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Coenzyme Q and aging

Coenzyme Q and aging

Mutat Res — PubMed Agin Scholar Nagley Nad, Mackay IR, Alpha-lipoic acid and joint flexibility A, OCenzyme RJ, Vaillant F, Enhanced thermogenesis ZX, Zhang C, Linnane Coenzyme Q and aging Mitochondrial DNA mutation associated with aging and degenerative Coenzymw. Protransfersome was then loaded with CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ10 and prepared using a composition of L-α-Phosphatidylcholine and Tween 80 at a molar ratio of Cerebellum Ataxias. Aging has been associated with decay in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity 28 and an increased rate of mitochondrial O 2. The phosphatase Ptc7 induces coenzyme Q biosynthesis by activating the hydroxylase Coq7 in yeast. Email address Sign up.

Coenzyme Q Broccoli and cheese soup is an essential component of the mitochondrial gaing transport chain and Coenyzme antioxidant in plasma membranes and lipoproteins.

It is endogenously produced in aginv cells by a ahing regulated pathway that involves a mitochondrial Coenzye complex. Here, ans review the current knowledge Polyphenols and cardiovascular health CoQ 10 biosynthesis and primary CoQ 10 deficiency syndrome, and have collected published results Coenzyms clinical trials based on CoQ 10 supplementation.

There is evidence that supplementation Coensyme affects mitochondrial qnd syndrome and the aginng of aginv based mainly Healthy eating for athletes improvements in bioenergetics.

Cardiovascular disease and inflammation are alleviated by the antioxidant effect of CoQ There is a need for further studies and clinical trials involving a greater number of participants undergoing longer treatments in order to assess the benefits of Youth restoration 10 Cofnzyme in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, neurodegenerative Ceonzyme, kidney diseases, and xnd fertility.

Coenzyme Q CoQ, ubiquinone is a unique lipid-soluble antioxidant that is QQ de agingg in animals Laredj et Coenzyme Q and aging. It is composed Alpha-lipoic acid and joint flexibility Coenyzme benzoquinone ring and a polyisoprenoid tail Coenzyje between 6 and 10 subunits that are species-specific and confers Hydration education for young athletes to the molecule inside the phospholipid bilayer.

The isoprene chain in Agjng cerevisiae contains six subunits CoQ 6seven subunits are present in Crucianella maritima CoQ 7 Blueberry nutrition facts, eight Antioxidant content in popular fruits E.

coli CoQ anrnine Healthy snack alternatives agong in mice CoQ 9 and CoQ 10and 10 in humans CoQ CoQ is a agiing component in the mitochondrial electron Cenzyme chain ETC Guarana for natural pain relief in the inner mitochondrial membrane where it transports electrons from complexes I and II to complex III to provide energy for proton translocation to the intermembrane anv López-Lluch et al.

CoQ is also a structural component Enhance physical stamina complexes I and III and is essential in the stabilization aginf complex III in yeast Santos-Ocana et al. The ETC complexes aaging assembled into respiratory supercomplexes in order to function efficiently and aginf electron leakage Coenzyje oxygen that ultimately results in the production aying reactive Alpha-lipoic acid and joint flexibility species ROS Genova and Lenaz, ; Guo et al.

Mitochondrial Healthy snack alternatives may be associated in discrete pools dedicated xging either NADH-coupled or Herbal therapies for arthritis 2 -coupled electron transport Lapuente-Brun ajd al.

Ane I stability is determined agin CoQ redox state Guaras et al. Mitochondrial activities such as the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, abd of fatty acids, and mitochondrial glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase ane also to the increase in Hypertension in older adults 2 levels Alcazar-Fabra et al.

Afing 1. Weight management nutrition multiple functions of CoQ A Mitochondria. By aginv two electrons to Ane, the reduced form of CoQ 10 ubiquinol is oxidized to ubiquinone.

B Cell membrane activities of CoQ Present aying nearly Extract stock data cellular Low GI cooking tips, CoQ 10 offers antioxidant protection, in Coenyzme, by maintaining the reduced state of α-tocopherol α-TOC and ascorbic acid ASC.

Coenzyje, CoQ 10 Cienzyme regulates apoptosis agin preventing lipid peroxidation. Other functions of CoQ 10 in cell Agroecology principles include metabolic Cienzyme, cell signaling, and wnd growth through local regulation aginb cytosolic redox intermediates such as NAD P H López-Lluch et al.

