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Early detection for diabetes prevention

Early detection for diabetes prevention

Samaras K, Diabetes DJC. Treatment Anti-inflammatory skincare can prevenyion customized based on glycemic characteristics and adjusted promptly according to continuous monitoring. Botros N, Concato J, Mohsenin V, et al. How people manage the condition depends on the type.

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Pre-Diabetes and Diabetes: Prevention, Screening and Risk Factors Screening for diabetes implies testing for diabetes Earlt individuals diagetes symptoms who are unaware of their condition. Screening for diabetes will also detect individuals at increased djabetes for diabetes prediabetes or fod with less Gut health and hormonal balance dtection of detectikn who may still be ofr risk Fair trade dark chocolate type 2 Gut health and hormonal balance. A large meta-analysis suggests that interventions in people classified through screening as having prediabetes have some efficacy in preventing or delaying onset of type 2 diabetes in trial populations 1 see Reducing the Risk of Developing Diabetes chapter, p. The growing importance of diabetes screening is undeniable 2. In contrast to other diseases, there is no distinction between screening and diagnostic testing. Therefore, to screen for diabetes and prediabetes, the same tests would be used for diagnosis of both medical conditions see Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome chapter, p.

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In diabetee Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, subjects who exercised diabetess at least four hours per week but did not lose weight still had a four-fifths relative reduction in incidence of diabetes at one year compared to those who were sedentary.

As part of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander MBS Health Assessment itema high risk of diabetes based on AUSDRISK is an eligibility criterion for referral to subsidised lifestyle programs.

Open access to lifestyle programs that are culturally appropriate and integrated with screening are likely to be more acceptable. Current National Health and Medical Research Council NHMRC guidelines state that, as many of the medications used in diabetes prevention studies have established side effects, potential benefits and harms should be taken into account before considering pharmacotherapy.

A large US trial randomised subjects with pre-diabetes into an intensive lifestyle modification program, metformin, or placebo.

The trial was prematurely discontinued on the basis that it was unethical not to offer all participants the intensive lifestyle program. Surgical weight loss interventions for severe obesity can result in a dramatic reduction in diabetes.

The Swedish Obese Subjects study compared subjects who had bariatric surgery with matched controls. At two years, the surgery cases had a fold reduction in incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes. All people at risk for diabetes should be offered lifestyle advice encouraging increased physical activity and improved dietary intake, and advised as to the benefits of weight loss.

People who are morbidly obese and potentially suitable for bariatric surgery should be encouraged to consider surgical referral, if available. In remote and rural areas, poor food supply undermines efforts to address the poor nutritional status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

National guide to a preventive health assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people PDF 9. Evidence base to a preventive health assessment in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people PDF 9.

National Guide Lifecycle chart child PDF KB. National Guide Lifecycle chart young PDF 1 MB. National Guide Lifecycle chart adult PDF 1 MB. National guide to a preventive health assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people Chapter Type 2 diabetes prevention and early detection.

Home Clinical resources Clinical guidelines Key RACGP guidelines View all RACGP guidelines National guide to a preventive health assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people Chapter Type 2 diabetes prevention and early detection.

What should be done? How often? However, these medications all have potential risks. Prediabetes: Diagnostic definitions of impaired fasting glucose IFG and impaired glucose tolerance IGT 11 The presence of prediabetes is defined according to the results of a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test OGTT.

IFG: fasting glucose 6. References Colagiuri S, Davies D, Girgis S, Colagiuri R. National evidence based guideline for case detection and diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Canberra: NHMRC and Diabetes Australia, Colagiuri S DS, Girgis S, Colagiuri R. National evidence based guideline for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: Biomedical results, — Canberra: ABS, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Canberra: AIHW, Minges K, Zimmet P, Magliano D, Dunstan D, Brown A, Shaw J. Diabetes prevalence and determinants in Indigenous Australian populations: A systematic review. Diabetes Res Clin Pract ;— Couzos S, Murray R.

Aboriginal primary health care: An evidence-based approach. Melbourne: Oxford University Press, Diabetes incidence in an Australian Aboriginal population.

