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Sports nutrition guidelines

Sports nutrition guidelines

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Sports nutrition guidelines -

gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Find nutrition tips to help teen athletes fuel before, during, and after workouts to optimize performance.

Aim to get nutrition from real foods first! Check out this infographic for foods to boost athletic performance. Read about how athletes achieve peak performance by training and eating a balanced diet including a variety of foods in this printable fact sheet. The WAVE Sport Nutrition Curriculum uses youth's interest in sports to teach them about healthy eating and hydration to fuel a healthy, active body for life.

Learn how nutrition before, during, and after sport competitions can improve athletic performance. An official website of the United States government. Here's how you know. dot gov icon Official websites use.

https icon Secure. Find information on nutrition and athletic performance. Athletes are encouraged to consume 1. Viable food sources for protein include meat, dairy products, nuts, and seeds [5].

If not adequately hydrated, an athlete may experience adverse side-effects during exercise, including decreased oxygen to the muscles, decreased cardiac output, exhaustion, and the build-up of performance-diminishing toxins [5].

To effectively prevent dehydration, the National Collegiate Athletic Association recommends that athletes drink water throughout the day, including before 16 to 24 ounces , during 4 ounces every 15 to 20 minutes , and after exertion 16 to 20 ounces for every pound lost from exercise [3].

To aid hydration, athletes may consume sports drinks, as they contain certain substances that water lacks, such as carbohydrates, electrolytes, and sodium, which help provide energy, replenish nutrients and minerals, and sustain performance [3,5].

While some athletes incorporate supplements into their diet, most nutrition guidelines advise against them, as the necessary number of vitamins and nutrients can be achieved naturally through a well-balanced diet [3,5], and certain sports may prohibit their use in the competitive or professional setting [3].

As reiterated by the U. Before following any nutrition guidelines for athletes, researchers advise that individuals consult with their coaches or guardians, as well as their physician or a licensed nutritionist. Physical therapists can also provide nutritional guidance.

Economos, C. Nutritional Practices of Elite Athletes: Practical Recommendations. DOI: Houtkooper, L. A consensus exists to suggest that a nutritional supplement is ergogenic if peer-reviewed studies demonstrate the supplement significantly enhances exercise performance following weeks to months of ingestion e.

On the other hand, a supplement may also have ergogenic value if it acutely enhances the ability of an athlete to perform an exercise task or enhances recovery from a single exercise bout. The ISSN has adopted a broader view regarding the ergogenic value of supplements.

Herein, we have adopted the view that a supplement is clearly ergogenic if most of human studies support the ingredient as being effective in promoting further increases in muscle hypertrophy or performance with exercise training.

Conversely, supplements that fall short of this standard and are only supported by preclinical data e. In October , President Clinton signed DSHEA into law. This statute was enacted amid claims that the Food and Drug Administration FDA was distorting the then-existing provisions of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act FDCA to improperly deprive the public of safe and popular dietary supplement products.

Further, dietary ingredients may also include extracts, metabolites, or concentrates of those substances. Dietary supplements may be found in many forms such as tablets, capsules, softgels, gelcaps, liquids, or powders, but may only be intended for oral ingestion. Dietary supplements cannot be marketed or promoted for sublingual, intranasal, transdermal, injected, or in any other route of administration except oral ingestion.

A supplement can be in other forms, such as a bar, as long as the information on its label does not represent the product as a conventional food or a sole item of a meal or diet. Additionally, and contrary to widespread opinion, DSHEA did not leave the industry unregulated. The dietary supplement industry is in fact regulated by the FDA as a result of DSHEA.

The law ensures the authority of the FDA to provide legitimate protections for the public health. The Federal Trade Commission FTC also continues to have jurisdiction over the marketing claims that dietary supplement manufacturers or companies make about their products.

The FDA and FTC operate in a cooperative fashion to regulate the dietary supplement industry. In this respect, the extent to which information is shared and jurisdiction between these two entities overlaps with regard to marketing and advertising dietary supplements continues to increase.

In the United States, dietary supplements are classified as food products, not drugs, and there is generally no mandate to register products with the FDA or obtain FDA approval before producing or selling supplements to consumers. However, if a dietary supplement manufacturer is making a claim about their product, the company must submit the claims to FDA within 30 days of marketing the product.

