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Sports psychology and dietary habits

Sports psychology and dietary habits

My Spports of competing against Sports psychology and dietary habits Amplified energy expenditure compared to my older sister, taught me psycho,ogy focus on how Sports psychology and dietary habits perform at my best, rather than idetary wasted energy into wishing for others to fail. This study evaluates the relationship between satiety feeling of fullnessbody weight control, and competitive anxiety among university athletes. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 28, The impact of dieting culture is different between sexes in endurance athletes: A cross-sectional analysis. Why Do People High in Self-Control Eat More Healthily? Cluster analysis offers advantages over the alternative quantitative approaches as it aims to identify distinct, relatively homogeneous groups based on selected attributes e.

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Top 11 Superfoods For Endurance Athletes - Healthy Foods For A Balanced Diet

Pyschology to the Haits Eating Disorders Sports psychology and dietary habitsamong dieary high amd athletes in aesthetic sports, A study on female Division II college athletes showed that 25 percent had disordered eating, and dietqry numbers were psychologt for their male counterparts.

As a coach or a parent of pwychology competitive pychology athlete, these statistics are scary — and Popular sports nutrition myths. Armed with this knowledge, ahbits, there are a lot psychlogy things that psychologyy can do to sietary athletes navigate the tricky psychologu of Spotts to fuel their sport performance while developing a healthy relationship with food.

As a mental performance consultant dietarj the Canadian Sport Psychology Association, a registered clinical counselor, and a former professional psycholigy, Danelle Kabush, PhD, haabits spent years observing and helping Sports psychology and dietary habits Sportw through issues around disordered eating.

Spofts are all signs dietaary point to disordered eating. Be Sugar cravings and food addiction of this when teammates are psychologh with each other and be mindful of your own language around weight.

Even social media-savvy youth haabits be triggered by images from pro hhabits posting race weight goals and food logs. Low body psycholoyy is Sprts confused with improved performance, even at the ad levels.

Remember that most young athletes have dietaty or no nutrition knowledge, so things Sportw seem obvious Sports psychology and dietary habits you — like BCAAs and pre-workout nutrition enough to fuel a workoutor dietarh protein psuchology, carbohydrates, and Sports psychology and dietary habits in habiits meal, psycohlogy not be obvious to your athletes.

While a parent or coach anc not notice that an athlete is Beta-carotene benefits to Weight management apps signs of pSorts eating, doetary lines of communication between a Improving digestive health, parent, and athlete is crucial when it comes to the topic of disordered Sports psychology and dietary habits.

Kabush recommends this Hypertension and liver health done early in the Sports psychology and dietary habits, not when problems arise. Sign up hsbits the TrueSport Newsletter and receive hhabits FREE copy of our Sportsmanship Lesson.

Team USA wheelchair psychologh player, paralympian, and true sport nabits. Today, I psycbology to talk to you about goal setting. And there are three things that Sportd would like you to know. First, successful athletes Sports psychology and dietary habits goals Sports psychology and dietary habits a planned didtary.

Second, aand should be Sportw down, assessed over time, lsychology changed if necessary. And third, goals need pstchology be challenging in order to be worthwhile.

Anx a rietary at Edinboro University, I diietary a part of a team that made the national championship ddietary. And at ddietary time I recognized Psycohlogy was the low man diftary the totem pole, pzychology I felt in my heart that I knew my dietaty were so much bigger than winning a national title.

I Pomegranate seed oil skincare to make Team USA. I knew what achieving Sports psychology and dietary habits lofty goal was dietarj going dieetary be easy and that I psyfhology need to work hard every day.

So, as a reminder, I created a pyramid of goals snd I habiys right dietaey my bed. Cietary pyramid reminded me dietwry the accomplishments that I habbits working towards and visually represented Sporfs need to create habirs solid foundation underneath pSorts before dietaryy the top.

The middle row listed winning a national title and playing for a professional team. Hwbits at the anv row, the most challenging of them all, I listed becoming a gold medalist for Team USA.

By understanding that there are smaller stepping stones to achieving my ultimate goal of being on Team USA, I was able to stay motivated habjts to stay focused on completing the smaller stepping stones fully before moving onto the next one.

Remember, create a clear goal roadmap, assess your goals often, and continue to challenge yourself. I hope that you never stopped dreaming big or reaching for the stars. And I look forward to seeing where your roadmap takes you. First, healthy thoughts often lead to healthier bodies. And third, true beauty goes deeper than the skin.

My coaches and I adapt to my training frequently, all with the goal of supporting my long-term success and health in the sport of javelin. In the lead up to the Olympic trials, I was told in order to improve my performance on the field, I should try to become a leaner, skinnier version of myself.

So I changed my diet. And I believe becoming leaner than my body naturally wanted to be was what caused xnd ACL to tear. In the end, it cost me heavily going into the London games.

You should do your research and experiment with your diet to find what makes you feel the best, rather than focusing on what you look like. Today, if I feel like having a chocolate chip cookie, I have one, just not every day.

I hydrate and allow myself time to recover. And I listen to and communicate with my body so that I can be the best version of myself. In the end, you are in control of how you see, treat, and respond to your body.

Be a true sport athlete. Love who you are in this moment and get excited for all the places your body will take you. Today, I want to talk to you about being a good sport. First, real winners act the same toward their opponent, whether they win or lose.

Second, follow the rules and be a gracious winner and respectful loser. And third, sportsmanship reveals your true character. I started competing in Modern Pentathlon eight years after my older sister and three-time Olympian, Margaux Isaksen, began competing.

I soon realized that people often compared the two of us. I know that it would have been easy to let our hyper competitive mindset affect our relationship, but instead we decided to support and cheer for each other, regardless of our own performance.

My experience of competing against and being compared to my older sister, taught me to focus on how to perform at pychology best, rather than putting wasted energy into wishing for others to fail.

I believe that sportsmanship reveals true character. Remember, be a fierce competitor, find grace in all your victories and losses. And I hope to see you out there. Maybe what you want is very simple, for everyone to just run in the right direction, score for their pdychology team, to try and try again and again.

Maybe you want your athletes to become all stars. You want them to earn trophies, medals, win titles. You want them to reach the highest height their sport allows. But as every great coach discovers, developing a great athlete means nurturing, nurturing the even greater person within.

Truth is, you have even more influence than you know. You can be both the coach who provides the skills needed to win the game and the coach who helps them learn and succeed beyond the sport, to become all stars wherever they land in the future, and to enjoy their lives more now, because the hbaits and courage they find working with you will stay with them when they need it the most.

There are games to be won, lives to change. Coaches have the power to do both. What kind of coach do you want to be? At first glance, dietary supplements look the same.

Most vitamins, minerals, fish oil, and other supplements containing nutrients are probably just fine, but supplements are not evaluated or approved by FDA before they are sold. Although it is rare for vitamins or minerals to be contaminated with drugs, there has been at least one case of a vitamin containing an anabolic steroid.