An 8-year follow-up study. Diabetes Care ;22 12 — Socioeconomic status and diabetes among urban Indigenous Australians aged 15—64 years in the DRUID study. Ethn Health ;13 1 — Moynihan R. A new deal on disease definition. BMJ ; Barry E, Roberts S, Oke J, Vijayaraghavan S, Normansell R, Greenhalgh T.

Efficacy and effectiveness of screen and treat policies in prevention of type 2 diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis of screening tests and interventions. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, Diabetes Australia. General practice management of type 2 diabetes: — East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, Department of Health.

Australian type 2 diabeted risk assessment tool AUSDRISK. National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance. Guidelines for the management of absolute cardiovascular disease risk. Canberra: NVDPA, The role of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Australia.

Med J Aust ; 4 — Medicare Benefits Schedule — Item Quality Assurance for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Medical Services QAAMS pathology programme. Marley JV, Oh MS, Hadgraft NT, Singleton SL, Isaacs K, Atkinson DN.

Using glycated haemoglobin testing to simplify diabetes screening in remote Aboriginal Australian health care settings. Med J Aust ; 1 — Kester LM, Hey H, Hannon TS. Using hemoglobin A1c for prediabetes and diabetes diagnosis in adolescents: Can adult recommendations be upheld for pediatric use?

J Adolesc Health ;50 4 — Is Australia ready to use glycated haemoglobin for the diagnosis of diabetes?

Med J Aust ;—8. Martin DD, Shephard MDS, Freeman H, et al. Point-of-care testing of HbA1c and blood glucose in a remote Aboriginal Australian community. Med J Aust ;— Griffin SJ, Borch-Johnsen K, Davies MJ, et al. Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening ADDITION-Europe : A cluster-randomised trial.

Lancet ; — Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson J, Valle T, Hamalainen H. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

: Early detection for diabetes prevention

Diabetes Canada | Clinical Practice Guidelines book appointment now. Additional Contributions: We thank Howard Tracer, MD AHRQ , who contributed to the writing of the manuscript, and Lisa Nicolella, MA AHRQ , who assisted with coordination and editing. Xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects XENDOS study. These methods can improve early identification and intervention of at-risk individuals. Burden of diabetes and hyperglycaemia in adults in the Americas, a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
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A new deal on disease definition. BMJ ; Barry E, Roberts S, Oke J, Vijayaraghavan S, Normansell R, Greenhalgh T.

Efficacy and effectiveness of screen and treat policies in prevention of type 2 diabetes: Systematic review and meta-analysis of screening tests and interventions. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, Diabetes Australia. General practice management of type 2 diabetes: — East Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, Department of Health.

Australian type 2 diabeted risk assessment tool AUSDRISK. National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance. Guidelines for the management of absolute cardiovascular disease risk.

Canberra: NVDPA, The role of HbA1c in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in Australia. Med J Aust ; 4 — Medicare Benefits Schedule — Item Quality Assurance for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Medical Services QAAMS pathology programme.

Marley JV, Oh MS, Hadgraft NT, Singleton SL, Isaacs K, Atkinson DN. Using glycated haemoglobin testing to simplify diabetes screening in remote Aboriginal Australian health care settings.

Med J Aust ; 1 — Kester LM, Hey H, Hannon TS. Using hemoglobin A1c for prediabetes and diabetes diagnosis in adolescents: Can adult recommendations be upheld for pediatric use? J Adolesc Health ;50 4 — Is Australia ready to use glycated haemoglobin for the diagnosis of diabetes?

Med J Aust ;—8. Martin DD, Shephard MDS, Freeman H, et al. Point-of-care testing of HbA1c and blood glucose in a remote Aboriginal Australian community. Med J Aust ;— Griffin SJ, Borch-Johnsen K, Davies MJ, et al. Effect of early intensive multifactorial therapy on 5-year cardiovascular outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes detected by screening ADDITION-Europe : A cluster-randomised trial.