Compare this, for example, with Canada where under the Natural Health Product NHP Regulations enacted in supplements must be reviewed, approved, and registered with Health Canada. The rationale for the U.

model is based on a presumed long history of safe use; hence there is no need to require additional safety data. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Although many dietary ingredients have been introduced into dietary supplements since October and have not been submitted to the FDA for a safety review, nutritional supplementation writ large is generally safe.

Perhaps more alarming is a report by the Centers for Disease Control suggesting 2,, emergency room visits were due to prescription drug-related events which dwarfs the emergency room visits due to dietary supplements adjusted from 23, visits after excluding cases of older adults choking on pills, allergic reactions, unsupervised children consuming too many vitamins, and persons consuming ingredients not defined by DSHEA as a dietary supplement [ 5 ].

Furthermore, a recent Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Statistical Brief by Lucado et al. Notwithstanding, there have been case reports of liver and kidney toxicity potentially caused by supplements containing herbal extracts [ 7 ] as well as overdoses associated with pure caffeine anhydrous ingestion [ 8 ].

Collectively, the aforementioned statistics and case reports demonstrate that while generally safe, as with food or prescription drug consumption, dietary supplement consumption can lead to adverse events in spite of DSHEA and current FDA regulations described below.

Recognizing that new and untested dietary supplement products may pose unknown health issues, DSHEA distinguishes between products containing dietary ingredients that were already on the market and products containing new dietary ingredients that were not marketed prior to the enactment of the law.

DSHEA grants the FDA greater control over supplements containing NDIs. The first criterion is silent as to how and by whom presence in the food supply as food articles without chemical alteration is to be established. The second criterion—applicable only to new dietary ingredients that have not been present in the food supply—requires manufacturers and distributors of the product to take certain actions.

The guidance prompted great controversy, and FDA agreed to issue a revised draft guidance to address some of the issues raised by industry. In August , FDA released a revised Draft Guidance that replaced the Draft Guidance. The purpose of the Draft Guidance was to help manufacturers and distributors decide whether to submit a premarket safety notification to FDA, help prepare NDI notifications in a manner that allows FDA to review and respond more efficiently and quickly, and to improve the quality of NDI notifications.

The Draft Guidance has been criticized by industry and trade associations for its lack of clarity and other problems. Some of these issues include the lack of clarity regarding Pre-DSHEA, Grandfathered , ingredients and FDA requiring an NDI notification even if another manufacturer has submitted a notification.

Self-Affirmed GRAS is when a company has a team of scientific experts evaluate the safety of their ingredient. There is no requirement that the safety dossier be submitted to FDA but is used by the company as an internal document that may be relied upon if the ingredient is challenged by the FDA.

FDA has expressed its concern with this practice and does not encourage dietary supplement manufacturers to use Self-Affirmed GRAS to avoid submitting NDI notifications. In any event, the likelihood of another revised Draft Guidance from FDA becoming available in the future is high, and possibly more enforcement actions taken against companies that market an NDI without submitting a notification.

In response to growing criticism of the dietary supplement industry, the th Congress passed the first mandatory Adverse Event Reporting AER legislation for the dietary supplement industry. In December , President Bush signed into law the Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act, which took effect on December 22, After much debate in Congress and input from the FDA, the American Medical Association AMA , many of the major supplement trade associations, and a host of others all agreed that the legislation was necessary and the final version was approved by all.

The law strengthens the regulatory structure for dietary supplements and builds greater consumer confidence, as consumers have a right to expect that if they report a serious adverse event to a dietary supplement marketer the FDA will be advised about it. An adverse event is any health-related event associated with the use of a dietary supplement that is adverse.

A serious adverse event is an adverse event that A results in i death, ii a life-threatening experience, iii inpatient hospitalization, iv a persistent or significant disability or incapacity, or v a congenital anomaly or birth defect; or B requires, based on reasonable medical judgment, a medical or surgical intervention to prevent an outcome described under subparagraph A.