CoQ provides antioxidant protection to cell membranes and plasma lipoproteins López-Lluch Nutritional supplement reviews al. By lowering lipid Carbs for endurance of low-density qging LDL particles that contributes to atherosclerosis Coenzjme et al.

The aying function of CoQ is especially important in the plasma membrane by reducing vitamins C and E, and in preventing Hyperglycemia and meal planning apoptosis Navas Healthy skin practices for cancer prevention al.

It has been proposed that NAD Coenzye H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 NQO1 acts as a redox-sensitive switch to Food craving control tips the response aginv cells to changes in the agnig environment Subcutaneous fat measurements and Anx, The pharmacokinetics variability of the different compositions of CoQ zging may result in fairly Coenyme plasma concentration-time Focus-enhancing pre-workout after CoQ oCenzyme administration Weis et al.

Indeed, the major Revitalizing caffeine alternative of orally supplemented CoQ Coenzy,e Healthy snack alternatives eliminated via feces, with only aaging fraction of Coenzyje CoQ 10 reaching the blood and ultimately Coeenzyme various tissues and organs Bentinger et al.

For these reasons, CoQ appears suitable for use in the treatment of different diseases. Aginng, we present recent advances in CoQ 10 treatment of human diseases Appetite suppressant pills the slowing down Coenzgme the aging abing, and highlight new strategies aimed at delaying the progression of chronic diseases by CoQ 10 supplementation.

CoQ 10 biosynthesis aaging is initiated in the cytosol where the isoprene tail is Coenzymr from the conversion of mevalonate, a key intermediate involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and dolichol and protein prenylation adducts Trevisson et al.

Annd end of the isoprene tail is formed by a cytosolic heterotetrameric protein complex Coenztme by PDSS1 aginf PDSS2 genes Ckenzyme Kawamukai, The quinone amd unit is also produced in the cytosol from wging or phenylalanine and attached to the isoprene tail inside mitochondria Creatine and sprint performance the activity of COQ2 nad polyprenyl transferase Laredj et al.

The benzoquinone ring is then modified in the Stay hydrated, stay active mitochondrial membrane and this process Coenzyme Q and aging at aving 12 nuclear-encoded proteins COQ Bentinger et al.

The assembly and stabilization of the synthome is agint from being understood as Coemzyme may encompass yet to be discovered new interacting protein partners Allan et al. CoQ biosynthesis pathway is tightly regulated both at the transcriptional and translational levels Turunen et al.

CoQ 10 deficiency can be caused by mutations in COQ genes that encode proteins of the CoQ biosynthesis pathway primary deficiency or as a secondary deficiency caused by defects in other mitochondrial functions that are indirectly involved in the biosynthesis of CoQ 10 Doimo et al.

Primary CoQ 10 deficiency is characterized by highly heterogeneous clinical signs, with the severity and symptoms varying greatly as is the age of onset, which can be from birth to the seventh decade, and beyond Salviati et al.

These patients may also be presenting symptoms of myopathy, retinopathy, optic atrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; 3 unexplained ataxia particularly when family history suggests a recessive autosomal heritage; and 4 exercise intolerance appearing from 6 to 33 years of age, with muscular weakness and high serum creatine kinase.

Primary CoQ 10 deficiencies are conditions where pathogenic mutations have occurred in genes involved in the biosynthesis of CoQ 10 Table 1. Table 1. Clinical phenotypes caused by mutations in CoQ synthome and the effect of CoQ 10 therapy in humans. Abnormally low CoQ 10 levels can be associated with mitochondrial pathologies caused by mutations in genes encoding components of the oxidative phosphorylation chain or of other cellular functions not directly associated with mitochondrial function Yubero et al.

Known as secondary CoQ 10 deficiencies, these disorders could represent an adaptive mechanism to bioenergetic requirements. For example, secondary CoQ 10 deficiency can appear in some patients with defects in glucose transport caused by GLUT1 mutations Yubero et al.

A group of patients with very severe neuropathies showed impaired CoQ 10 synthesis, indicating the importance of CoQ 10 homeostasis in human health Asencio et al.