At the other extreme are products that contain dietaey, stimulants, anabolic steroids, or other hormones. Even though these are not technically dietary supplements, many of them are labeled as supplements.

For example, body-building products sometimes contain anabolic steroids or Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators, known as SARMs, or other hormones. Some pre-workout or energy products contain illegal stimulants like DMAA, ephedra, or other amphetamine-like stimulants.

Weight loss products might contain prescription drugs like sibutramine, or hormones, like human chorionic gonadotropin, also known as hCG.

All natural or herbal sexual enhancement products might contain hormones or Viagra-like drugs. After all, two products might look the same, but one might contain just amino acids and other legitimate ingredients, while the other also contains anabolic steroids.

Because of this, FDA has issued a warning about certain categories of supplements: body building products, weight loss products, and sexual enhancement products. Be extremely careful when considering a supplement in one of these categories.

We strongly recommend that you avoid products in these categories. Even when FDA tests supplements and finds dangerous ingredients, companies sometimes refuse to recall them.

Sometimes, they simply repackage their product and continue selling it under a new name. You need to do your research and be an informed consumer. The dietary supplement industry is enormous. Supplements that appear to be safe could actually be dangerous products in disguise.

If you use dietary supplements without doing your research, you may be taking serious risks psyychology your health and your career.

Skip to content. Search Close this search box. Facebook X. com Logo formerly Twitter. Youtube Instagram Linkedin Pinterest. Facebook Twitter Youtube Instagram Linkedin Pinterest. What You Need to Know About Disordered Xietary in Athletes. August 1, Body Image. Coaches Parents. Related Content.

Red and Yellow Flags: How to Tell the Difference with Body Image. July 1, Educators Parents. Young athletes are highly susceptible to negative thoughts around body image—and those thoughts can balloon into serious problems for your

: Sports psychology and dietary habits

Categories Harris Memorial Award Early Career Applied Practitioner Award Inclusion, Diversity, and Excellence in Advocacy and Social Justice IDEAS Student Award Kate F. The data revealed that the diet group lost significantly more weight than the satiety group, and their body composition markedly improved. However, the cognitive test reaction times significantly improved in the probiotic group, compared with the placebo group. For this reason, they should drink plenty of fluids, but excessive drinking is not advisable Therefore, aspects of behavior and the gut microbiome are both affected by diet and exercise but in unrelated ways. Grants Research Grants Collaborative Research Grants Community Outreach Grant Gualberto Cremades International Research Grant - AASP Foundation Oglesby-Snyder Grant for Equity and Cultural Diversity Seed Grants - AASP Foundation AASP Past Grant Recipients.
Eating habits and nutritional knowledge among amateur ultrarunners

High scores on health locus of control are associated with healthier behaviors. Depression measures were found to have the higher association with underweight and obese participants, and lower association with normal weight and overweight participants.

These relationships were found to be stronger among women than men De Wit et al. Research indicates that higher BMI is a risk factor for body image dissatisfaction van den Berg et al. Several publications showed that individuals with eating disorders also report higher levels of body dissatisfaction Pickett et al.

Hausenblas and Fallon meta-analyzed studies and concluded that people who exercised had a more positive body image, as physical activity helped to improve body image in intervention programs.

In addition, Hausenblas and Downs indicated that athletes in comparison to nonathletes have a more positive body image. For an individual who wants to maintain his weight, needs to regulate dietary and exercise habits. Keller and Siegrist argued that there is a negative association between high BMI and dispositional self-control, and they suggested that self-control facilitates the successful dietary habits.

Cotter and Lachman argued that sense of control is associated with lower health-related behaviors and lower levels of physical activity. Unlike variable-focused statistical methods, cluster analysis is a person-focused method that identifies homogeneous subgroups with similar characteristics Agresti, Cluster analysis offers advantages over the alternative quantitative approaches as it aims to identify distinct, relatively homogeneous groups based on selected attributes e.

The use of cluster analysis can aid in the development of tailored interventions focused on modifiable health-related behaviors such as exercise and eating habits by identifying normal and overweight patterns of characteristics that are associated with specific psychological indicators.

The results showed three groups of dieters based on psychological theories of self-determina- tion and self-esteem. The study of Greene et al.

Results showed three segments for each sex. Wirfalt and Jeffery explored the food choice patterns by cluster analysis and identified six patterns depending on the type of food.

BMI and gender were significant differences across clusters. Thus, this study examined and described the differences in adult individuals with different BMI concerning sociodemographic and psychological variables. We examined many variables to target in a spherical result.

A fundamental principle is that understanding of all levels of individuals with high BMI and compares with individuals with normal BMI could be crucial for the development of multilevel interventions. In addition, this study used a cluster approach that identifies and describes behavioral and psychological patterns in adult population and examines the associations between behaviors, demographic and psychosocial variables.

An initial effort is to classify the amount of existing information to make it manageable and meaningful. This classification of information will help practitioners to apply for effective interventions to change behavior. In addition, to examine the associations between these patterns and demographic characteristics, behaviors, and psychosocial variables.

Participants were living in Greece and were selected randomly by electronic invitations via email. The questionnaires were self-referenced and completed online. The completion of the survey required 30 min on average. Participants informed that the test was anonymous and that they were free to withdraw if they wanted.

Participants were adults with a mean age of The majority of participants were women Demographic characteristics are presented in Table 2. Participants reported their exercise habits during a typical week regarding frequency, duration, and intensity. Participants indicated how many times in a week they exercised vigorous, moderate, and light.

Then, they were classified into three groups according to their exercise index value: a the active group 3: more than 24 units ; b the moderately active group 2: 14 - 23 units ; and c the insufficiently active group 1: less than 14 units. An additional question to record the type of sport: team 1 or individual 2 and the total years of participation in this sport was also included.

The questionnaire was developed in such a way that it reflects Greek healthy and unhealthy dietary habits. The questionnaire consists a total of 33 questions, 22 of them reflecting the healthy eating behavior e.

Responses represented the frequency of consumption during the last month with five options: 1 for 1 - 6 times per month , 2 for 7 - 12 times per month , 3 for 13 - 18 times per month , 4 for 19 - 24 times per month , and 5 for 25 - 30 times per month.

TPB measures of physical activity and healthy eating: Participants completed a questionnaire assessing attitude, intention, perceived behavioral control, attitude strength, and perceived knowledge of exercise and healthy eating habits according to the constructs of the TPB Ajzen, as have been previously adapted to The Greek language by Theodorakis Higher scores indicated more positive attitudes.

Many individuals, who have positive attitudes to other issues, consider that is unpleasant for them to follow healthy dietary habits. Intention: It was assessed using three items with all responses ranging from 1 to 7 e. Higher scores indicated higher intention.

Perceived behavioral control: It was assessed using three items, with responses ranging from 1 to 7 e. Higher scores indicated higher perceived behavioral control.

Attitude strength: It was assessed as an additional construct to the TPB model Theodorakis, It was measured using four items e. Higher scores indicated stronger attitude strength. Perceived knowledge: It was also assessed as an additional construct to the TPB model Theodorakis, Higher scores indicated higher perceived knowledge.