Once it is determined that a serious adverse event has occurred, the manufacturer, packer, or distributor responsible person of a dietary supplement whose name appears on the label of the supplement shall submit to the Secretary of Health and Human Services any report received of the serious adverse event accompanied by a copy of the label on or within the retail packaging of the dietary supplement.

The responsible person has 15 business days to submit the report to FDA after being notified of the serious adverse event. Following the initial report, the responsible person must submit follow-up reports of new medical information that they receive for one-year.

The FDA has various options to protect consumers from unsafe supplements. The FDA also has the authority to protect consumers from dietary supplements that do not present an imminent hazard to the public but do present certain risks of illness or injury to consumers. The law prohibits introducing adulterated products into interstate commerce.

The standard does not require proof that consumers have actually been harmed or even that a product will harm anyone. It was under this provision that the FDA concluded that dietary supplements containing ephedra, androstenedione, and DMAA presented an unreasonable risk.

Most recently, FDA imposed an importation ban on the botanical Mitragyna speciose, better known as Kratom. In , FDA issued Import Alert 54—15, which allows for detention without physical examination of dietary supplements and bulk dietary ingredients that are, or contain, Kratom.

Criminal penalties are present for a conviction of introducing adulterated supplement products into interstate commerce. While the harms associated with dietary supplements may pale in comparison to those linked to prescription drugs, recent pronouncements from the U.

Department of Justice confirm that the supplement industry is being watched vigilantly to protect the health and safety of the American public. When DSHEA was passed in , it contained a provision requiring that the FDA establish and enforce current Good Manufacturing Practices cGMPs for dietary supplements.

However, it was not until that the cGMPs were finally approved, and not until that the cGMPs applied across the industry, to large and small companies alike. The adherence to cGMPs has helped protect against contamination issues and should serve to improve consumer confidence in dietary supplements.

The market improved as companies became compliant with cGMPs, as these regulations imposed more stringent requirements such as Vendor Certification, Document Control Procedures, and Identity Testing.

These compliance criteria addressed the problems that had damaged the reputation of the industry with a focus on quality control, record keeping, and documentation. However, it does appear that some within the industry continue to struggle with compliance.

In Fiscal Year , it was reported that approximately Further, Undoubtedly, relying on certificates of analysis from the raw materials supplier without further testing, or failing to conduct identity testing of a finished product, can result in the creation of a product that contains something it should not contain such as synthetic chemicals or even pharmaceutical drugs.

All members of the industry need to ensure compliance with cGMPs. According to the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act NLEA , the FDA can review and approve health claims claims describing the relationship between a food substance and a reduced risk of a disease or health-related condition for dietary ingredients and foods.

However, since the law was passed it has only approved a few claims. The delay in reviewing health claims of dietary supplement ingredients resulted in a lawsuit, Pearson v. Shalala , filed in After years of litigation, in the U. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled that qualified health claims may be made about dietary supplements with approval by FDA, as long as the statements are truthful and based on adequate science.

Supplement or food companies wishing to make health claims or qualified health claims about supplements can submit research evidence to the FDA for review.

The FTC also regulates the supplement industry. Further, before marketing products, they must have evidence that their supplements are generally safe to meet all the requirements of DSHEA and FDA regulations. This has increased job opportunities for sports nutrition specialists as well as enhanced external funding opportunities for research groups interested in exercise and nutrition research.

While the push for more research is due in part to greater scrutiny from the FDA and FTC, it is also in response to an increasingly competitive marketplace where established safety and efficacy attracts more consumer loyalty and helps ensure a longer lifespan for the product in commerce.

Companies that adhere to these ethical standards tend to prosper while those that do not will typically struggle to comply with FDA and FTC guidelines resulting in a loss of consumer confidence and an early demise for the product.

A common question posed by athletes, parents, and professionals surrounding dietary supplements relates to how they are manufactured and perceived supplement quality. In several cases, established companies who develop dietary supplements have research teams who scour the medical and scientific literature looking for potentially effective nutrients.

These research teams often attend scientific meetings and review the latest patents, research abstracts presented at scientific meetings, and research publications. Leading companies invest in basic research on nutrients before developing their supplement formulations and often consult with leading researchers to discuss ideas about dietary supplements and their potential for commercialization.

