density tend to be harder to overeat in the short term i.

However, taken to the extreme, very low-energy-density foods simply contain more added water to reduce their energy density. A big glass of water will only keep you feeling full for so long! Energy density is also hard to measure in the real world.

Overall, foods and meals with a higher Satiety Index Score tend to be lower in fat and higher in fibre, so they will have a lower energy density than ultra-processed foods. We evaluated energy density in the multivariate analysis but found that it is not statistically significant in the satiety equation once the other factors mentioned above are considered.

Ultra-processed foods UPFs have become more prevalent in our food system due to their taste, cost, convenience, and profit margin.

Ultra-processed foods tend to contain a blend of ingredients and often need artificial flavours, colours, and fortification to make them palatable. The NOVA classification system is typically used to define ultra-processed foods.

While we should ideally minimise these ultra-processed foods, prioritising foods with more essential nutrients that align with greater satiety will automatically eliminate UPFs without adding other subjective factors. In Supra-Additive Effects of Combining Fat and Carbohydrate on Food Reward , Professor Dana Small and colleagues showed that consuming fat and carbs elicits a dopamine response to reinforce energy consumption and ensure survival.

When we looked at the properties of food that align with eating more, we found that sugar, saturated fat, starch, and monounsaturated fat correlate with eating more. We all need some energy to survive. However, when we isolate and refine these energy sources and combine them in ultra-processed foods, we create a supra-additive dopamine response that makes us want to eat and buy!

more of them. At the bottom of the results table, we see that starch and monounsaturated fat align with eating more when considering the other factors. One potential benefit of this analysis scenario is that it puts a little less emphasis on protein and highlights other beneficial nutrients like folate, selenium, and vitamin B2.

It also shows us that we should avoid foods that contain starch and monounsaturated fat together, which are rarely found alongside one another in whole foods.

However, this system is less resilient because these other parameters like sugar, saturated fat, starch, and monounsaturated fat are not always measured in food. Despite the added complexity, it makes a negligible difference to the Satiety Index Score.

As you eat more of a particular kind of food, you begin to feel less pleasure and may feel full or even repelled by it while still being able to eat other foods. Based on what we understand about our cravings for nutrients, sensory-specific satiety may be occurring because we get our fill of the nutrients we require from one food.

Thus, we are more interested in other foods that contain the nutrients we still require more of. High-satiety meals tend to be lower in energy from both carbs and fat.

This helps to stabilise blood glucose levels and draw down excess glycogen from your liver while also allowing your body to use your stored body fat. A range of hormones like GLP-1, CCK, PYY, ghrelin, insulin and leptin play a fascinating and complex role in signalling hunger and satiety.

Recently, there has been a lot of interest in expensive drugs that artificially mimic GLP-1 in our bodies to manipulate satiety without the nutrients that naturally stimulate it. But we can make plenty of GLP-1 in our body for free! if we prioritise the nutrients we require in the food we eat.

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What are the most filling foods? Foood J Nutr ; ad 3 : The average Satiety and reduced food intake diet lasts less than reducde weeks. This hyper-palatable Recovery services of fat and carbs provides more energy in our food system and dilutes the amount of protein and other nutrients. Perhaps the most helpful study undertaken in this area thus far was A Satiety Index of Common Foods Holt et al. Instead, offering varied or freely designs are more appropriate for adolescent and adults.
The Food Satiety Index (1995)

For example, if the body is low on iron, it may crave red meat or other iron-rich foods. Similarly, if your blood glucose is low, you may crave sweets or sugary foods that quickly boost your blood glucose. At the highest level, we tend to have an appetite to balance protein vs.

energy by pairing complementary foods, like steak and egg, fish and chips, or bangers and mash. The good news is that foods containing protein also tend to contain many other micronutrients.

Our analysis of the Optimiser data shows that natural foods that contain more protein also tend to have riboflavin B2 , niacin B3 , pantothenic acid B5 , cobalamin B12 , potassium, selenium, cholesterol, and iron.

According to professors Raubenheimer and Simpson , animals—including humans—possess specific appetites for protein, carbohydrates, fat, and at least two micronutrients—salt and calcium. Their paper, An integrative approach to dietary balance across the life course , noted that specific appetites for other nutrients likely exist.