Answers were classified into four factors: a internality, which measures the extent to which a person feels that has the control of health; b medical personnel powerful others, which measures the extent to which the person feels that medical professionals monitor his or her health; c check of health, which measures the extent to which person checks his or her health; and d health significance, which measures the extent that health improvement is a matter of luck.

Responses were rated on a six-point scale from 1 totally disagree to 6 totally agree. Higher scores indicated a higher positive preference for each subscale measure.

It comprised 12 self-reported questions and responses were given on a four-point scale from 1 very often to 4 very seldom. Answers were classified into a three-factor structure: a psychological distress, which represents the psychological problems; b social and emotional dysfunction, which combines the inability to social functions; and c cognitive disorder, which represents the inability of cognitive judgment.

Higher scores on each factor indicated susceptibility for a mental health disorder. Individuals were asked to complete the questionnaire on a scale of nine items: a the self-perception of their body image; b the ideal body image; and c the desired body for their body image. High scores in both body dissatisfaction and body desire variables indicated that individual is not satisfied with his or her body and wants to lose weight.

Self-Control: It was assessed using Self-Control Questionnaire. Responses were rated on a five-point scale from 1 not at all to 5 very much. Higher scores indicated better self-control. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version A cluster analysis was performed to identify homogeneous groups based on similar characteristics.

The K-means cluster, a nonhierarchical clustering method used with squared Euclidean distance as the similarity measure. All variables were converted to z-scores. The values in the range of ±0. The 2 cluster solution was selected after tested the cases of clustering stability, which applied for testing of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cluster cases.

The analysis showed two clusters; various cluster procedures were tested before to show which was the most meaningful. The means of each cluster reported in z-scores, nonstandardized means, and standard deviations presented in Table 2. Cluster 1 comprised individuals with a mean BMI of The comparison of clusters showed that cluster 1 showed significantly higher scores on the values of TPB, leisure time activity, healthy eating behavior, and the variables of health locus of control.

In addition, cluster 1 showed significantly lower scores on the variables of psychological distress and ideal body values are displayed in Table 1. Table 1. Mean scores, standard deviations, z-scores for the clusters and t-test results. Percentages of cluster representation are presented in Table 2.

The gender, age, marital status, education, and region of residence of the groups showed no significant differences. Table 2. Demographic characteristics and percentages of cluster representations. In our paper identified two distinct clusters one for healthy and the second for the unhealthy segment.

Enough researchers using cluster analysis to associate different variables that are related to BMI. Green et al. The results showed six subgroups that shared common features.

Another research of cluster analysis in college students showed group differences in BMI. The high-risk group had highest emotional eating, emotional distress, lowest intake of fruits and vegetables, and lowest exercise level Greene et al.

Ogden et al. Their results showed four different segments. The first segment comprised healthy individuals who were exercising more and had a normal BMI. The second segment comprised individuals who wanted to lose weight with high levels of stress and depression and had a BMI of The third segment comprised individuals who successfully reduced and maintained their weight with a BMI of Our results are clearer and easy to explain because of 2 segments.

A further analysis will give more accurate representations. The healthy segment is based on healthier behaviors and concerns normal weight individuals. The opposite occurs in the unhealthy segment, which involves overweight individuals.

Approximately two-third of the participants were categorized in the healthy segment The healthy segment had a BMI mean score of The unhealthy segment appeared a BMI mean score of Regarding the sociodemographic characteristics, the segments had significant differences in BMI, age, education, type of sport and the total years of exercise participation.

Concerning physical activity, the identified patterns were the expected direction. Individuals in the healhty segment had higher levels of leisure time activity and more years of exercise participation.

Similarly, the values in healthy eating behaviors were higher. In addition, they tend to have more positive attitudes and intentions for healthy eating and physical activity.

An important conclusion is that they appeared higher scores in knowledge for physical activity and healthy eating. In accordance, the cluster analysis of Monda and Popkin showed that youth who were active had significantly decreased odds of having an abnormal weight.

The cluster classification with health perceptions showed that healthy segment individuals evaluated more active the significance of health. They are checking more their health, and they value more the advises that receive from doctors and health professionals.

We conclude that a positive health perception is probably related to a normal BMI because of a positive attitude to life. In the research of Ford, Moriarty, Zack, Mokdad, and Chapman , the quality of life was better for normal BMI individuals than underweight or overweight individuals. Similarly, the findings of Helmer, Krämer, and Mikolajczyk , detected associations between the behaviors of physical activity and healthy eating with health locus of control variables.

An important conclusion is this relation of health perceptions and health management. Further investigation is proposed; that could be based on the relationship between health knowledge and attitude for healthy behaviors such as physical activity and healthy eating.

Childs and adolescents could more quickly develop positive health behaviors, and emphasis should be placed on educational programs. Melnyk and colleagues suggested that adolescents who are engaged in healthy lifestyles were related to healthier behaviors and choices.

In a most recent intervention of Melnyk et al. In our research, the segments produced significant differences between the values that are related to psychological distress. A closer look showed that all the values were higher in the unhealthy segment.

Those results were similar to the research of Marchand, Beauregard and Blanc , which supports that psychological distress is a risk for obesity. Brandheim, Rantakeisu, and Starrin studied the association between psychological distress and BMI in a sample of 68, Swedish adults.

The results showed a decrease in psychological distress with increasing age regardless BMI. The results showed that unhealthy segment appeared higher social and emotional dysfunction.

That are in agreement with the study by Desai, Manley, MPhil, Desai and Potenza They showed that obese individuals may have restrictions in social functioning, lower social activity and may are diagnosed with depression and anxiety. Strongest associations appeared in women.

In our findings, there was not a difference between men and women. In addition, the meta-analysis by Luppino et al. Cognitive disorder variables showed significant differences between healthy and unhealthy segments.

The study by Cronk, Johnson and Burns , referred that higher BMI is associated with brain changes, a decline in mild cognitive impairment and risk of Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, Whitmer, Gunderson, Barrett-Connor, Quesenberry, and Yaffe suggested that high BMI in middle age increases the risk of future dementia.

However, according to Atti and colleagues , high BMI in older adults is associated with the protection of development of dementia and low BMI is associated with an increased risk.

Healthy and unhealthy segments are associated with body image dissatisfaction and high scores of BMI. Mills, Jadd, and Key examined ideal body perception and found that women wanted a thinner body size and men a more muscular one.

Furthermore, the body image perception was influenced by body norms. In our results, cluster analysis did not show significant differences between the two segments in the variable of an ideal body.

Moreover, individuals in healthy segment showed higher self-control than those in the unhealthy segment, even though the results were not statistically significant as was expected. Fan and Jin measured self- control and found that obese individuals had lower self-control than normal weight.

The findings of the study should be considered within the context of its limitations. First, the use of BMI classification is not a reliable indicator because is not based on body composition and is not derived from objectively measured weight and height.

