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Glycogen replenishment for swimmers

Glycogen replenishment for swimmers

Glycogen replenishment for swimmers level Maintenance Replenishmet glycogen levels vary among people i. Book Free consultation. After Exercise: Fluid replacement should begin immediately after exercise; athletes should try to drink ml as soon as possible.

Glycogen replenishment for swimmers -

GI content of foods can be used to tailor nutritional strategies. For example in long, endurance events low — medium GI meals prior to the event may help achieve a slow, sustained energy release. Low GI foods are generally recommended in weight loss programmes. The higher glycaemic index foods may replenish glycogen stores at a faster rate.

Low fibre, high GI fluids and foods are best used during training and between races in competition. When there is less than 8 hours between sessions it is recommended that a portion of CHO consumed should have a high glycaemic index GI , e.

However, it is still most important to encourage adequate CHO intake suitable for fuelling and recovery as a priority over GI content. Fat is an important dietary component and is necessary as it provides both energy and the fat-soluble vitamins — A, D, E and K. Fat is used as a fuel source as well as CHO during exercise.

Compared to CHOs, the body has a much larger storage of fat. Even the leanest athlete will have a plentiful supply available to provide energy for very prolonged periods of exercise, so there should be no need to make a special attempt to increase fat stores through food being consumed.

It is generally advised to limit the amount of saturated fat in the diet, as it is associated with high cholesterol and an increased risk of heart disease. Conversely, unsaturated fats such as those found in oily fish, nuts and seed oils are associated with lower levels of heart disease.

Essential fatty acids EFAs are associated with enhancing thermogenesis the burning of excess fat to produce heat , thereby assisting the body in losing weight.

Intense exercise programmes induce a reduction of immune cell function; it is proposed that the intake of essential polyunsaturated fats can aid in counteracting this.

Omega-3 is the name given to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that can only be obtained from the diet. There are different types of omega-3 fatty acids but the most effective are the long chain fatty acids EPA and DHA as they can be used readily by the body.

Proteins are vital to basic cellular and body functions, including cellular regeneration and repair, manufacture of new muscle and tissue and the repair of old muscle tissue, hormone and enzyme production which regulate metabolism and other body functions fluid balance, and the provision of energy.

Body proteins are continually being broken down and replaced by protein, synthesized from amino acids available in the free pool. However, if dietary protein intake is less than adequate there are insufficient amino acids entering the free pool to maintain a rate of protein synthesis to counteract protein degradation.

This can lead to losses in muscle size and strength thus inhibiting performance. Research suggests that athletes involved in heavy training programmes may have increased daily protein needs up to 1. The building blocks of human proteins are twenty amino acids that may be consumed from both plant and animal sources.

Nine of these amino acids are considered to be essential because their carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized by human enzymes. The remaining "nonessential" amino acids can be synthesized endogenously with transfer of amino groups to carbon compounds that are formed as intermediates of glucose glucogenic amino acids and lipid ketogenic amino acids metabolism.

Biological value BV is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which provides essential amino acids for cellular and bodily functions. If any one of the essential amino acids is not available in sufficient amounts or is present in excessive amounts relative to other essential amino acids, protein synthesis will be not be supported, thus, inhibiting recovery.

Protein is heavily marketed to athletes. Exceeding protein requirements does not give athletes any additional benefits. The concern with excess protein intake is that it may come at a cost to carbohydrate intake which would be detrimental to performance.

Large intakes of protein increases calcium excretion in the body and long term effects of excessive protein intake are as yet unknown. Consumption of protein around exercise see post exercise snacking, below is an important part of adaptation to exercise.

Consuming protein around exercise should be a priority yet requirements should not be exceeded. Those who may be at risk of inadequate protein intake include fussy eaters, restrictive eaters those on diets, limited food supply or those on poorly designed vegetarian diets.

The ATP-CP system provides enough energy for a 5 or 6 second sprint or other rapid muscle contraction such as lifting weights.

Creatine Phosphate CP is a high-energy molecule that can deliver its energy to manufacture ATP very quickly. A resting muscle has about 4 times more CP than ATP. During muscle contraction, the CP transfers its energy to ATP production, but the reserves are drained quite quickly.

CP in the muscles is re-made during the next rest period between sprints. No oxygen is required for this system to work, so an athlete does not need to inhale air during a very short sprint. The glycolytic system is most important for high-power efforts that last up to two minutes. When CP levels are low, the muscles turn to glucose for rapid production of ATP, again with little requirement for oxygen.

This anaerobic system generates only 2 ATP molecules from each glucose molecule. Unfortunately, lactic acid is a by-product of the glycolytic system and too much lactic acid will cause muscle fatigue. The muscle avoids acid fatigue by switching to a third system that requires oxygen, the aerobic system.

As exercise intensity increases, the body relies more on the glycolytic system fuelled by glucose. When the intensity is lower e. walking, jogging, easy swim speed , the body prefers the aerobic system that uses both fat and glucose as muscle fuel.