Lancet ; — Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson J, Valle T, Hamalainen H. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med ; 18 — Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, et al. Cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and diabetes incidence after lifestyle intervention for people with impaired glucose tolerance in the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: A year follow-up study.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ;2 6 — Jeon C, Lokken P, Hu F, Van Dam R. Physical activity of moderate intensity and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care ;— Reduced prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and no change in prevalence of diabetes despite increasing BMI among Aboriginal people from a group of remote homeland communities.

Dunstan D, Zimmet P, Welborn T, et al. The rising prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance: The Australian diabetes, obesity and lifestyle study. Diabetes Care ;25 5 — Australian type 2 diabetes risk assessment tool AUSDRISK.

Malo JA, Versace VL, Janus ED, et al. Evaluation of AUSDRISK as a screening tool for lifestyle modification programs: International implications for policy and cost-effectiveness.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ;3 1 :e Positive community responses to an arts—health program designed to tackle diabetes and kidney disease in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia: A qualitative study.

Aust N Z J Public Health ;40 4 — Salpeter SR, Buckley MS, Kahn JA, Salpeter EE. Meta-analysis: Metformin treatment in persons at risk for diabetes mellitus. Am J Med ;— Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin.

N Engl J Med ;— Van de Laar F, Lucassen P, Akkermans R, Van de Lisdonk E, De Grauw W. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4 :CD Torgerson J, Hauptman J, Boldrin M, Sjostrom L.

Xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects XENDOS study. Karam JG, McFarlane SI. Update on the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Curr Diab Rep ;— Sjöströmm CD, Peltonen M, Wedel H, Sjöström L. Differentiated long-term effects of intentional weight loss on diabetes and hypertension.

Hypertension ;— The effect of weight loss on Indigenous Australians with diabetes: A study of feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg ;26 1 — National Health and Medical Research Council.

Nutrition in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: An information paper. Canberra: NHMRC, Lee A, Hobson V, Katarski L. Review of the nutrition policy of the Arnhem Land Progress Association.

Aust N Z J Public Health ;20 5 — Lee A, Rainow S, Tregenza J, et al. Nutrition in remote Aboriginal communities: Lessons from Mai Wiru and the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands.

Aust N Z J Public Health ;40 Suppl 1 :S81— The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation. National Guide to a preventive health assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. South Melbourne, Vic: RACGP, NACCHO, Rosenbloom AL, Silverstein JH, Amemiya S, Zeitler P, Klingensmith GJ.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the child and adolescent. Pediatr Diabetes ;9 5 — Black A. Evidence of effective interventions to improve the social and environmental factors impacting on health: Informing the developments of Indigenous Communtiy Agreements.

Corresponding Author: Carol M. Mangione, MD, MSPH, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Wilshire Blvd, Ste , Los Angeles, CA chair uspstf.

The US Preventive Services Task Force USPSTF members: Carol M. Mangione, MD, MSPH; Michael J. Barry, MD; Wanda K. Nicholson, MD, MPH, MBA; Michael Cabana, MD, MA, MPH; David Chelmow, MD; Tumaini Rucker Coker, MD, MBA; Karina W. Davidson, PhD, MASc; Esa M.

Davis, MD, MPH; Katrina E. Donahue, MD, MPH; Carlos Roberto Jaén, MD, PhD, MS; Martha Kubik, PhD, RN; Li Li, MD, PhD, MPH; Gbenga Ogedegbe, MD, MPH; Lori Pbert, PhD; John M. Ruiz, PhD; James Stevermer, MD, MSPH; Chien-Wen Tseng, MD, MPH, MSEE; John B.

Wong, MD. Author Contributions: Dr Mangione had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. The USPSTF members contributed equally to the recommendation statement.

All members of the USPSTF receive travel reimbursement and an honorarium for participating in USPSTF meetings. The US Congress mandates that the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ support the operations of the USPSTF. AHRQ staff had no role in the approval of the final recommendation statement or the decision to submit for publication.

Disclaimer: Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the US government. They should not be construed as an official position of AHRQ or the US Department of Health and Human Services. Additional Contributions: We thank Justin Mills, MD, MPH AHRQ , who contributed to the writing of the manuscript, and Lisa Nicolella, MA AHRQ , who assisted with coordination and editing.