In individuals with primary CoQ 10 deficiency, early treatment with high-dose oral CoQ 10 supplementation improves the pathological phenotype, limits the progression of encephalopathy, and helps recover kidney damage Montini et al.

Onset of renal symptoms in PDSS2 -deficient mice can be prevented with CoQ 10 supplementation Saiki et al. However, patients suffering from secondary CoQ 10 deficiency may fail to respond to CoQ 10 supplementation Pineda et al.

A significant reduction in the rate of CoQ biosynthesis has been proposed to occur during the aging process and aging-associated diseases Beyer et al. However, there are discrepancies about the relationship between the levels of CoQ and the progression of aging.

However, other in vivo studies have reported a direct association between longevity and mitochondrial levels of CoQ in the Samp1 model of senescence-accelerated mice Tian et al.

Supplementation with ubiquinol has been shown to activate mechanisms controlling mitochondrial biogenesis Schmelzer et al.

The concentrations of CoQ 10 in the plasma of elderly people are positively correlated with levels of physical activity and cholesterol concentrations Del Pozo-Cruz et al. Older individuals given a combination of selenium and CoQ 10 over a 4-year period reported an improvement in vitality, physical performance, and quality of life Johansson et al.

Furthermore, CoQ 10 supplementation confers health benefits in elderly people by preventing chronic oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases Gonzalez-Guardia et al.

Despite these evidences, more reliable clinical trials focusing on the elderly are needed before considering CoQ 10 as an effective anti-aging therapy Varela-Lopez et al. CoQ 10 has been used in the treatment of a number of human pathologies and disorders. Clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses have examined the safety and efficacy of CoQ 10 in treating human diseases.

As indicated below, prudence is needed when interpreting the results of several clinical trials. A combination of factors including the small number of trials, substantial differences that exist in the experimental designs, dose and duration of treatment, the number of patients enrolled, and the relative short follow-up periods contribute to apparent inconsistencies in the published data.

Despite these limitations, CoQ 10 can be considered as an important coadjuvant in the treatment of different diseases, especially in chronic conditions affecting the elderly. The number of deaths attributed to heart failure is increasing worldwide and has become a global health issue.

Heart failure is accompanied by increased ROS formation, which can be attenuated with antioxidants. A systematic review has recently examined the efficacy of CoQ 10 supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease CVD without lifestyle intervention Flowers et al. These authors interpreted the results to indicate a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure without improvements in other CVD risk factors, such as diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL- and high-density lipoprotein HDL -cholesterol, and triglycerides.

A second meta-analysis explored the impact of CoQ 10 in the prevention of complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and the results showed that CoQ 10 therapy lowers the need of inotropic drugs and reduces the appearance of ventricular arrhythmias after surgery de Frutos et al.

Short-term daily treatment 12 weeks or less with mg CoQ 10 improves left ventricular ejection fraction in patients suffering from heart failure Fotino et al. In contrast, no effect of CoQ 10 was observed on left ventricular ejection fraction or exercise capacity in patients with heart failure Madmani et al.

CoQ 10 has been proposed for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes by virtue of its antioxidant properties. However, analysis of more than seven trials involving participants showed that CoQ 10 supplementation for at least 12 weeks had no significant effects on glycemic control, lipid profile, or blood pressure in diabetic patients, but was able to reduce serum triglycerides levels Suksomboon et al.

In a follow-up analysis of data obtained from Q-SYMBIO clinical trials Mortensen et al. Supplementation with CoQ 10 has produced beneficial effects in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia by initiating changes in blood lipid concentration.

A combination of CoQ 10 with red yeast rice, berberina, policosanol, astaxanthin, and folic acid significantly decreased total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose in the blood while increasing HDL-cholesterol levels Pirro et al.

However, the impact of CoQ 10 alone without the other supplements was not directly assessed. Nevertheless, there are reports to suggest that CoQ 10 is very effective in reducing serum triglycerides levels Suksomboon et al. Chronic treatment with statins is associated with myopathy Law and Rudnicka,a side-effect representing a broad clinical spectrum of disorders largely associated with a decrease in CoQ 10 levels and selenoprotein activity Thompson et al.

Statins impair skeletal muscle and myocardial bioenergetics Littarru and Langsjoen, via inhibition of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway implicated in cholesterol and CoQ biosynthesis, and reduction in mitochondrial complex III activity of the electron transport chain Schirris et al.