The aerobic system requires plenty of oxygen to work efficiently. This system is most important in any exercise that lasts longer than 2 minutes.

It is also known as oxidative phosphorylation and uses both glucose and fat as a fuel source. All this takes part in the mitochondria, which are abundant in muscle and the cardiac cells of the heart.

The inhaled oxygen helps the muscles produce a further 34 ATP molecules from 1 glucose molecule, making a total of 36 ATPs, compared to only 2 without oxygen.

Glucose is the most efficient fuel as it produces more ATP with each breath than fat or protein. CHO is the main source of glucose in the diet.

However, body stores of glucose are limited compared to body stores of fat. Endurance training helps muscles to use fat more efficiently as a fuel, thereby making fewer demands on glucose and thus improving endurance.

Amino acids from proteins are sometimes used as a fuel, mainly near the end of endurance sports when glucose is low. All 3 energy systems operate at the same time, but their relative contributions change with the intensity and duration of the sport.

Quality training makes an athlete swim fast — but part of quality training is good nutrition. Believe it or not, an athlete does not get faster during training. Training is simply the stimulus that causes this to happen. Athletes inevitably find training hard on occasions and of course, that is the intention!

The body then responds by becoming more efficient — aerobically and anaerobically so that next time they can do the set the same, if not better. Therefore the correct and proper fuels are vital. During exercise, the body burns a mixture of fat and glycogen but glycogen is the fuel that will run out the quickest.

It is therefore, referred to as a rate limiting fuel. The glycogen molecules release glucose units, as glucose is the preferred fuel, especially as exercise intensity increases, which is why CHOs are so important in swimming. At lower intensities recovery sessions , both body fat and glycogen are used as fuel.

As already stated, everyone carries a certain amount of fat on their body and this amount can equate to 60, calories even for a slim person. Therefore, glycogen as previously stated, is the limiting fuel, simply because there is a limit to how much can be stored in the body.

It is, thus, important to replace these stores as soon as possible after exercise has been carried out, ideally in the first 30 minutes afterwards see suitable kit bag snacks. Muscle glycogen levels vary among people i.

a trained athlete will have more muscle glycogen than someone carrying out less activity. Fitter athletes aim to keep muscle glycogen levels as high as possible so they can train effectively for long periods and recover quickly.

Athletes will store lots of glycogen in their arms and leg muscles but unfortunately, if leg muscles run out of glycogen, it is not possible to bring in a supply from the arms and vice versa.

This feeling can be partially reversed by consuming some quick-to-absorb CHO, such as a sports drink or soft confectionary. During the overnight fast glycogen stores are depleted as energy is still burnt whilst sleeping. On awaking, glycogen stores need to be refueled prior to training in order to provide an energy source.

This will improve performance during the session and also aids in recovery. It is essential that athletes snack accordingly prior to early morning swim sessions and when training schedules are busy.

A pre training snack hours prior to training is ideal. For early mornings, liquid meals such as smoothies or sports drinks are better tolerated. Ideally, a meal is consumed hours prior to training or racing with a snack hour prior.

See post training and competition snacks for examples of good food choices. Athletes can train up to twice a day, days a week and as a result require a diet both high in energy and high in CHO. Athletes who fail to consume enough CHO will fail to recover adequately between training sessions, resulting in fatigue, loss of body weight and poor performance.

Additional energy requirements for growth may compound the problem. Athletes with high-energy requirements need to increase the number of snacks during the day and make use of energy-dense foods. The timing and composition of post exercise snacks and meals depends on the duration and intensity of the exercise session i.

whether CHO stores were depleted and when the next intense workout will occur. After intense exercise sessions when muscle glycogen stores are depleted the athlete should aim to consume 1g of carbohydrate per kg of body mass immediately after exercise to replenish glycogen stores.

Protein consumed immediately after exercise will provide amino acids for the building and repair of muscle tissues. In the table below there are a number of example foods which could be consumed immediately after sessions and stored at the pool in lockers or in the fridge!

Muscle glycogen stores can be filled by 24 hours of a high-CHO diet and rest. Athletes who are undertaking a long taper may need to reduce total energy intake to match their reduced workload, otherwise unwanted gains in body fat will occur.

Fluid levels and CHO stores need to be replenished between events and between heats and finals. Athletes should drink a CHO-containing fluid such as a sports drink, fruit juice or cordial when there is only a short interval between races. Snacks such as yoghurt, fruit, cereal bars or sandwiches are suitable for longer gaps between races or for recovery at the end of a session.

Between heats and evening final sessions, athletes should eat a high-CHO lunch and have a nap. On waking, a CHO-rich snack should be eaten before returning to the pool. Competition schedules can be hectic and for athletes competing in multiple events, refuelling and rehydrating between races is essential to optimise performance.

It can be difficult for athletes to know what to eat and drink between events depending on the time between races. Just as athletes train in the pool to adapt to training and competition nutrition strategies need to be adapted to by practising them in training and smaller competitions.