Other companies wait until research has been presented in patents, research abstracts, or publications before developing nutritional formulations featuring the nutrient. Upon identification of new nutrients or potential formulations, the next step is to contact raw ingredient suppliers to see if the nutrient is available, if it is affordable, how much of it can be sourced and what is the available purity.

Sometimes, companies develop and pursue patents involving new processing and purification processes because the nutrient has not yet been extracted in a pure form or is not available in large quantities. Reputable raw material manufacturers conduct extensive tests to examine purity of their raw ingredients.

When working on a new ingredient, companies often conduct series of toxicity studies on the new nutrient once a purified source has been identified. The company would then compile a safety dossier and communicate it to the FDA as a New Dietary Ingredient submission, with the hopes of it being allowed for lawful sale.

When a powdered formulation is designed, the list of ingredients and raw materials are typically sent to a flavoring house and packaging company to identify the best way to flavor and package the supplement. In the nutrition industry, several main flavoring houses and packaging companies exist who make many dietary supplements for supplement companies.

Most reputable dietary supplement manufacturers submit their production facilities to inspection from the FDA and adhere to GMP, which represent industry standards for good manufacturing of dietary supplements. Some companies also submit their products for independent testing by third-party companies to certify that their products meet label claims and that the product is free of various banned ingredients.

For example, the certification service offered by NSF International includes product testing, GMP inspections, ongoing monitoring and use of the NSF Mark indicating products comply with inspection standards, and screening for contaminants.

More recently, companies have subjected their products for testing by third party companies to inspect for banned or unwanted substances. These types of tests help ensure that the dietary supplement made available to athletes do not contained substances banned by the International Olympic Committee or other athletic governing bodies e.

While third-party testing does not guarantee that a supplement is void of banned substances, the likelihood is reduced e. Moreover, consumers can request copies of results of these tests and each product that has gone through testing and earned certification can be researched online to help athletes, coaches and support staff understand which products should be considered.

In many situations, companies who are not willing to provide copies of test results or certificates of analysis should be viewed with caution, particularly for individuals whose eligibility to participate might be compromised if a tainted product is consumed.

The ISSN recommends that potential consumers undertake a systematic process of evaluating the validity and scientific merit of claims made when assessing the ergogenic value of a dietary supplement [ 1 , 4 ].

This can be accomplished by examining the theoretical rationale behind the supplement and determining whether there is any well-controlled data showing the supplement is effective. Supplements based on sound scientific rationale with direct, supportive research showing effectiveness may be worth trying or recommending.

Sports nutrition specialists should be a resource to help their clients interpret the scientific and medical research that may impact their welfare and help them train more effectively. The following are recommended questions to ask when evaluating the potential ergogenic value of a supplement.

Most supplements that have been marketed to improve health or exercise performance are based on theoretical applications derived from basic science or clinical research studies.

Based on these preliminary studies, a dietary approach or supplement is often marketed to people proclaiming the benefits observed in these basic research studies. Although the theory may appear relevant, critical analysis of this process often reveals flaws in the scientific logic or that the claims made do not quite match up with the cited literature.

By evaluating the literature one can discern whether or not a dietary approach or supplement has been based on sound scientific evidence. To do so, one is recommended to first read reviews about the training method, nutrient, or supplement from researchers who have been intimately involved in the available research and consult reliable references about nutritional and herbal supplements [ 1 , 9 ].

To aid in this endeavour, the ISSN has published position statement on topics related to creatine [ 10 ], protein [ 11 ], beta-alanine [ 12 ], nutrient timing [ 13 ], caffeine [ 14 ], HMB [ 15 ], meal frequency [ 16 ], energy drinks [ 17 ], and diets and body composition [ 18 ]. Each of these documents would be excellent resources for any of these topics.

In addition, other review articles and consensus statements have been published by other researchers and research groups that evaluate dietary supplements, offer recommendations on interpreting the literature, and discuss the available findings for several ingredients that are discussed in this document [ 19 , 20 , 21 ].

A quick look at these references will often help determine if the theoretical impetus for supplementing with an ingredient is plausible or not. Proponents of ergogenic aids often overstate claims made about training devices and dietary supplements while opponents of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements are often either unaware or are ignorant of research supporting their use.