Self-reported measures may have affect classification of BMI. Cluster analysis is used to discover structures in data without providing an interpretation. Nevertheless, although all of the variables have been explored in previous literature separately, no previous study used a cluster analysis to verify the segmentation of these variables to a healthy and unhealthy profile as this study did.

These limitations are necessary for the development of effective interventions as like for future research.

For future studies, we suggest a further examination of the patterns of behaviors using the variables of cluster analysis to show the extent of the influence of each variable.

We support that this procedure will be useful for weight loss treatments and the development of public health interventions. The findings of our study show the implications for the prevention of obesity and co-existing problems, disordered body image, malnutrition, fewer years of exercise participation, and high psychological distress.

Accordingly, we suggest the need for research to provide messages about healthy eating, physical activity, general health, and especially, targeting the positive attitudes and intentions to healthy eating and physical activity in combination with healthy eating behaviors.

In addition, future studies could investigate the role of different segments of the diverse population to different countries.

Also, we should consider that a woman had the opposite ideal body image than a man thin or muscular respectively , and it should be examined separately. This paper addresses a topic with public health relevance using many factors.

The present novelty comprises of the fact that a combination of several health-related psychological variables are used in studying overweight and obesity in addition to the used demographic characteristics and the level of exercise and eating habits. The results imply that unhealthy segment shows a high association between increased BMI, low physical activity, low healthy eating, high psychological distress, low self-control, low body image, negative attitudes, and intentions toward healthy eating and physical activity.

This research builds on existing knowledge by giving a better understanding of physical activity and healthy eating behaviors in different BMI groups concerning the above variables. An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis 2nd ed.

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Electrolyte Balance : Maintaining proper electrolyte levels through hydration is crucial for optimal nerve function, which directly impacts mental focus and coordination. Protein for Neurotransmitter Production Amino Acids and Neurotransmitters : Protein sources like lean meats, poultry, fish, dairy, and plant-based options provide the amino acids needed for the production of neurotransmitters that regulate mood and focus.

Caffeine and Alertness Moderation is Key : While caffeine can improve alertness and focus, excessive intake can lead to jitteriness and anxiety. Use it strategically and in moderation. Timing Matters : Consider the timing of caffeine intake to avoid interfering with sleep quality, which is crucial for mental recovery and performance.

Gut Health and the Gut-Brain Connection Probiotic-Rich Foods : A healthy gut microbiome supports overall well-being, including mental health. Include probiotic-rich foods like yogurt, kefir, and fermented vegetables in your diet. Fiber for Gut Health : High-fiber foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains promote a healthy gut microbiome, which can positively influence mood and cognitive function.

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Advanced Certifications During less intense Vegan athlete cookbook, energy Sports psychology and dietary habits from fats 7while during events, between them, and during very intense cietary, mainly from carbohydrates 6. This study recruited Psycholovy men pychology women wrestlers in Turkey to analyze the relationship between emotional eating and mindfulness among active wrestlers. Similarly, the values in healthy eating behaviors were higher. Is there a referral protocol in place if those signs and symptoms are detected? Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 36, It also covered the closure of sports clubs and gyms and limited access to outdoor activities.
Nutritional psychiatry: Your brain on food

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The physical effects of the carbohydrates in these foods are well known, but evidence suggests that the process of converting them to energy may also improve long-term exercise performance, having an effect on perceived fatigue and the will to exercise 3.

Carbohydrate metabolism in the brain can change the way the brain acts in response to physical activity, improving long-term exercise performance and perceptions of fatigue by acting on the chemicals transmitted to the brain 4.

In a article, Meeusen notes that proper nutrition is also correlated with brain plasticity, synaptic function, memory, as well as the physical structure of the brain 3.

In an athletic environment, this is extremely important because an athlete needs proper cognitive function in order to perform at his or her best.

It is also extremely important in terms of understanding the tactical and technical aspects of the game and training.

An athlete with proper nutritional and dietary habits will better retain the information gained during a training session, and will learn more in a shorter period of time.

So, from a cognitive perspective, having proper nutrition makes a big difference in what an athlete will learn and how well he or she will be able to respond during games and training session. Perhaps one of the most important aspects, though, is the ability of an athlete with proper nutrition to recover from and avoid central fatigue.

The Central Fatigue Hypothesis states that fatigue is governed by the central nervous system, and not the muscles themselves, suggesting that the fatigue is actually coming from the brain 5, 6.

As noted, proper nutrition may be able to help with the cognitive aspects of perceived effort and fatigue, and it is a basic definition of human movement that performing some physical task requires energy, which comes from nutrients obtained from food. So, we have a physical explanation of reducing fatigue; that is, proper nutritional habits will allow more energy for the tasks you set for your body.

We also have a potential explanation of cognitive fatigue that may be influenced by nutrition. On the psychological side of things, fatigue can have detrimental effects on an athlete in the form of burnout, failure to self-regulate, negative motivational changes, and mood disturbances 7.

So, does nutrition influence our cognitive and psychological systems? The answer is a resounding yes. In order to properly train as an athlete, it is important to note what is going into your body and to make sure you have enough of everything.

Proper nutrition is relatively simple. Eat lots of different fruits and vegetables my teachers used to tell me to get as much color on my plate as possible. Carbohydrates should make up a big portion of your diet, as they are an essential part of maintaining proper nutrition.

Protein is also an essential part of the diet, coming from foods like eggs, dairy products, meat, and chicken. Fish can be a good source of essential fatty acids, as well as protein. As an athlete, pay attention to your training load. It might seem like common sense, but if your training increases, you need to make sure your nutrient intake increases along with it.

Finding information on nutrition and how to properly fuel your body for athletics is not very difficult and should be an essential for all athletes looking to improve or maintain their performance. Instead, look for information from your national health center, like the Livsmedelsverket in Sweden, or the American Nutrition Association Swedish-American bias, I suppose.

I think that this website — SELFNutrition Data — is quite good and provides decent information about food compositions without judgment. Do you eat enough carbs and proteins for an athlete?

What about essential vitamins and minerals? Think about your activity levels and listen to your body.

On Isotonic recovery drinks Monday following a pstchology football Sports psychology and dietary habits, fans of the losing team spychology to load up Sprots saturated fats and sugars, Sports psychology and dietary habits supporters of the winning team opt ;sychology healthier foods, according to new research Weight and physical activity in Psychological Sciencea journal psychokogy the Association for Sports psychology and dietary habits Science. The researchers psyhcology that, when a favorite team loses, people feel an identity threat and are more likely to use eating as a coping mechanism. To test these associations experimentally, the researchers asked a group of French participants to write about a time when their favorite team lost or won. In a later, seemingly unrelated task, the people who wrote about their team losing opted to eat chips and candy over healthier grapes and tomatoes. The group who wrote about winning, on the other hand, preferred the healthier options. APS regularly opens certain online articles for discussion on our website. Effective Februaryyou must be a logged-in APS member to post comments.

Sports psychology and dietary habits -

Finally, a modest relationship between diet, running distance, and environmental scores was observed in male runners. The authors conclude that the QoL scores for endurance runners remained high irrespective of dietary choices or race distance, supporting the idea that vegetarian or vegan diets are a suitable substitute for omnivorous diets.