Advance preparation for food and fluid intake throughout competition will prevent reliance on canteen foods which may be inappropriate recovery choices. The table below provides some examples of suitable choices for between races during competition. Mild dehydration is not harmful but severe dehydration can be to both health and performance.

Each individual will sweat different amounts, which also results in a loss of weight during exercise. There is no standard sweat rate during exercise because sweat losses will vary depending on the weather conditions, exercise intensity, exercise duration and fitness level of each athlete.

As a rough guide, Cox et al. Athletes can develop their own hydration strategy to compensate for their own individual sweat losses. It is important that the athlete gets to know their body and understand when they need to be taking more fluids on board.

Sweating not only involves the loss of water from the body but we also lose body salts such as sodium, chloride and potassium, often referred to as electrolytes. Before Exercise: Ideally drink ml two hours prior to exercise and — ml immediately before to reduce the risk of dehydration.

This may not be possible in early morning sessions. However athletes should ensure that some fluids are consumed, as the body will be dehydrated from the overnight fast whilst sleeping.

During Exercise: Athletes should try and drink at regular intervals during training to reduce dehydration. A rough guide for — ml to be consumed every 15 minutes. Athletes need to be careful as it is possible to drink too much. After Exercise: Fluid replacement should begin immediately after exercise; athletes should try to drink ml as soon as possible.

Athletes should also try to keep sipping on fluids throughout the day in order to maintain the recommended ~ 2 of fluid outside of training.

Be aware that drinking during exercise does not come naturally to many athletes. It is a skill that needs to be developed and practiced just like their stroke. Educate the athlete. Explain the importance of fluid intake whilst training so that they understand that it can have an effect on performance as sometimes they are not aware.

Optimise drinking opportunities throughout training i. between sets and where there is a longer rest period. Ensure athletes have access to chilled fluids which suit their taste preferences and requirements.

I felt down, man. I had three slices of pizza before the game and the food took me down. So what are the signs that may indicate that an athlete may not be consuming an adequate diet i.

a diet insufficient in CHO? Immune cells have been shown to decrease temporarily in strenuous exercise of over 90 minutes in duration, further putting athletes at risk of infections such as bacteria and viruses which can cause common colds and the flu. A varied diet is essential to provide all of the macro and micro nutrients required to protect from infection.

Specifically, carbohydrate, protein, zinc, iron, magnesium, manganese, selenium, copper, vitamins A, C, B6 and B12 play essential roles in immune function.

All are best gained from a diet high in fruit, vegetables, cereals and lean protein. Excessive amounts of these nutrients can be detrimental and supplementation is generally not required unless deficient or in special circumstances limited food supply. Throughout the centuries, dietary intake has been a source of concern to athletes in search of an ergogenic edge over opponents.

Since that time, innumerable studies have refuted the notion that a high protein intake will enhance athletic performance. Since the conclusion of the Kraus-Weber Tests in the s, there has been ever- increasing awareness and concern for cardiopulmonary fitness and health in Americans.

Endurance type activities such as Nordic skiing, cycling, running, triathalons, and swimming have become in vogue, and as a result, more intense attention has been devoted to dietary manipulations which may provide an ergogenic effect, thus prolonging time to exhaustion, or delaying the onset of blood lactate accumulation OBLA in an attempt to compete at a higher intensity, longer.

The classic study by Christensen and Hansen in established the effect of a high carbohydrate diet upon endurance time, and that pre-exercise glycogen levels exerted an influence in time to exhaustion. Subsequently, it was discovered that if an athlete, after depleting glycogen reserves, consumed a high carbohydrate diet for two to three days prior to an athletic event, there would in fact be higher glycogen levels than prior to exercise.

Therefore, the concentration of muscle and liver glycogen prior to exercise plays an important role in endurance exercise capacity. In exhaustive exercise many studies have observed significant depletion of both liver and muscle glycogen.

It is interesting to recognize that the point of exhaustion seems to occur upon the depletion of liver glycogen. It follows that endurance athletes who maintain a daily regimen of endurance training without glycogen repletion may severely deplete their glycogen reserves.

Glycogen, the major reservoir of carbohydrate in the body, is comprised of long chain polymers of glucose molecules. The body stores approximately grams of glycogen within the muscle and liver for use during exercise.

At higher exercise intensities, glycogen becomes the main fuel utilized. Depletion of liver glycogen has the consequence of diminishing liver glucose output, and blood glucose concentrations accordingly. Because glucose is the fundamental energy source for the nervous system, a substantial decline in blood glucose results in volitional exhaustion, due to glucose deficiency to the brain.

It appears that the evidence presented in the literature universally supports the concept that the greater the depletion of skeletal muscle glycogen, then the stronger the stimulus to replenish stores upon the cessation of exercise, provided adequate carbohydrate is supplied.

Though most of the evidence presented on glycogen is related to prolonged aerobic exercise, there is evidence that exercise mode may play a role in glycogen replenishment, with eccentric exercise exhibiting significantly longer recovery periods, up to four days post-exercise.

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