Various studies, like Solmns, , Ganzle et al. For example, glycine tastes sweet , while proline, isoleucine, and valine taste bitter. Glutamine provides an umami flavour , which is often added to processed foods i.

The figure below from our satiety analysis shows that consuming more of each amino acid per calorie aligns with eating less.

Multivariate analysis of the amino acid data shows methionine has the most statistically significant correlation with eating less. Salt—or sodium—is a mineral we have a robust conscious taste for.

Thus, we crave it when we need more of it and stop adding salt once we get enough salt and our food tastes too salty. Ultra-processed food manufacturers exploit this phenomenon by adding salt to junk food. Hence we are often advised to minimise salt.

Calcium is another mineral that many believe we have an innate specific appetite for Tordoff, We need adequate calcium to build our bones and move energy around our cells. We also need calcium for fluid balance, muscle contraction, and circulation. But, as you will see, we seem to eat a lot less when we get plenty of potassium.

While we have an innate taste and craving for nutrients like protein and sodium, we can learn to associate the nutrients that alleviate deficiencies with the taste, texture and smell of foods that contain particular nutrients that we need more of i.

Researchers like Dr Fred Provenza have shown that animals forage for just the right amount of complimentary nutrients and other substances from their food and associate taste with nutrients. Provenza has also demonstrated that animals learn to associate a nutrient with particular flavours and seek out the flavours associated with the nutrients they are currently deficient in.

However, this learned appetite is diminished in domesticated animals which subsist on fortified feed. This may also be the case in modern humans exposed to processed foods packed with flavouring, colours, and fortification that are designed to mimic nutritious food.

In the s, paediatrician Clara Davis studied 15 newly weaned infants in an orphanage.. She gave them a wide range of weird and wonderful foods and noticed that each child selected various foods daily to meet their nutritional needs.

It seems we have an innate ability to seek out what we need. In addition to an appetite for the nutrients we need more of, we can also have an aversion to foods that contain too much of a particular nutrient when we already have plenty e.

However, once they had exceeded the daily recommended intake of a particular nutrient, participants preferred other foods that contained complementary micronutrients. As we dug into the data, we noticed that getting more of each essential nutrient per calorie also aligns with eating less.

So, given the intriguing research, I wondered if there may be a broader nutrient leverage effect rather than merely protein leverage. With this data, we could perhaps identify the other nutrients we have an appetite for, either innate or learned, and use that information to satisfy our cravings for less energy.

The chart below shows the satiety response to all the minerals. While getting more of each of the minerals per calorie aligns with a lower calorie intake, larger macrominerals like potassium, sodium, and calcium tend to have a larger impact on calorie intake.

When we look at vitamins, we see a similar trend, although to a lesser degree. This smaller effect may be because vitamins are common in supplements and food fortification. Meanwhile, larger macrominerals like potassium and calcium are too large to be cost-effectively used in supplements and fortification.

While each essential nutrient correlates with greater satiety, we are unlikely to simultaneously have dominant appetites for all the micronutrients. To understand if micronutrients have an impact on how much we eat, we ran a multivariate analysis on the Optimiser data.

The table below shows the results of the multivariate analysis when we consider each macronutrient, essential mineral, vitamin, and cholesterol. The most surprising finding from this multivariate analysis is that consuming foods with more cholesterol—like eggs and liver—has a statistically significant relationship with eating less.

When all other nutrients are considered, moving from 0. The chart below shows that people eating foods containing more cholesterol per calorie tend to eat less. Interestingly, dietary cholesterol in our food system has declined since the s, while obesity has continued to rise.

Until recently, dietary cholesterol was considered a nutrient we should avoid. However, this recommendation was removed from the US Dietary Guidelines in after extensive research, as it was found that dietary cholesterol did not play a role in cardiovascular disease.

Cholesterol is not considered an essential nutrient because our livers make most of what our bodies require. Whether or not we have a specific appetite for cholesterol, this analysis suggests that avoiding otherwise nutritious foods like meat, eggs, and liver that naturally contain cholesterol may lead us to consume lower-satiety foods.

As the satiety analysis chart below shows, Optimisers consuming more calcium per calorie tend to eat fewer calories. However, our cravings for calcium seem to taper off once we get enough or when our cravings are satisfied. The calcium content of our food system has also declined since the s.