Sports nutrition specialists have the responsibility to know the literature and search available databases to evaluate the level of merit surrounding a proposed ergogenic aid.

Some athletic associations have banned the use of various nutritional supplements e. and many professional sports organization have now written language into their collective bargaining agreements that products made available by the team must be NSF certified as safe for sport.

Obviously, if the supplement is banned, the sports nutrition specialist should discourage its use. In addition, many supplements lack appropriate long-term safety data. People who consider taking nutritional supplements should be well aware of the potential side effects so they can make an informed decision whether to use a supplement.

Additionally, they should consult with a knowledgeable physician to see if any underlying medical problems exist that may contraindicate its use. When evaluating the safety of a supplement, it is suggested to determine if any side effects have been reported in the scientific or medical literature.

In particular, we suggest determining how long a particular supplement has been studied, the dosages evaluated, and whether any side effects were observed. Unfortunately, many available supplements have not had basic safety studies completed that replicate the length of time and dosages being used.

The next question to ask is whether any well-controlled data are available showing effectiveness of the proposed ergogenic aid in athletic populations or people regularly involved in exercise training.

The first place to look is the list of references cited in marketing material supporting their claims. Are the abstracts or articles cited just general references or specific studies that have evaluated the efficacy of the nutrients included in the formulation or of the actual supplement?

From there, one can critically evaluate the cited abstracts and articles by asking a series of questions:. For perspective, studies reporting improved performance in rats or an individual diagnosed with type 2 diabetes may be insightful, but research conducted on non-diabetic athletes is much more practical and relevant.

Were the studies well controlled? For ergogenic aid research, the gold standard study design is a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial. This means that neither the researcher nor the subject is aware which group received the supplement or the placebo during the study and that the subjects were randomly assigned into the placebo or supplement group.

At times, supplement claims have been based on poorly designed studies i. or testimonials which make interpretation more difficult. Well-controlled clinical trials provide stronger evidence as to the potential ergogenic value and importantly how the findings can best be used.

Do the studies report statistically significant results or are claims being made on non-significant means or trends? Appropriate statistical analysis of research results allows for an unbiased interpretation of data. Although studies reporting statistical trends may be of interest and lead researchers to conduct additional research, studies reporting statistically significant results are obviously more convincing.

With this said, it is important for people to understand that oftentimes the potential effect a dietary supplement or diet regimen may have above and beyond the effect seen from the exercise bout or an accepted dietary approach is quite small. In addition, many studies examining a biochemical or molecular biology mechanism can require invasive sampling techniques or the study population being recruited is unique very highly trained resulting in a small number of study participants.

When viewed together, the combination of these two considerations can result in statistical outcomes that do not reach statistical significance even though large mean changes were observed.

In all such cases, additional research is warranted to further examine the potential ergogenic aid before conclusions can be made. Do the results of the cited studies match the claims made about the supplement or do they accurately portray the response of the supplement against an appropriate placebo or control group?

It is not unusual for marketing claims to greatly exaggerate the results found in the actual studies and do so by focusing upon just the outcomes within the supplement treatment group as opposed to how the supplement group changed in comparison to how a placebo group changed. Similarly, it is not uncommon for ostensibly compelling results, that may indeed be statistically significant, to be amplified while other relevant findings of significant consumer interest are obscured or omitted e.

a dietary supplement showing statistically significant increases in circulating testosterone yet changes in body composition or muscular performance were not superior to a placebo. Reputable companies accurately and completely report results of studies so that consumers can make informed decisions about using a product.

At times, claims are based on research that has either never been published or only published in an obscure journal. If you see only a few other journals this is a suggestion that the journal is not a reputable journal.

Additionally, one can also look up how many articles have been published by the journal in the last 6—12 months and how many of these articles are well-conducted studies. Impact factors are determined and published by Thomson Reuters under Journal Citation Reports® a subscription service available at most university libraries.

Most journals list their impact factor on the journal home page. Historically, those articles that are read and cited the most are the most impactful scientifically. Have the research findings been replicated? If so, have the results only been replicated at the same laboratory?

The best way to know an ergogenic aid works is to see that results have been replicated in several studies preferably by several separate, distinct research groups. The most reliable ergogenic aids are those in which multiple studies, conducted at different labs, have reported similar results of safety and efficacy.