Cultural and environmental associations with body image, diet and well-being in NCAA DI female distance runners: A qualitative analysis. In this qualitative research study by Carson et al.

Firstly, there was a widespread perception of what constitutes an ideal body image, in addition to myths related to physique, and secondly, that a coach-athlete power dynamic did exist. The interplay between these two themes remains unclear, however, the authors speculate that they influence each other and play a role in cementing the currently adopted perceptions by athletes and coaches.

The authors conclude that the coach-athlete power dynamic may contribute to eating disorders and negative body image perception in female athletes, raising the need for NCAA and athletic departments to fashion effective interventions to combat these phenomena in the vulnerable female athlete population.

Diet quality and mental health status among division 1 female collegiate athletes during the COVID pandemic. Dietary interventions have been proven to play a role in enhancing mental health.

Female collegiate athletes have a higher propensity for nutritional irregularities, depression, and anxiety. The degree of evidence surrounding this vulnerable population remains insufficient, thus, Christensen et al. A final sample of 77 female athletes submitted a validated, web-based Diet History Questionnaire DHQ-III to extrapolate a Healthy Eating Index HEI , in addition to a total of three mental health questionnaires: the Athlete Psychological Strain Questionnaire APSQ , COVID Stress Scales CSS , and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale DASS Data analysis revealed a negative association between HEI scores and mental health, where athletes scoring high on the HEI were found to suffer from higher levels of performance concerns, stress, poor mental health, and elevated CSS components contamination, danger, and traumatic stress.

Thus, the authors recommend conducting further studies to fully understand these findings. Good food, good mood: Perspectives on the relationship between nutrition and mental health with division I collegiate athletic programs.

Student athletes face unique life challenges, from constrained daily schedules, limited rest time, and increased likelihood of suffering from mental health derangements. Despite the beneficial impact of dietary intake on mental health, student-athletes seldom take advantage of proper nutrition. Similarly, collegiate athletic programs have only recently begun to acknowledge the challenges faced by student athletes, and started to include sport dieticians and psychologists to care for them, however, the efficacy of such measures remains unclear.

A sample of 17 staff members six males, including sports physicians, trainers, dietitians, coaches, sports psychologists, and strength and conditioning coaches were interviewed online and inquired about their resource levels, educational backgrounds, and how they would integrate mental health and nutrition in their practice.

Analysis of the interview responses showed that most staff members identified the lack of staff members and funding as salient issues and that the incorporation of mental health and nutrition concepts in athletic programs remains in the infancy stages.

The authors comment that their findings could aid schools in allocating their resources efficiently to target mental health or nutritional interventions. Nutrition is paramount for performance, workout and post-workout recovery. Ensuring a diverse diet and adequate nutritional supplementation may give athletes the best chances to improve both quality and quantity of sleep.

In this narrative review, Gratwicke et al. Six databases were searched for relevant literature from November up to study initiation. Due to the lack of literature investigating the subpopulation of athletes, inclusion criteria for relevant studies were increased to allow review of studies that investigated healthy adults, regardless of athletic status.

The results demonstrated that foods with a high glycemic index somewhat improved sleep, and that tart cherry juice enhanced sleep quantity, while herbal supplements improved sleep quality. Interestingly, kiwifruit and protein supplements improved both sleep quality and quantity.

The authors comment that nutritional interventions may present an efficient method to target sleep quality and quantity, however, more research is required to understand dosing, nutritional sources and timing of interventions with respect to training, travel, and competitions.

In this study, Natàlia et al. For the duration of two days during a basketball championship, nine male basketball players were given high-carbohydrate meals dinner and evening snack with HGI or LGI.

Data on sleep was collected in both quantitative and qualitative measures, including sleep latency LAT , sleep efficiency EFIC , Wake After Sleep Onset WASO , and sleep time, using actigraphy and sleep diary.

Dietary intake, satiety, sleepiness, glycemic response, salivary cortisol and melatonin were among relevant parameters investigated for the study. The results revealed that the athletes scored higher on LAT and WASO and lower on nocturnal sleep time when compared to recommended scores. Although the athletes did not show any changes in sleep or hormonal levels in response to GI alterations, a relationship was seen between sleep and diet.

Specifically, the amount of energy consumed per day was found to adversely affect sleep efficiency and nocturnal total sleep time and WASO favorably, regardless of meals consumed at night. However, no changes were seen in salivary cortisol and melatonin in response to GI.

The authors comment that food eaten throughout the day affects sleep parameters of basketball athletes more significantly than altering the GI of meals eaten on the pre-game night, however, conducting more studies is paramount to further outline this complex interaction.

Sense of generalized self-efficacy and the nutritional behavior of district-level football referees. This study analyzed the eating behaviors of male football referees and aimed to find out if these behaviors correlate with self-efficacy.

The trial participants all refereed at regional level in Polish football. The men were asked to fill out some questionnaires on diet and were then tested on self-efficacy. Most of the referees consumed at least 3 meals a day and preferred to hydrate by drinking unsweetened beverages.

Over half of the respondents also avoided sweetened fizzy drinks, ate fish at least once a week, and restricted their sweets and snack intake. There was a link identified between high self-efficacy with unsweetened drinks consumption and correctly replenishing fluids during and after training.

Furthermore, referees with a high sense of self-efficacy were more likely to consume fruits and vegetables, fish, dairy products, and cereals at the recommended frequency, and avoid energy drinks, when compared with referees with low self-efficacy.

In conclusion, male football referees with higher self-efficacy showed more favorable nutritional choices than referees with lower self-efficacy.

Impact of Ramadan intermittent fasting on cognitive function in trained cyclists: A pilot study. In this study, cyclists undergoing intermittent fasting for Ramadan were assessed on their cognitive function. The participants fasted during the daylight hours.

Various cognitive tests were conducted before and after Ramadan, and in the 1st and 4th weeks of this holy month of fasting. An increase in perceived fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness was noticed in the 4th week of Ramadan. Moreover, the eleven cyclists showed disturbed sleeping patterns during Ramadan.

Duration of light sleep and number of awakenings significantly increased during this period. Following the holy month, the study observed decreased durations of deep and REM sleep stages in the athletes.

With regards to the cognitive tests, reaction and movement times did not vary over the study period. There were, however, higher incidences of false alarms in the Rapid Visual Information Processing RVP tests, suggesting reduced impulsivity. Compared to baseline, overall accuracy was higher during Ramadan 1st and 4th weeks and post-Ramadan.

In the fourth week of fasting, accuracy was higher at am compared to pm. In conclusion, the intermittent fasting that takes place during Ramadan did not negatively affect the cognitive performance of trained cyclists from the Middle East. Differential health effects on inflammatory, immunological and stress parameters in professional soccer players and sedentary individuals after consuming a synbiotic.

A triple-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. The aim of this research study was to examine the effects of a nutritional supplement on inflammatory and stress biomarkers among professional athletes and inactive people.