Additional Information: The US Preventive Services Task Force USPSTF makes recommendations about the effectiveness of specific preventive care services for patients without obvious related signs or symptoms.

It bases its recommendations on the evidence of both the benefits and harms of the service and an assessment of the balance. The USPSTF does not consider the costs of providing a service in this assessment.

The USPSTF recognizes that clinical decisions involve more considerations than evidence alone. Clinicians should understand the evidence but individualize decision-making to the specific patient or situation.

Similarly, the USPSTF notes that policy and coverage decisions involve considerations in addition to the evidence of clinical benefits and harms.

Published by JAMA®—Journal of the American Medical Association under arrangement with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ. All rights reserved. full text icon Full Text. Download PDF Top of Article Abstract Summary of Recommendation Importance USPSTF Assessment of Magnitude of Net Benefit Practice Considerations Supporting Evidence Research Needs and Gaps Recommendations of Others Article Information References.

Clinician Summary: Screening for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. View Large Download. Summary of USPSTF Rationale. Audio Author Interview USPSTF Recommendation: Screening for Prediabetes and Diabetes in Children and Adolescents.

Subscribe to Podcast. US Preventive Services Task Force USPSTF Grades and Levels of Evidence. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report. January 18, Accessed June 29, Jonas D, Vander Schaff E, Riley S.

Screening for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents: An Evidence Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Evidence Synthesis No.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; AHRQ publication EF Divers J, Mayer-Davis EJ, Lawrence JM, et al. Trends in incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths—selected counties and Indian reservations, United States, PubMed Google Scholar Crossref.

Andes LJ, Cheng YJ, Rolka DB, et al. Prevalence of prediabetes among adolescents and young adults in the United States, doi: US Preventive Services Task Force Procedure Manual.

Updated May American Diabetes Association. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes— Jonas DE, Vander Schaaf EB, Riley S, et al.

Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents: evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Published September 13, Prevent type 2 diabetes in kids. August 10, Children and adolescents: standards of medical care in diabetes— Zeitler P, Hirst K, Pyle L, et al; TODAY Study Group.

A clinical trial to maintain glycemic control in youth with type 2 diabetes. Prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes— Dabelea D, Mayer-Davis EJ, Saydah S, et al; SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.

Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from to Arslanian S, Bacha F, Grey M, Marcus MD, White NH, Zeitler P.

Evaluation and management of youth-onset type 2 diabetes: a position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Hannon TS, Dugan TM, Saha CK, et al.

Effectiveness of computer automation for the diagnosis and management of childhood type 2 diabetes. DuBose KD, Cummings DM, Imai S, Lazorick S, Collier DN. Development and validation of a tool for assessing glucose impairment in adolescents. Pinhas-Hamiel O, Dolan LM, Daniels SR, et al.

Increased incidence of non—insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among adolescents. Ball GD, Huang TT, Gower BA, et al. Longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and beta-cell function during puberty.

Amiel SA, Sherwin RS, Simonson DC, et al. Impaired insulin action in puberty: a contributing factor to poor glycemic control in adolescents with diabetes.

Screening for obesity in children and adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Screening for gestational diabetes: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

Jones KL, Arslanian S, Peterokova VA, et al. Effect of metformin in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Savoye M, Caprio S, Dziura J, et al. Reversal of early abnormalities in glucose metabolism in obese youth: results of an intensive lifestyle randomized controlled trial.

USPSTF Review: Screening for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. This systematic review to support the USPSTF Recommendation Statement summarizes published evidence on the benefits and harms of screening children and adolescents for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Daniel E. Jonas, MD, MPH; Emily B. Vander Schaaf, MD, MPH; Sean Riley, MA, MSc; Bianca A. Allison, MD, MPH; Jennifer Cook Middleton, PhD; Claire Baker; Rania Ali, MPH; Christiane E.

Voisin, MSLS; Erin S. LeBlanc, MD, MPH. Recommendations for Screening Children and Adolescents for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes. Patient Information: Screening for Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents. This JAMA Patient Page describes the condition of prediabetes and its symptoms, diagnosis, and management strategies.