Sodium is another nutrient that has decreased in our food system. The multivariate analysis indicates that we may have the strongest innate cravings for potassium. Or at least, we tend to eat less when we consume foods that contain more potassium per calorie.

This observation aligns with the study, Increment in Dietary Potassium Predicts Weight Loss in the Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome , which showed that more dietary potassium aligned with greater weight loss.

Unfortunately, cholesterol is not always measured in food. So, I re-ran the multivariate analysis without cholesterol. In this scenario, we see that protein still dominates while potassium, sodium, and calcium still elicit a significant satiety response.

This iteration also shows that pantothenic acid B5 and folate B9 make a small contribution to the satiety equation. The multivariate analysis of the Optimiser data provides regression coefficients for each nutrient.

This allows us to estimate how much we would eat of a particular food or meal based on its macronutrient and micronutrient profile. From this, we have developed an updated food satiety index to apply to any food or meal!

For simplicity, foods are ranked from 0 least satiating to most satiating. To demonstrate how the Satiety Index Score works in practice, the chart below shows recipes from our NutriBooster recipe books that our Optimisers can use in our Macros Masterclasses and Micros Masterclasses.

Again, the recipes shown in green have a higher Satiety Index Score, while those in red have the lowest. You can dive into the detail of this chart to learn more about the recipes by opening the interactive Tableau version on your computer.

The most satiating and nutritious recipes tend to be lean seafood with some non-starchy veggies followed by meat and eggs. In the lower corner, we have more energy-dense, lower-protein recipes that might be appropriate if you need more energy to support growth or activity.

To be clear, any study that tests hunger three hours after eating only measures short-term satiation, not long-term satiety. Various studies have shown that foods with a lower energy density tend to be harder to overeat in the short term i.

However, taken to the extreme, very low-energy-density foods simply contain more added water to reduce their energy density. A big glass of water will only keep you feeling full for so long! Energy density is also hard to measure in the real world. Overall, foods and meals with a higher Satiety Index Score tend to be lower in fat and higher in fibre, so they will have a lower energy density than ultra-processed foods.

We evaluated energy density in the multivariate analysis but found that it is not statistically significant in the satiety equation once the other factors mentioned above are considered. Ultra-processed foods UPFs have become more prevalent in our food system due to their taste, cost, convenience, and profit margin.

Ultra-processed foods tend to contain a blend of ingredients and often need artificial flavours, colours, and fortification to make them palatable. The NOVA classification system is typically used to define ultra-processed foods. While we should ideally minimise these ultra-processed foods, prioritising foods with more essential nutrients that align with greater satiety will automatically eliminate UPFs without adding other subjective factors.

In Supra-Additive Effects of Combining Fat and Carbohydrate on Food Reward , Professor Dana Small and colleagues showed that consuming fat and carbs elicits a dopamine response to reinforce energy consumption and ensure survival. When we looked at the properties of food that align with eating more, we found that sugar, saturated fat, starch, and monounsaturated fat correlate with eating more.

We all need some energy to survive. However, when we isolate and refine these energy sources and combine them in ultra-processed foods, we create a supra-additive dopamine response that makes us want to eat and buy! more of them. At the bottom of the results table, we see that starch and monounsaturated fat align with eating more when considering the other factors.

One potential benefit of this analysis scenario is that it puts a little less emphasis on protein and highlights other beneficial nutrients like folate, selenium, and vitamin B2.

It also shows us that we should avoid foods that contain starch and monounsaturated fat together, which are rarely found alongside one another in whole foods.

However, this system is less resilient because these other parameters like sugar, saturated fat, starch, and monounsaturated fat are not always measured in food.

Despite the added complexity, it makes a negligible difference to the Satiety Index Score. As you eat more of a particular kind of food, you begin to feel less pleasure and may feel full or even repelled by it while still being able to eat other foods.

Based on what we understand about our cravings for nutrients, sensory-specific satiety may be occurring because we get our fill of the nutrients we require from one food. Thus, we are more interested in other foods that contain the nutrients we still require more of.

High-satiety meals tend to be lower in energy from both carbs and fat. This helps to stabilise blood glucose levels and draw down excess glycogen from your liver while also allowing your body to use your stored body fat.

A range of hormones like GLP-1, CCK, PYY, ghrelin, insulin and leptin play a fascinating and complex role in signalling hunger and satiety.