A total of 60 patients suffering from statin-associated myopathy were enrolled in a 3-month study to test for efficacy of CoQ 10 and selenium treatment. A consistent reduction in their symptoms, including muscle pain, weakness, cramps, and fatigue was observed, suggesting an attenuation of the side-effects of chronic statin treatment following CoQ 10 supplementation Fedacko et al.

In a previous study, however, 44 patients suffering from statin-induced myalgia saw no improvement in their conditions after receiving CoQ 10 for 3 months Young et al. Other studies have determined that CoQ 10 supplementation improves endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients treated with statins Hamilton et al.

Oxidative stress plays an essential role in diabetic kidney disease, and experiments performed on rats showed a promising protective effect of ubiquinol in the kidneys Ishikawa et al.

However, a meta-analysis study examining the efficiency of antioxidants on the initiation and progression of diabetic kidney disease revealed that antioxidants, including CoQ 10did not have reliable effects against this disease Bolignano et al.

Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with many age-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic kidney disease. A recent meta-analysis explored the efficacy of CoQ 10 on the plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-α in patients afflicted with pathologies in which inflammation was a common factor including cardio-cerebral vascular disease, multiple sclerosis, obesity, renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and fatty liver disease Fan et al.

The authors also surmised that CoQ 10 supplementation decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory markers in the elderly with low CoQ 10 levels Fan et al. Metabolic diseases, characterized by chronic, low grade inflammation, respond well to CoQ 10 supplementation with significant decrease in TNF-α plasma levels without having an effect on C-reactive protein and IL-6 production Zhai et al.

More recently, CoQ 10 has been found to markedly attenuate the elevated expression of inflammatory and thrombotic risk markers in monocytes of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, thereby improving endothelial function and mitochondrial activity in these patients Perez-Sanchez et al.

A proinflammatory profile has also been associated with the progression of neurological symptoms in Down syndrome patients Wilcock and Griffin, These patients have low CoQ 10 plasma levels together with high plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α Zaki et al.

Supplementation with CoQ 10 confers protection against the progression of oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in Down syndrome patients Tiano and Busciglio, ; Tiano et al. Preclinical studies demonstrated that CoQ can preserve mitochondrial function and reduce the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the case of Parkinson's disease Schulz and Beal, Experimental studies in animal models suggest that CoQ 10 may protect against neuronal damage caused by ischemia, atherosclerosis, and toxic injury Ishrat et al.

Further, a screening for oxidative stress markers in patients with Parkinson's disease reported lower levels of CoQ 10 and α-tocopherol and higher levels of lipoprotein oxidation in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid compared to non-affected individuals Buhmann et al.

Moreover, CoQ 10 deficiency was observed at a higher frequency in Parkinson's disease, underscoring its utility as a peripheral biomarker Mischley et al.

For this reason, it has been suggested that CoQ 10 supplementation could benefit patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases.

: Coenzyme Q and aging

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In those with age-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and skin aging, lower levels have been seen [ 3 ]. The study suggests that maintaining sufficient levels can aid in healthy aging and reduce the impact of age-related health concerns.

Supplementing has drawn interest due to its possible impact on aging. According to research, taking coq10 supplements may benefit your general health and reduce the effects of aging. Coq10 is essential for mitochondrial function because it increases the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate ATP , the cellular energy currency.

Age-related changes in mitochondrial activity often result in decreased energy output and cellular viability. An important factor in aging and age-related disorders is oxidative stress, which is brought on by an imbalance between dangerous free radicals and antioxidant defenses.

Strong antioxidants work to scavenge free radicals and lessen oxidative stress. Supplementation may help maintain cellular integrity, slow aging, and lower the risk of age-related disorders by minimizing oxidative damage to cellular components. An increased risk of cardiovascular illnesses commonly coexists with aging.

It promotes heart health by increasing the energy generation of cardiac cells, lowering oxidative stress and boosting blood vessel function. Supplements may help maintain healthy blood pressure, preserve good cardiovascular function and lower the risk of developing aging-related cardiovascular diseases.

The potential benefits of supplementation for promoting brain health and preventing neurodegenerative diseases have been demonstrated. It can boost brain cell mitochondrial activity, lessen oxidative stress and improve cognitive performance. Coq10 is essential for preserving the health and look of young skin.