Amy S. Shah, MD, MS; Kristen J. Nadeau, MD, MS; Megan M. Kelsey, MD, MS. See More About Diabetes Diabetes and Endocrinology Adolescent Medicine Guidelines United States Preventive Services Task Force Pediatrics.

Early diabetes detection can prevent serious complications For questions, contact Hunger control and overall wellness diabetes. Jones KL, Arslanian S, Preevntion VA, et al. Without ongoing, Eadly management, diabetes can Gut health and hormonal balance to glucose buildup in the blood, which can increase the risk of dangerous complications, including stroke and heart disease. Ali MK, Pearson-Stuttard J, Selvin E, Gregg EW. Jagannathan R, Sevick MA, Fink D, Dankner R, Chetrit A, Roth J, et al.
Talk to us about diabetes Differentiated long-term effects of intentional weight loss on diabetes and hypertension. Type 2 diabetes. National Guide Lifecycle chart young PDF 1 MB. Moreover, CGM devices can detect glucose changes in response to meals, exercise, stress, and medication, providing valuable insights into how these factors affect blood sugar levels. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Publication types Management of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes: the Canadian Diabetes Association guidelines. Prediction of type 1 diabetes in the general population. Literature Review Flow Diagram for Chapter 4: Screening for Diabetes in Adults. Lee A, Hobson V, Katarski L. Med J Aust ;— In addition to type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes, there are less common forms of the condition. Products and services.
Early detection for diabetes prevention

Early detection for diabetes prevention -

Another Southeast Asian study 23 found significant discordance between fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c measurements in diagnosing diabetes, with fasting plasma glucose underestimating the burden of undiagnosed diabetes.

HbA1c-defined diabetes and prediabetes prevalence were 9. The weighted kappa statistic for HbA1c concordance with fasting plasma glucose was 0. This suggests that using HbA1c as an adjunct test for diabetes diagnosis has significant implications for disease prevalence and clinical practice.

Another study 24 found that while HbA1c measurement has advantages like simplicity, standardization and reliability, its performance for screening prediabetes remains debated.

Some data show 25 that HbA1c may miss some patients and be influenced by factors like anemia and kidney dysfunction. In contrast, FPG requires fasting and may be affected by medications. Both metrics have pros and cons; the appropriate test depends on the situation.

A Japanese study 26 found that using ADA HbA1c criteria of 5. However, both HbA1c and FPG effectively identified high-risk groups with similar predictions. Thus, combining tests may better target those at risk of developing diabetes for early intervention.

Due to ethnic and regional differences, there is no consensus on optimal diagnostic standards. Discrepancies in diagnostic criteria for prediabetes across organizations highlight the need for unified global standards.

To achieve this, we propose an international expert committee to systematically review evidence, conduct meta-analyses, and build consensus through discussions.

First, convene a diverse, cross-regional panel of specialists to promote unified criteria development. Second, perform comprehensive systematic reviews integrating findings across entities, emphasizing variations in existing criteria and clinical implications. Third, enable regular panel discussions to debate diagnostic criteria merits, align theoretical and practical applications, and share experiences.

Fourth, leverage sustained deliberations to reach a consensus and formulate robust, evidence-based unified criteria for population differences. Finally, implement regular evaluations to update criteria per emerging insights, ensuring continued scientific rigor and clinical utility.

Through such efforts, consistent standards would optimize prediabetes diagnosis and management globally, thereby improving patient outcomes. Prediabetes does not necessarily equate to intermediate hyperglycemia. Prediabetes is a continuum with gradually rising glucose levels but does not imply intermediate hyperglycemia.

The physiological fasting and 2-hour postprandial glucose concentrations in most prediabetic individuals are typically lower than current diagnostic thresholds so they may go undetected or undiagnosed as prediabetes.

Clinically, prediabetics can have normal fasting glucose but 2-hour postprandial glucose between 7. HbA1c may be around 6. Thus, prediabetics can potentially reverse diabetes through diet, exercise and medications.

Recent papers 11 , 14 suggest that a useful intermediate hyperglycemia definition requires clinical relevance, sensitivity and specificity. If thresholds are too high, the definition lacks sensitivity to identify at-risk groups correctly.