Recently, there has been a lot of interest in expensive drugs that artificially mimic GLP-1 in our bodies to manipulate satiety without the nutrients that naturally stimulate it. But we can make plenty of GLP-1 in our body for free! if we prioritise the nutrients we require in the food we eat.

For more, see Weight Loss Drugs: Does Satiety Now Come in a Needle? Due to the decline of nutrients like protein, potassium, and calcium in our food system thanks to the advent of industrial agriculture fuelled by synthetic fertilisers, the priority nutrients are likely similar for most people i.

We anticipate that the precise satiety equation would be unique for each individual based on their current diet. For example, someone following a strict vegan diet would have different priority nutrients that could increase their satiety compared to someone following a carnivorous diet.

In our Micros Masterclass , we guide Optimisers to track their diet and use it to identify their unique micronutrient fingerprint. The example shows that nutrients towards the top of the chart, like calcium, vitamin E, thiamine, iron, and vitamin D, need to be prioritised.

The vertical black line represents the Optimal Nutrient Intake , a stretch target for each nutrient. In our Micros Masterclass , Optimisers use Nutrient Optimiser to identify foods and meals that provide more of their priority nutrients to balance their diet at the micronutrient level.

To identify your priority nutrients and the foods and meals that will fill the gaps, you can take our Free 7-Day Nutrient Clarity Challenge.

While optimising your diet at the micronutrient level is the pinnacle of Nutritional Optimisation , tracking and fine-tuning your diet takes a little work.

Most people find it easier to start their journey of Nutritional Optimisation by using our optimised food lists and NutriBooster recipe books tailored to their preferences and goals. This is anecdotal but a large, calorie bowl of oatmeal leaves me feeling stuffed for hours. So does a healthy serving of microwaved potatoes with some butter or sour cream.

Supported by research. Anecdotally, I enjoy legumes greatly, and feel much, much better after eating legumes as opposed to any grain, even the most fibre-rich, whole grain products.

And, cooking, with a pressure cooker, most phytic acid is removed, digestive issues reduced, cooking time reduced. In my analysis legumes make the shortlist if you want to eliminate animal based foods. However animal based foods tend to be more nutrient dense not to mention bioavailable. My worry would be the effect of animal protein-centered diet of long term health and mortality.

Centenarian populations have low levels of animal protein in their diet. If I swap most of the legumes and grains for more animal protein I wory I will die earlier. Regarding protein source, most article abstracts i´ve read conclude that replacing some of the animal protein with plant protein will increase lifespan.

Now, I´m not arguing the vegan case, but I am convinced that getting a fair share of your protein from plant sources, legumes in particular, is a good strategy for maximizing life span. And maybe health too.

allergens 2. lectins 3. Thus, there are studies that essayed elevated doses to assure the beneficial effect of the compound and others studies are interested in essaying a minor dose which can be found in normal food portions.

It is necessary to control also the amount and the type of macronutrients, dietary fiber, phytochemical and other food compounds that could affect satiety and accompany functional ingredient studied. On the other hand, technological and culinary treatments influence satiating efficiency of foods.

For example, the gelatinization of starches in cooking water drastically reduces their satiating effect [ 7 , 42 ]. Additionally, physiochemical changes in food matrix such as texture, viscosity and consistency are detected when foods are industrially or culinary treated [ 43 , 44 ].

Moreover, the sensorial characteristics of foods can also affect their ability to produce satiety. Some authors showed a correlation between brain activity in the regions that control food intake and the rate of pleasantness [ 45 - 47 ].

Consequently, the nutritional, sensorial and physiochemical characteristics of food must be paired or controlled and the results published frequently did not show an adequate control of the experimental variables. The various ways to offer food are appropriate for different: the fixed supply is suitable for subjects with small gastric capacity, like preschool children.

Instead, offering varied or freely designs are more appropriate for adolescent and adults. In these latter two, the concept of sensory-specific satiety is used; it means that the subjects can obtain satiety for one type of feed, still maintaining an appetite for foods with different characteristics [ 48 - 50 ].

The variety of textures, tastes, smells and colors is also involved in this phenomenon [ 16 , 33 , 51 ]. During a meal, the absence of varied choice tends to limit food intake, whereas variety tends to promote eating.

Therefore, in this design it is very important to get a good balance between the physiochemical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of food offered. In this way, subjects can express their real potential capacity to consume. Regardless, the three ways to offer food fixed, varied or freely should all include foods with high acceptability by the subjects involved in the study.