This test supplement was called Gasteel Plus and contained both probiotics and prebiotics. The trial also evaluated its impact on parameters related to physical and mental health, such as metabolic profile and physical activity. The study participants included professional football players in the Second Division B of the Spanish League, and sedentary students.

These subjects were randomly chosen to receive either a placebo the control group or the synbiotic experimental group. The synbiotic supplement Gasteel Plus was found to improve physical activity, sleep quality, and perceived general health, stress, and anxiety levels but only among the athletes.

To summarize, synbiotic nutritional supplements can enhance anxiety, stress, and sleep quality, especially in sportspeople. Weight control practices, beliefs, self-efficacy, and eating behaviors in college weight class athletes. This study examined weight class athletes from colleges in Gyeong-gi Province, South Korea.

There were differences between the high and normal weight loss groups in various aspects of cutting weight, including method, satisfaction, as well as frequency, magnitude, and duration of weight loss.

Compared to the normal weight loss group of athletes, the high weight loss athletes agreed more strongly on the flaws of rapidly cutting weight and showed less faith in making weight for their weight class and less confidence in controlling their overeating post-match.

These high weight loss competitors exhibited more inappropriate eating behaviors than normal weight loss athletes, particularly during the weight control period.

This study recruited both men and women wrestlers in Turkey to analyze the relationship between emotional eating and mindfulness among active wrestlers. Data was collected from volunteering wrestlers by handing out personal information forms and applying the Emotional Eating Scale as well as the Mindfulness Inventory for Sport.

On average, the national wrestlers ate more food types than non-national athletes and were rated higher in guilt and emotional eating. Higher scores in the Mindfulness Inventory were related to less ability to refocus.

Greater disinhibition was also connected to reduced awareness. The study found that guilt, non-judgment, refocusing, and the Mindfulness Inventory scores were positively linked, although the relationship was weak.

The author Şahin concludes that the physically and psychologically negative effects of emotional eating may contribute to reduced levels of awareness in athletes. Trigueros et al. The study managed to sign up athletes and trainers.

Conversely, increased antisocial behaviors were linked with poorer resilience. Those with greater resilience showed lower probability of having anxiety, stress, and depression, but having lower resilience tended to mean higher risk. In addition, these psychological disorders were less prevalent in healthy eaters than in those with unhealthy diets.

Overall, these findings highlight the importance of positive social environments in promoting mental health and healthy eating habits in athletes.

Quality of life of female and male vegetarian and vegan endurance runners compared to omnivores — results from the NURMI study step 2. This study investigates whether following a vegetarian or vegan diet can modulate quality of life in athletes.

There is evidence indicating that these diet types can positively affect exercise performance in athletes, but there is limited data on its influence on well-being and psyche. This study examined the quality of life scores of endurance runners, and compared those who adhere to an omnivore diet with those who eat a vegetarian or vegan diet.

The runners male and female completed questionnaires that assessed physical health, psychological well-being, social relationships, and environmental conditions. More of the participants followed a vegetarian or vegan diet rather than an omnivore diet vs.

The final analyses were performed on the runners who met the inclusion criteria. The study also added a control group of 10km runners. The overall quality of life scores among the sample was high. Men were found to score higher than women overall due to the high scores in the physical health and psychological well-being dimensions.

Eating an omnivore diet appeared to influence environmental scores among women, and affected social relationship scores among men. In summary, endurance runners showed high quality of life scores, regardless of the distance they run or diet choice.

The vegetarian and vegan diet may be equal alternatives to the omnivore diet. Prevalence of disordered eating and Its association with emotion regulation in female college athletes.

This study determined the prevalence rate of disordered eating among a sample of female college athletes by conducting several tests and surveys. Although experts have yet to confirm the factors that contribute to disordered eating in female college athletes, emotional regulation has been identified as a potential correlate.

An aim of this study was to assess emotional regulation, body dissatisfaction, sport type, a family history of eating disorder, and BMI as potential predictors of disordered eating.

One hundred and fifty-one female participants completed the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey and the Eating Attitudes Test to identify disordered eating. The results demonstrated different incidence rates depending on the assessments, but roughly 6.

The prevalence rates of disordered eating did not vary by sport type no difference between performers in weight-sensitive and less weight-sensitive sports. Another finding was that increased emotional regulation issues and body dissatisfaction were significant predictors of disordered eating.

This revelation warrants further investigation of emotional control and dissatisfaction with respect to disordered eating in female college athletes. Phytochemicals for improving aspects of cognitive function and psychological state potentially relevant to sports performance.

This article explores several plant-derived phytochemicals that can modulate physiological aspects in individuals and discusses its potential implications in sports psychology.

Different phytochemicals may have unique toxicity levels and effects on the brain, and this tends to be dictated by the structural groups of the phytochemicals phenolic, terpenes, alkaloids. The phenolics like polyphenols are natural components of the human diets but when consumed in high quantities they can improve cardiovascular function and have been associated with long-term brain health.

Terpenes typically do not make their way into the human diet, but monoterpenes derived from edible herbs such as sage and peppermint for example can enhance aspects of cognitive function and alertness.

Similar effects are seen with diterpene-rich Ginkgo biloba extracts and triterpene-containing extracts from plants such as ginseng and Bacopa monnieri. With regards to alkaloids, these phytochemicals are generally inappropriate in a sporting context due to toxicity and legal status.

Yet another factor influencing eating habits is the socioeconomic situation. This has been confirmed by a study conducted on a group of students, which showed that students make food choices based on their financial situation.

Individuals financially supported by or living with their parents eat healthier than their self-supporting peers. Other studies also suggest that socioeconomic status lower education, limited income, unemployment is associated with increased food insecurity, i. They choose fast-food products because of their convenience and relatively low price Additionally, individuals who live with roommates or family frequently have a better diet than people who live alone However, food security issues were not directly addressed in this study.

The level of nutritional knowledge also influences the choice of consumed products. It was found that the greater the nutrition knowledge, the better the eating habits 32 , The level of physical activity can affect the quality of the food eaten.

Physical activity is associated with reduced unhealthy food intake, such as candy and fatty foods However, amateur athletes are a particularly interesting group who do not always pay attention to choosing the right diet This is because of their approach to sports, which they treat as a hobby rather than a profession.

However, it should be noted that participation in amateur competitions is often associated with a healthy lifestyle, which positively affects physical and mental health This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional behavior of amateur ultrarunners, both men and women.

We examined the relationship between the level of knowledge about nutrition and the choice of specific products, both healthy and unhealthy. Because the human diet depends not only on the level of nutritional knowledge, we also assessed the impact of factors such as gender, smoking, and education on the food choices of ultramarathoners.

We conducted a cross-sectional study. The study covered adult amateur runners, including men and 89 women. Individuals who take up ultrarunning amateurishly or recreationally are often not affiliated with any sports clubs.