Additionally, replication of results by different, unaffiliated labs with completely different authors also removes or reduces the potentially confounding element of publication bias publication of studies showing only positive results and conflicts of interest.

A notable number of studies on ergogenic aids are conducted in collaboration with one or more research scientists or co-authors that have a real or perceived economic interest in the outcome of the study.

This could range from being a co-inventor on a patent application that is the subject of the ergogenic aid, being paid or receiving royalties from the creation of a dietary supplement formulation, providing consulting services for the company or having stock options or shares in a company that owns or markets the ergogenic aid described in the study.

An increasing number of journals require disclosures by all authors of scientific articles, and including such disclosures in published articles.

This is driven by the aim of providing greater transparency and research integrity. It is important to emphasize that disclosure of a conflict of interest does not alone discredit or dilute the merits of a research study.

The primary thrust behind public disclosures of potential conflicts of interest is first and foremost transparency to the reader and second to prevent a later revelation of some form of confounding interest that has the potential of discrediting the study in question, the findings of the study, the authors, and even the research center or institution where the study was conducted.

Dietary supplements may contain carbohydrate, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, herbs, enzymes, metabolic intermediates i. Supplements can generally be classified as convenience supplements e. As discussed previously, evaluating the available scientific literature is an important step in determining the efficacy of any diet, diet program or dietary supplement.

In considering this, nutritional supplements can be categorized in the following manner:. Strong Evidence to Support Efficacy and Apparently Safe: Supplements that have a sound theoretical rationale with the majority of available research in relevant populations using appropriate dosing regimens demonstrating both its efficacy and safety.

Limited or Mixed Evidence to Support Efficacy: Supplements within this category are characterized as having a sound scientific rationale for its use, but the available research has failed to produce consistent outcomes supporting its efficacy. Routinely, these supplements require more research to be completed before researchers can begin to understand their impact.

Importantly, these supplements have no available evidence to suggest they lack safety or should be viewed as harmful. Several factors are evaluated when beginning to counsel individuals who regularly complete exercise training. To accomplish this, one should make sure the athlete is eating an energy balanced, nutrient dense diet that meets their estimated daily energy needs and that they are training intelligently.

Far too many athletes or coaches focus too heavily upon supplementation or applications of supplementation and neglect these key fundamental aspects. Following this, we suggest that they generally only recommend supplements in category I i.

If an athlete is interested in trying supplements in category II i. Obviously, the ISSN does not support athletes taking supplements in category III i.

We believe this approach is scientifically substantiated and offers a balanced view as opposed to simply dismissing the use of all dietary supplements. A well-designed diet that meets energy intake needs and incorporates proper timing of nutrients is the foundation upon which a good training program can be developed [ 22 , 23 ].

Incorporating good dietary practices as part of a training program is one way to help optimize training adaptations and prevent overtraining. The following is an overview of energy intake recommendations and major nutrient needs for active individuals.

The primary component to optimize training and performance through nutrition is to ensure the athlete is consuming enough calories to offset energy expenditure [ 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ].

People who participate in a general fitness program e. However, athletes involved in moderate levels of intense training e. For elite athletes, energy expenditure during heavy training or competition will further exceed these levels [ 27 , 28 ].

Additionally, caloric needs for large athletes i. This point was clearly highlighted in a review by Burke who demonstrated that carbohydrate needs are largely unmet by high-level athletes [ 22 ].

Additionally it is difficult to consume enough food and maintain gastrointestinal comfort to train or race at peak levels [ 35 ]. Maintaining an energy deficient diet during training often leads to a number of physical i.

and psychological i. It is still a question whether there may be specific individualized occasions when negative energy balance may enhance performance in the days prior to running performance [ 36 ]. Populations susceptible to negative energy balance include runners, cyclists, swimmers, triathletes, gymnasts, skaters, dancers, wrestlers, boxers, and athletes attempting to lose weight too quickly [ 37 ].

Additionally, female athletes are at particular risk of under fueling due to both competitive and aesthetic demands of their sport and their surrounding culture.