Another important aspect to evaluate the satiating potential of a functional food or ingredient is to standardize the hunger level of each subject, regulating the fasting condition of the previous days.

The time between the ingestion of functional food and the measurement of satiety change, basing on the purpose of the study. If the aim is to evaluate the effect of the oro-sensorial and gastrointestinal factors on satiety, the delay should be no more than 30 minutes, while if the purpose is to investigate the inhibitory effects post-absorptive, the delay must be longer.

The review of published studies shows that there are two methods used for satiety measurement. The first evaluates the perception of satiety reported by the participants and the second measures the actual food intake. Therefore, the VAS provides a subjective evaluation of satiety while the measurement of actual food intake provides an objective assessment.

Both methods are widely accepted in satiety assessment and can be considered as markers to evaluate the direct effects of food intake [ 38 ]. Some variables that must be considered during a study are the environmental conditions in which results are obtained.

The laboratory conditions are more appropriate to have an adequate control of the different variables while the free-living conditions are similar to the normal way of eating of the subjects. When the objective of the study is to obtain physiological responses or to study the conceptual framework of some biomarkers, the research must be carried out in a laboratory context.

On the contrary, if the aim of the investigation is to determine the effect of food on body weight changes which requires a long period of time, it is more appropriate to perform the measurements in a free-living environment. In both approaches the environmental conditions need to be considered in the interpretation of the results and in their projection to the feeding of the individuals.

The experimental researches in the field of energy regulation need to study different compounds derived from the metabolism of macronutrient or peptides in the cells, acting as messengers from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system, principally in certain regions of the hypothalamus.

These biomarkers help to understand how the processes of satiety and appetite are modified by the dietary components, contributing to reach an optimum in the usefulness of the functional ingredients designed to increase satiety. The metabolic biomarkers are simultaneously determined with the measurement of satiety.

These biomarkers may provide valuable information to explain the conceptual basis to understand the effect of dietary bioactive compounds on human cells. Some researchers recommend the determination of Cholecystokinin CCK and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 GLP1 as markers of satiation and the measure of glycaemia, insulinemia, Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide GIP and Peptide YY PYY as biomarkers of satiety [ 52 ].

Ghrelin is an excellent marker of satiety, which acts on hypothalamus receptors as a peripheral hormone, stimulating the expression of neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein [ 53 ].

In a study conducted by Batterham and co-workers the role of PYY on satiety was assessed. The research demonstrated that PYY is a biomarker of satiety acting as a peripheral signal on central nervous system receptors [ 57 ].

Carbohydrates are the nutrients mainly consumed in the diet and consequently they are important in the regulation of energy intake, to have biomarkers able to predict the effect of carbohydrate intakes on satiety. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels depend on the available amounts of carbohydrates and on their digestion rate.

If during the digestion, the carbohydrates are rapidly absorbed, the glycemic response is rapid and when an accentuate fall is produced, a higher energy intake was proven [ 58 , 59 ]. Consequently sharp curves are associated with hunger and flat curves are associated with satiety [ 60 , 61 ].

Furthermore, high glycemic response increases the risk of obesity, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease [ 62 ]. Some investigators suggested that insulinemia is a more sensible biomarker than glycemic [ 63 , 64 ]. On the other hand, white bread determines the increase of blood glucose which can be explained with the high concentration of starches with rapid digestion rate [ 67 , 68 ].

Biomarkers for proteins are the levels of amino acid in plasma which are related to the release of hormones and peptides connected with the central nervous system [ 69 ]. The oxidation process of amino acids, that starts in the liver and facilitates ATP synthesis, is directly related with the protein concentration in foods consumed: this suggests that in order to obtain a potential rise of satiety, it's necessary to consume a high amount of dietary proteins in one meal per day [ 70 , 71 ].

There are a considerable number of researches on metabolic biomarkers and their relationship with appetite and satiety in humans. However, their use in the assessment of food satiety efficiencies or in the contribution on the design and the evaluation of functional foods, are not completely accepted because the evidences are limited and controversial.

The plasma levels of glucose and insulin are the more considered biomarkers used as valuable information to connect the theory with the practical actions in the area of functional foods. The analysis of the literature revised suggests that the majority of the experimental designs are carried out in a short period of time either in the same meal time satiation or in the subsequent meal time satiety.