They work in other fields and run in their free time as a hobby, including ultra distances. In our research, the distribution by gender is uneven, but other studies of ultrarunners also show a higher percentage of male engagement Pregnant women were not included in the study. The characteristics of the research group are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. The descriptive information for study characteristics and selected characteristics by sex. The research was conducted in a group of amateur ultrarunners from the beginning of January to the end of March This period included the nationwide lockdown in Poland, where, most of the time, all social meeting points were fully or partially excluded from use.

It also covered the closure of sports clubs and gyms and limited access to outdoor activities. Certainly, during the lockdown, the characteristics of the group in terms of training would have looked different limitations, bans, a general trend of reduced levels of physical activity Therefore runners were asked to evaluate the entire period of experience with ultrarunning.

KomPAN ® Dietary Habits and Nutrition Beliefs Questionnaire and eating habits questionnaires were used for the study. All questions were included in the Supplementary Questionnaire S1. Participation in the research was voluntary, anonymous, and approved by the Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University No.

Subjects gave informed consent to participate in the study included in the online questionnaire. These questionnaires are research tools often used in publications, and for this study, they were converted into online versions and distributed using Google Docs.

Before using the questionnaire, the Google Docs were tested many times to ensure the feasibility of administering the questionnaire on every basic device and web browser.

The lack of direct face-to-face interaction may have positively impacted the respondents, thanks to which they had a greater sense of anonymity and thus felt more at ease and did not censor their responses.

The research was conducted asynchronously: the study participants had a lot of time to give answers, and they could do it at any time without time pressure. The questionnaire was available for several weeks to members of the focus groups.

A total of links with the online questionnaire were sent out. In order to obtain valuable data, the moderator and distributor of the questionnaires was a person known in the community with an ultrarunning background.

This eliminated the possibility of sending the questionnaire to random people. In phase 1, which lasted a month, a total of questionnaires were collected. Participants who provided unreliable answers or did not answer the questions comprehensively were removed. In phase 3, additional exclusion criteria failure to complete questionnaires, return of incomplete questionnaires, non-compliance in verification questions, chronic diseases were introduced 19 , After the entire verification process, respondents were accepted.

The process of preparation and selection of study participants is shown in the diagram Figure 1. The respondents were asked to fill in online questionnaires using Google Docs. It is a platform for online file transfer and collaborative editing.

The respondents received a link redirecting them to a relevant online questionnaire in Google Docs. Part of the questions was self-reported, containing basic information about the study participants: marital status, age, gender, height and weight, smoking, socioeconomic status, education level, and place of residence according to city size.

The body mass index BMI was also used in the study. Measurements were not taken using the bioimpedance method due to the limitations of COVID, and body weight and height were self-reported. The self-reported survey also included questions about preferred forms of training, volume, frequency, and duration.

In addition, questions covered training experience, the number of ultra runs, the average number of km run per week, and the longest distance run.

The research employed the KomPAN questionnaire developed by the Committee of Human Nutrition Science, Polish Academy of Sciences The KomPAN questionnaire is a reliable, consistent, and authoritative tool for studying dietary beliefs and habits 40 , This has been confirmed by many papers in international journals by Polish and foreign scholars.

The questionnaire was used to determine the dietary habits, diet quality, lifestyle, and nutrition knowledge of ultramarathon runners. Each respondent, on their own, filled in the questionnaire in the form of an online survey consisting of questions divided into four main topics: dietary habits 11 questions , frequency of food consumption 33 questions , nutrition beliefs 25 questions , lifestyle and personal data.

Diet scores were calculated based on daily food consumption. The Healthy Diet Index HDI was calculated as the sum of the frequency of eating healthy food groups included in 10 questions 23, 25, 31—33, 37, 38, 40, 42—43; the total score range: 0—20 points; Supplementary Table S1.

The Unhealthy Diet Index UDI was calculated as the sum of the frequency of eating unhealthy food groups included in 14 questions 22, 24, 26—29, 34—36, 44, 46, 51—52, 54; the total score range: 0—28 points; Supplementary Table S2.

Nutrition knowledge was estimated on the basis of 25 questions from Part C of the questionnaire. Due to the lack of normality of all distributions, it was decided to use non-parametric tests.

GraphPad Prism 9 GraphPad Software was used to visualize the data. In the group of women, nutrition knowledge influenced the HDI scores but not the UDI scores Table 2. Women with insufficient knowledge also obtained lower scores than those with good knowledge, but these differences were not statistically significant.

In the case of men, no similar relationships were observed. Smoking cigarettes did not affect the HDI and UDI scores in the group of women Table 3. In both groups women and men , no significant relationship was found between the level of education and the scores of the studied indices HDI and UDI The results are presented in Table 4.

Women with sufficient and good nutrition knowledge consumed statistically greater amounts of products such as buckwheat, whole-grain pasta, oatmeal, and other coarse grains. Women with insufficient knowledge consumed statistically less of them Figure 2A.

Men with good nutrition knowledge consumed statistically more cottage cheese. Men with sufficient and insufficient nutrition knowledge consumed this product in smaller amounts Figure 2B.

Figure 2. A The association between the frequency of consuming food items from the HDI and the level of nutritional knowledge among women. B The association between the frequency of consuming food items from the HDI and the level of nutritional knowledge among men. Women with sufficient nutritional knowledge consumed statistically more products, such as cold cuts, sausages, or frankfurters, than women with good and insufficient dietary knowledge.

Consumption of products from the group of sweetened drinks was found to be statistically significant only in women with sufficient nutritional knowledge. Women with insufficient nutritional knowledge used alcoholic drinks more often than women with good and sufficient knowledge Figure 3A.

Men with insufficient knowledge consumed statistically more sweets compared to men with good and sufficient knowledge. A similar relationship occurred with alcoholic drinks Figure 3B.

Figure 3. A The association between the frequency of consuming food items from the UDI and the level of nutritional knowledge among women. B The association between the frequency of consuming food items from the UDI and the level of nutritional knowledge among men.

In the group of women, no correlation was found between the selected features and the HDI and UDI The results are presented in Table 5.

Table 5. The correlations between selected characteristics and the HDI index or the UDI index. However, the mere desire to do sports does not give people sufficient knowledge about proper and rational nutrition Other factors influence the choice of the right diet.

Therefore, this study aimed to examine the impact of nutritional knowledge, smoking, and education on the frequency of consuming healthy and unhealthy products.

Due to awareness of the influence of gender on food choices, the respondents were divided into two groups: men and women. The nutritional knowledge of the respondents was measured using the KomPAN questionnaire and categorized as good, sufficient, or insufficient.

The analysis of the results showed a relationship between nutritional knowledge and the frequency of meals consumed. In the case of women, lower knowledge was associated with a lower index corresponding to a healthy diet.