If too low, it lacks specificity with high false positives incorrectly classifying healthy individuals.

Thus, evidence-based definitions of intermediate hyperglycemia are needed from the international community. One study 27 found that the faster fasting glucose levels rise and the higher BMI, blood pressure, triglycerides and lower HDL-cholesterol, the greater the risk of diabetes development.

This indicates why more research is needed to determine optimal diagnostic criteria and strategies, and formulate more personalized, precise prevention and treatment plans. However, in addition to existing concepts, we can delve into a pioneering theoretical framework called the pan-glycemia theory.

Anchored in pan-vascular diseases, this theory presents a fresh perspective by integrating moderate hyperglycemia and prediabetes. It underscores the significance of a comprehensive and dynamic approach to blood glucose management, aiming to establish a holistic endocrine-vascular health management framework.

The pan-glycemia theory emphasizes the entire spectrum of blood glucose management, ranging from the early stages of moderate hyperglycemia to prediabetes. It highlights the importance of dynamic monitoring and personalized interventions.

This all-encompassing management approach holds the potential to mitigate the risk of diabetes development while offering more precise strategies for prevention and treatment.

Early identification of prediabetes and moderate hyperglycemia through dynamic monitoring and individualized interventions enables timely intervention and treatment. Treatment plans can be customized based on glycemic characteristics and adjusted promptly according to continuous monitoring.

Sequential surveillance of blood glucose and other markers gauges treatment response, allowing optimized regimens for better control, lower diabetes risk, and precise management approaches For instance, aerobic exercises such as brisk walking, swimming, or cycling are recommended for insulin-resistant patients to improve peripheral tissue glucose uptake.

Endurance training, such as weightlifting or high-intensity interval training can reduce hepatic glucose production for patients with excessive hepatic glucose production. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia.

Long-term high blood glucose can damage multiple organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, retinopathy and other complications Delayed diagnosis of diabetes may increase many health risks. When blood glucose levels remain above normal for an extended period, multiple organ systems can be harmed, raising the risk of cardiovascular, renal, neurological and ocular complications In early diabetes, symptoms may be absent, making it easy to overlook.

Untreated high blood sugar can damage blood vessels and the nervous system, leading to various complications. Thus, early identification and treatment of diabetes can effectively reduce these risks. Besides known risk factors, alternative methods can help identify individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes.

These methods can improve early identification and intervention of at-risk individuals. The following are three potential alternative diagnostic approaches for prediabetes:. Glycated albumin GA : GA is a novel biomarker reflecting short-term glycemic variations in diabetic patients Like HbA1c, GA measurement reflects average glucose over weeks and can thus monitor and manage diabetes Studies show GA testing has been widely researched and applied 33 , It has higher sensitivity and specificity, improving early diabetes diagnosis and treatment Abnormal GA is an important indicator for OGTT screening in high-risk groups, especially those with normal fasting glucose.

Compared to traditional glucose testing methods, such as fingerstick measurements or periodic blood tests, CGM offers several advantages. This allows for a better understanding of glycemic variability and identifies specific patterns or trends that may be missed with intermittent testing Moreover, CGM devices can detect glucose changes in response to meals, exercise, stress, and medication, providing valuable insights into how these factors affect blood sugar levels.

This information is crucial for patients and healthcare providers in developing personalized treatment plans and making informed decisions regarding diet, physical activity, and medication adjustments.

For individuals at risk of developing diabetes, such as those with prediabetes, CGM technology holds potential as a diagnostic and management tool. The Clinical Practice Guideline for Developing Diabetes Care Plans 41 published by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists AACE provided a detailed discussion on CGM metrics, application, and data interpretation for assessing glycemic control.

Integrating CGM in routine clinical practice improves prediabetes management by providing continuous blood glucose data. Recent advancements in CGM technology 42 , such as sensor improvements and device miniaturization, have made CGM systems more reliable and user-friendly.

However, problems exist, such as high costs limiting its use in certain regions and patient populations CGM data requires collaboration and education between healthcare professionals and patients.

Technical issues, like sensor drift or data loss, can affect data accuracy. GSP detection is simple, rapid, reproducible and less influenced by other metabolic factors.