These studies are planned to evaluate the physiological processes of appetite, satiety and satiation but they were not designed to evaluate the energy intake in the long term where it is possible to evaluate the changes in bodyweight. A great proportion of functional foods for energy regulation is based on the addition of isolated soluble fiber i.

β-glucans to the food matrices or the inclusion of foods rich in soluble fiber such as oats and barley Hordeum vulgare L. Most of the health benefits associated with high viscosity foods are due to β-glucans, which demonstrated some physiological effects such as the satiety and the moderation of the glycemic and insulinemic postprandial response [ 37 , 72 , 73 ].

To understand if the β-glucans benefits are dose-dependent, several studies were conducted to define the lowest dose which demonstrated the effect above mentioned. The incorporation of oat β-glucans from 2.

Moreover, the oat had a high viscosity which produced the increased perception of satiety [ 74 ]. In the same way Beck et al, showed that a lower dose of oat β-glucan 2. The effect of foods combined with β-glucans in the population must be taken into account for the submission of healthy messages.

Few studies linked the recurrent intake of oat β-glucans with the reduction of body weight. During a research of Beck et al. The use of the soluble fibre in food could be related to the weight loss and appetite control [ 76 ].

The literature revised in this paper showed that in short time and in laboratory conditions the addition of oat β-gucans are beneficial to increase satiety and to decrease the glycemic and the insulinemic responses.

Barley is another cereal investigated as source of soluble dietary fibre with healthy benefices [ 77 - 80 ]. Crackers and cookies enriched with 3. As demonstrated by Vitaglione et al. In some researches some functional ingredients were incorporated into the white wheat bread with the aim to test the glycaemic and insulinemic responses and to evaluate the satiety capacity of the bread [ 83 , 84 ].

Others wheat products such as pastes were also used as vehicles to add healthy ingredients such as soluble and insoluble fibres: β- glucans, resistant starches, FOS [ 85 - 88 ]. It is well established that proteins are the macronutrient that causes the greater satiety in the short-term [ 69 , 89 ].

These results were applied to functional foods based on protein isolated such as casein, whey and soy protein [ 92 , 93 ]. Actually, the research in this area is based on the effect of different food proteins types beyond their protein concentration [ 94 ].

This is the case of milk proteins such as casein and whey. The results demonstrated that both compounds increase satiety but with diverse efficiency. Casein presents a more rapid digestion in upper gastrointestinal zones and its metabolic action appears in a short postprandial time [ 95 ].

On the contrary, whey protein shows a more slow digestion and its metabolic role can be expressed in a longer time [ 96 , 97 ] demonstrated that the whey proteins are more potent than casein in the increase of CCK and GLP 1 and in the decrease of appetite.

Today, an important research area is to formulate and evaluate functional foods based on the combination of protein with soluble fiber with the purpose to obtain a synergism to have a product with a high satiating potential. The primary aim is low energy intake and maintaining body weight of individuals at the risk of obesity.

Foods need to be carefully evaluated considering food chemical composition, the structure and the physical properties of the food matrix, processing conditions, the amount of the satiating ingredients and their interactions with the others food components.

When these foods meet the requirements of the food regulation of each country, they can be incorporated in the market system in varied forms [ 98 ], facilitating the consumers purchase and representing a dietary tool to alleviate the epidemic of obesity in the whole world.

The present paper suggests some actions useful to obtain a better application of the different methodologies for the evaluation of the efficacy of functional foods in the increase of satiety.

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Av Gran Bretaña , Valparaíso, Chile; Tel: 56 ; E-mail: marcela. alvina uv. Abstract Nowadays obesity is affecting people from all socioeconomic levels in most of the countries worldwide.

Keywords: Functional food, Healthy ingredients, Intake regulation, Satiety determination, Satiety biomarkers. Previous Article View Abstract Download PDF Download ePub Next Article.

Energy Intake Regulation The models proposed to study the regulation of energy intake indicate that food intake starts with external signals related to their metabolism Fig. Model intake regulation.

Methodology to Obtain Healthy Functional Foods to Regulate Energy Intake The methodology approach applied in most of the researches on appetite and satiety is varied and complex because of the numerous variables involved [ 31 , 35 , 36 ]. Methodological Design Considerations In each stage of the experimental design it is necessary to take into account a large number of variables.