Female athletes have been reported to have a high incidence of eating disorders [ 38 ]. This makes LEA a major nutritional concern for female athletes [ 39 ].

Consequently, it is important for the sports nutrition specialist working with athletes to assess athletes individually to ensure that athletes are well fed according to the goals of their sport and their health, and consume enough calories to offset the increased energy demands of training, and maintain body weight.

Further, travel and training schedules may limit food availability or the types of food athletes are accustomed to eating. This means that care should be taken to plan meal times in concert with training, as well as to make sure athletes have sufficient availability of nutrient dense foods throughout the day for snacking between meals e.

Beyond optimal energy intake, consuming adequate amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fat is important for athletes to optimize their training and performance. In particular and as it relates to exercise performance, the need for optimal carbohydrates before, during and after intense and high-volume bouts of training and competition is evident [ 41 ].

Excellent reviews [ 42 , 43 ] and original investigations [ 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 ] continue to highlight the known dependence on carbohydrates that exists for athletes competing to win various endurance and team sport activities.

A complete discussion of the needs of carbohydrates and strategies to deliver optimal carbohydrate and replenish lost muscle and liver glycogen extend beyond the scope of this paper, but the reader is referred to several informative reviews on the topic [ 23 , 41 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 ].

As such, individuals engaged in a general fitness program and are not necessarily training to meet any type of performance goal can typically meet daily carbohydrate needs by consuming a normal diet i. However, athletes involved in moderate and high-volume training need greater amounts of carbohydrate and protein discussed later in their diet to meet macronutrient needs [ 50 ].

In terms of carbohydrate needs, athletes involved in moderate amounts of intense training e. Research has also shown that athletes involved in high volume intense training e. Preferably, the majority of dietary carbohydrate should come from whole grains, vegetables, fruits, etc.

while foods that empty quickly from the stomach such as refined sugars, starches and engineered sports nutrition products should be reserved for situations in which glycogen resynthesis needs to occur at accelerated rates [ 53 ]. When considering the carbohydrate needs throughout an exercise session, several key factors should be considered.

Previous research has indicated athletes undergoing prolonged bouts 2—3 h of exercise training can oxidize carbohydrates at a rate of 1—1. Several reviews advocate the ingestion of 0. It is now well established that different types of carbohydrates can be oxidized at different rates in skeletal muscle due to the involvement of different transporter proteins that result in carbohydrate uptake [ 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 ].

Interestingly, combinations of glucose and sucrose or maltodextrin and fructose have been reported to promote greater exogenous rates of carbohydrate oxidation when compared to situations when single sources of carbohydrate are ingested [ 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 ].

These studies generally indicate a ratio of 1—1. In addition to oxidation rates and carbohydrate types, the fasting status and duration of the exercise bout also function as key variables for athletes and coaches to consider.

Journal nufrition the International Society Youthful skin appearance Sports Nutrition volume 15 Sports nutrition guidelines, Article number: 38 Cite this article. Metrics details. Sports nuutrition Youthful skin appearance a constantly evolving Smoothie diet plan with hundreds of Youthful skin appearance papers published annually. Consequently, Sprots current with the relevant guidelinds is often guiedlines. This paper is an ongoing update of the sports nutrition review article originally published as the lead paper to launch the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in and updated in It presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to optimization of training and performance enhancement through exercise training and nutrition. Notably, due to the accelerated pace and size at which the literature base in this research area grows, the topics discussed will focus on muscle hypertrophy and performance enhancement.


How Should Athletes Diet? - Sports Nutrition Tips For Athletes Sports nuteition is the study guidelinnes application Sports nutrition guidelines how to use nutrition to Sports nutrition guidelines all areas guidelinse athletic performance. This includes providing education on Sporta proper foods, Increase thermogenic potential, hydration protocols, nuttition supplements to help you Sporst in your sport. An important factor that distinguishes sports nutrition from general nutrition is that athletes may need different amounts of nutrients than non-athletes. However, a good amount of sports nutrition advice is applicable to most athletes, regardless of their sport. In general, the foods you choose should be minimally processed to maximize their nutritional value. You should also minimize added preservatives and avoid excessive sodium. Just make sure the macronutrients are in line with your goals. Sports nutrition guidelines

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