Compared to HbA1c, GSP has higher sensitivity and specificity, making it more accurate for diabetes monitoring in conditions like renal dysfunction and anemia. A study 45 demonstrated a robust positive correlation between fructosamine levels and HbA1c, indicating that fructosamine and HbA1c may serve as useful glycemic biomarkers for patients with concomitant diabetes and cancer, including those undergoing chemotherapy, utilizing glucocorticoids, or with anemia, hypoalbuminemia, or reduced renal function.

GSP testing has potential value in early diagnosis of diabetes and diabetic complications A study 47 found GSP performed well in predicting diabetes based on 2h glucose and HbA1c levels in overweight and obese youth ages 10 to Some research also found that GSP detection has value for screening and predicting diabetic complications 48 , In summary, adjunct diagnostic methods may effectively identify individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes.

Figure 1 illustrates the advantages of the three alternative placement methods. Supplemental Material 1 compares cost-effectiveness, availability, and practicality among the three methods.

However, further research evidence is required to support their clinical application in diagnosis. The validation of diagnostic models for prediabetes is crucial to ensure the accuracy and reliability of biomarkers, including GA, CGM, and GSP testing. By validating these biomarkers, their effectiveness in capturing short-term glycemic variations, monitoring glucose levels continuously, and reflecting glycemic control can be confirmed.

Establishing the validity of these diagnostic tools enables reliable and accurate prediabetes identification, subsequently facilitating the implementation of appropriate interventions and ultimately improving patient outcomes. In addition, some studies 50 , 51 show post-load and 1-hour OGTT glucose levels have higher sensitivity in predicting type 2 diabetes progression than fasting glucose, 2-hour OGTT glucose or HbA1c.

Thus,1-hour OGTT glucose may identify high-risk individuals Moving forward, it is critical to identify programs for early identification. Given rising type 2 diabetes incidence and complications, identifying and preventing type 2 diabetes early is critical.

However, limitations exist in diagnosing prediabetes, with different cutoffs for fasting glucose and HbA1c.

Thus, other methods are needed to identify high-risk groups. Prediabetes remains challenging to diagnose due to its obscurity Lack of consensus on prediabetes diagnosis poses challenges in estimating prevalence across populations. Future research should focus on more sensitive, specific biomarkers.

Optimizing glucose and HbA1c thresholds and dynamic monitoring are needed to diagnose prediabetes accurately. Exploring optimal strategies to prevent and control prediabetes is important to lower type 2 diabetes risk.

This process enables determining whether an individual belongs to a high-risk group or requires further assessment and management. Several factors influence this decision-making process, including specific patient characteristics, additional clinical considerations, and the incorporation of relevant guidelines or policies.

Constructing a comprehensive framework for the decision-making mechanism facilitates a deeper understanding of the potential diagnostic indicators and their practical application in clinical practice.

This framework enables healthcare professionals to integrate various factors and considerations, empowering them to make informed decisions and provide tailored interventions and management strategies that address the unique needs of each individual.

In summary, international consensus on prediabetes diagnosis, strategies, and more personalized, precise prevention and treatment plans is critical to addressing rising type 2 diabetes incidence. Further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding authors.

JZ: Conceptualization, Writing — original draft. The work was supported by the Scientific and technological innovation project of the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences CIA The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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According Early detection for diabetes prevention the Centers for Disease Control Detectiommore than 34 million people in the United Flr have diabetes, and 1 in 5 of them don't Sources of dietary fats they detwction it. Diabetic diet and nutrition tips warning signs of diabetes can go undetected because they are easy to ror Diabetic diet and nutrition tips may not seem out of the ordinary. Common signs include frequent urination, increased thirst, extreme fatigue, blurred vision, and weight loss. If you think you may be showing signs of diabetes, it is important to take action early on and contact your doctor to start discussing management of the disease. Moderate lifestyle changes such as maintaining a healthier diet, increasing physical activity, and losing 10 to 15 pounds can reduce risk of diabetes or prolong the disease. The disease is most common in people who are at least 45 years old, are overweight or obese, or have high blood pressure.

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