Metabolic Biomarkers Related to Satiety The experimental researches in the field of energy regulation need to study different compounds derived from the metabolism of macronutrient or peptides in the cells, acting as messengers from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system, principally in certain regions of the hypothalamus.

Most Promising Functional Foods to Increase Satiety According to Scientific Knowledge A great proportion of functional foods for energy regulation is based on the addition of isolated soluble fiber i. These actions are summarized in the following items: Development of studies to standardize the methodology for assessing appetite and satiety.

Use of standard food used as controls to assure the validity of the methodologies. Work on the homologation of the health messages and nutrition labelling.

Increase private and public budget to study the healthy characteristics of new ingredients added to functional foods. Increase the knowledge on the usefulness of biomarkers used in the design of functional foods. Provide scientific information about the use of functional foods to increase satiety and how they can be integrated in the diet of the consumers.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest. The epidemiology of obesity: the size of the problem. J Intern Med ; 4 : CrossRef PubMed. Track Your Manuscript Enter Correct Manuscript Reference Number: Submit Reference Number.

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Review on epidemic of obesity. Ann Acad Med Singapore ; 38 1 : Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Misra A, Khurana L. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 93 11 Suppl. Peña M, Bacallao J. Obesity and Poverty: A new Public Helth Challenge. Washington, DC: PAHO Levine JA. Poverty and obesity in the U. Diabetes ; 60 11 : Alviña M, Araya H. Rapid carbohydrate digestion rate produced lesser short-term satiety in obese preschool children.

Eur J Clin Nutr ; 58 4 : Bazzano LA, Song Y, Bubes V, Good CK, Manson JE, Liu S. Dietary intake of whole and refined grain breakfast cereals and weight gain in men. Obes Res ; 13 11 : Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson L, et al. Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men.

Am J Clin Nutr ; 80 5 : Harland JI, Garton LE. Whole-grain intake as a marker of healthy body weight and adiposity. Public Health Nutr ; 11 6 : Wansink B.

Environmental factors that increase the food intake and consumption volume of unknowing consumers. Annu Rev Nutr ; Aronoff SL, Berkowitz K, Shreiner B, Want L. Glucose metabolism and regulation: beyond insulin and glucagon. Diabetes Spectr ; Campfield LA, Brandon P, Smith FJ. On-line continuous measurement of blood glucose and meal pattern in free-feeding rats: the role of glucose in meal initiation.

Brain Res Bull ; 14 6 : Delzenne N, Blundell J, Brouns F, et al. Gastrointestinal targets of appetite regulation in humans.

Obes Rev ; 11 3 : Blundell JE, Rogers PJ, Hill AJ. Evaluating the Satiating power of foods: implications for acceptance and consumption.

London: Academic Press de Graaf C. Texture and satiation: the role of oro-sensory exposure time. Physiol Behav ; 4 : Oesch S, Rüegg C, Fischer B, Degen L, Beglinger C.

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J Clin Invest ; 1 : Seeley RJ, Woods SC. Monitoring of stored and available fuel by the CNS: implications for obesity. Nat Rev Neurosci ; 4 11 : Stroebe W, Papies EK, Aarts H. From homeostatic to hedonic theories of eating: self-regulatory failure in food-rich environments.

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Int J Obes ; 11 1 : Van Itallie TB, Vanderweele DA. The phenomenon of satiety. London: Libbey Blundell JE. Hunger, appetite and satiety constructs in search of identities. London: Applied Science Publishers ; pp.

Kissileff HR. Satiating efficiency and a strategy for conducting food loading experiments. Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 8 1 : Kissileff HR, Gruss LP, Thornton J, Jordan HA. The satiating efficiency of foods. Physiol Behav ; 32 2 : Benelam B.

Latest news The satiety index helps to measure this. These results were applied to functional foods based on protein isolated such as casein, whey and soy protein [ 92 , 93 ]. The models proposed to study the regulation of energy intake indicate that food intake starts with external signals related to their metabolism Fig. This helps to stabilise blood glucose levels and draw down excess glycogen from your liver while also allowing your body to use your stored body fat. These actions are summarized in the following items: Development of studies to standardize the methodology for assessing appetite and satiety.
Satiety and reduced food intake

Author: Menris

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