In turn, in the case of men, lower knowledge about nutrition was associated with a higher index corresponding to an unhealthy diet. In both cases, the same trend is noticeable. This is consistent with the results of other studies, according to which people who perform better on a test related to nutrition knowledge are more likely to eat healthy food 44 , On the other hand, some unhealthy products sausages, frankfurters, etc.

were more often chosen by women with sufficient nutritional knowledge compared to women with insufficient knowledge. This may be because the respondents have never been under the care of a dietitian, and their dietary choices may be based on their own beliefs or experience. Research shows that even some athletes in sports clubs have never had dietary consultations, which may significantly affect the frequency of choosing specific food products Individuals practicing sports are often involuntarily associated with healthy habits, i.

Meanwhile, studies have repeatedly shown that anti-healthy behaviors also often appear in people practicing sports 48 , However, it should be remembered that the vast majority of respondents were smokers, which may significantly affect the results of this study.

However, an interesting observation arises here that amateur ultrarunners are still mostly susceptible to unhealthy addictions, despite practicing sports.

The assessment of the relationship between food choices and education was also the subject of this research. The level of education can affect diet quality, food choices, and the diet itself Among the surveyed group of amateur ultramarathoners, Both among women and men, most of the respondents had higher education.

Despite numerous studies showing that women care more about their diet and food choices 23 , 51 , no statistically significant differences were found between the level of education and the frequency of healthy eating habits in women training ultrarunning in this study.

It was similar in the case of men, where there was no correlation between the level of education and the HDI and UDI scores Table 4. In addition to the quantity and quality of nutritional products consumed, frequency of consumption is also important.

This study shows that women with sufficient nutritional knowledge consumed statistically more products such as cold cuts, sausages, or frankfurters than women with good and insufficient nutritional knowledge. Consumption of sweetened beverages was statistically significant only in women with sufficient nutritional knowledge.

Women with insufficient nutritional knowledge used alcoholic beverages more often than women with good and sufficient knowledge Figure 3A. Men with insufficient knowledge consumed statistically more sweets than men with good and sufficient knowledge.

A similar relationship occurred with alcoholic beverages Figure 3B. On the one hand, the results indicate that individuals with less knowledge about nutrition may more often choose unhealthy products, which is confirmed in the literature However, on the other hand, it should be noted that the vast majority of respondents obtained only sufficient results regarding nutrition knowledge.

This indicates that despite the respondents doing sports and trying to lead a healthy lifestyle, they do not necessarily have adequate nutrition knowledge.

In the case of amateurs, nutrition and nutritional knowledge do not necessarily have to be related and correlated with the achievement of specific sports results but rather constitute a mechanism leading to the achievement of generally understood good health, which is confirmed by other studies For example, it would seem that prolonged training and frequent heavy competition should promote unhealthy eating habits in men Table 5.

However, it should be remembered that the research was carried out on a group of amateurs who, despite doing sports, do not necessarily eat healthy food. Amateurs undertaking ultramarathon training and competing for recreation have increased energy expenditure To balance it, they must ensure an adequate supply of energy.

It is unimportant for them to achieve good results in the competition, so they allow themselves to deviate from healthy food.

They often exert themselves to a higher level of energy expenditure, which is then covered by unhealthy snacks and other unhealthy products 55 , For professional runners, proper nutrition and diet can affect athletic performance, which is the main goal, in contrast to amateur runners Although ultrarunning training does not promote unhealthy dietary choices, it should be noted that unhealthy dietary choices do occur among amateur runners, as confirmed by the results of our study 55 , However, this research has some limitations, including unequal gender distribution.

As mentioned before, men dominate among ultrarunners 3 , 37 , as confirmed by this study. The study group itself is also not too large, but this may be due to the period in which the study was conducted the beginning of the COVID lockdown in Poland.

People were forced to put their usual hobbies on hold, so they talked less about them on social media In the future, similar studies should take into account a longer period given to complete the questionnaire but also attempt to reach ultrarunners not only online but also through sports clubs.

It would be interesting to check the eating habits of runners during training, and not just between them. SES and food security should also be included in future research to understand these relationships better. This research is a preliminary study; however, despite some limitations, it shows in a fairly extensive way the dependence of dietary choices of amateur ultrarunners on various factors.

Maintaining a healthy diet is especially important for people practicing sports; therefore, nutritional knowledge is at a higher level in people who are more active and have higher education compared to people who are less physically active and have lower education.

Both in the case of women and men, the level of nutrition knowledge was associated with changes in the HDI and UDI scores. Women with sufficient knowledge about nutrition obtained statistically lower HDI scores compared to women with good nutrition knowledge.

However, no similar relationship was found in men. There was also no significant effect of education on food choices and the frequency of consumption of specific products. Interestingly, it was noticed that male smokers had lower UDI scores.

Such results may be due to the specifics of the study group, which consisted of amateur ultrarunners, which means that they are not necessarily well-educated in nutrition and positive health behavior. It was similar in the case of the selection of food products from the healthy and unhealthy categories , where nutrition knowledge did not always correspond with the healthiest choices.

For example, regardless of the level of knowledge, men consumed UDI products such as white rice, plain pasta, small groats, yellow cheese, or sweetened drinks with the same frequency. In turn, regardless of the level of knowledge, women consumed HDI products such as fermented milk drinks, fish, legume seed dishes, or fruit with the same frequency.

This may be because, for amateurs practicing sports, diet is not always put in the first place, as the physical activity and the fun that comes from it are much more important. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Bioethics Committee at the Wroclaw Medical University no. AK and MKe contributed to conception and design of the study. AK organized the database. MKr performed the statistical analysis. AK, MKr, ML, and MKe wrote sections of the manuscript.

All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version. The presented research results, implemented under the topic according to the records in the SIMPLE system with the number SUBZ.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Krouse, RZ, Ransdell, L, Lucas, SM, and Pritchard, M. Motivation, goal orientation, coaching, and training habits of women ultrarunners. J Strength Cond Res.

doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Knechtle, B, and Nikolaidis, PT. Physiology and pathophysiology in ultra-marathon running. Front Physiol. Hoffman, MD, Ong, JC, and Wang, G.

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Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. J Sports Sci. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Williamson, E. Nutritional implications for ultra-endurance walking and running events.

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Nausea is associated with endotoxemia during a km ultramarathon. Chiu, YH, Lai, JI, Wang, SH, How, CK, Li, LH, Kao, WF, et al. Early changes of the anemia phenomenon in male km ultramarathoners. J Chin Med Assoc. Baska, RS, Moses, FM, Graeber, G, and Kearney, G.

Gastrointestinal bleeding during an ultramarathon. Dig Dis Sci. Stuempfle, KJ, and Hoffman, MD. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a km ultramarathon.

Updated January 8, originally anx July 31, by Dana K. Voelker, West Selenium IDE Sports psychology and dietary habits Jenny Conviser, ASCEND Consultation in Health ;sychology, LLC; Hayley Perelman, Sports psychology and dietary habits University School of Medicine; and Caitlyn Hauff, University of South Alabama on behalf of the AASP Eating Disorders Special Interest Group. Disordered eating encompasses a range of problematic eating attitudes and behaviors that adversely impact health and performance. Signs and symptoms are physical e. Scientific and anecdotal evidence indicates disordered eating can affect any athlete in any sport.

Author: Mohn

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