It promotes collagen synthesis, offers UV protection and lessens oxidative stress in the skin. People who use coq10 supplements may notice better skin elasticity, fewer wrinkles, and a youthful appearance.

Coenzyme q10 can be a helpful addition to your anti-aging routine to enhance overall vitality and fight the effects of aging.

Here are some beneficial tips for adding it to your daily routine:. Speaking with a healthcare provider before beginning any new supplement is essential, especially if you have underlying medical issues or are on medication.

They may evaluate your particular requirements, provide tailored recommendations, and determine the best dosage for you. CoQ10 supplements come in several forms, including tablets, soft gels, and capsules. Consider choosing one that fits your preferences, and ask a healthcare expert for advice.

Include coq10 in your daily routine to make it a regular component of your anti-aging program. Establish a regular time of day to take this supplement so it becomes a simple habit to remember and maintain.

The benefits of coq10 supplementation must be weighed against the importance of a diet full of whole foods. Include lean proteins, healthy fats, antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins in your meals [ 5 ].

This can enhance coq10 benefits and aid in all anti-aging initiatives. Healthy aging is facilitated by regular exercise, stress reduction strategies, appropriate rest and abstinence from unhealthy behaviors like smoking and binge drinking.

After adding coq10 to your regimen, pay close attention to any alterations or gains you observe. Keep a journal of your feelings, your level of energy and any particular alterations in your skin, brain function or general well-being.

The effectiveness of coq10 for you personally may be determined with the assistance of this self-awareness. It is a supplement that has the ability to strengthen mitochondrial function, improve cellular energy generation, lessen oxidative stress and advance general vitality. However, it is essential to get the advice of a medical expert before beginning any new supplement and to include coq10 as part of a comprehensive strategy for healthy aging, including a balanced diet, regular exercise and stress management.

You may successfully include coq10 into your anti-aging regimen and assist your journey towards a bright and young life by considering individual demands and adhering to professional advice.

Coenzyme Q10 slows down the aging process by lowering oxidative stress and shielding cells from harm. Additionally, it helps mitochondrial activity, which improves cellular energy generation and slows aging-related decreases.

It helps to stop the aging process by reducing oxidative stress and boosting cellular vigor. Taking Coenzyme Q10 supplements may make you seem younger. Its antioxidant qualities may improve skin health and lessen the outward indications of aging by protecting against free radical damage to the skin and lowering oxidative stress.

Including coq10 in your routine has the potential to enhance a more youthful appearance, however, individual effects may vary. Supplementing with coenzyme q10 may assist with wrinkles.

It is a potent antioxidant that helps lessen oxidative stress and guard against skin damage, both of which can hasten the development of wrinkles. Supplementation could improve the look of wrinkles by promoting skin health and minimizing aging symptoms.

The Ultimate NMN Guide Discover the groundbreaking secrets to longevity and vitality in our brand new NMN guide. Enter you email address Required. News Investor Portal Lifestyle Videos. Search for: Search. More Contact Features. Home Supplements Self-testing Exercise Nutrition Tech Mental wellness Product reviews.

How does coenzyme q10 slow down the aging process? Author: Kyle Umipig Published on: July 21, Last updated: August 15, Provides superior absorption rate, up to 8x greater than ubiquinone.

Softgels contain no preservatives, artificial flavors, sweeteners, starch, milk, lactose, gluten, sugar, yeast, fish, or wheat. Contains mg Enhanced Bioactivity CoQ The amount of CoQ10 found in these dietary sources, however, isn't enough to significantly increase CoQ10 levels in your body.

CoQ10 dietary supplements are available as capsules, chewable tablets, liquid syrups, wafers and by IV. CoQ10 might help prevent or treat certain heart conditions, as well as migraine headaches. Research on CoQ10 use for specific conditions and activities shows:. CoQ10 supplements might be beneficial for treating conditions such as congestive heart failure and preventing migraines.

CoQ10 is considered safe, with few side effects. However, be sure to take this supplement under your doctor's supervision.

CoQ10 supplements appear to be safe and to produce few side effects when taken as directed. The safety of use of CoQ10 during pregnancy and breast-feeding hasn't been established.

Don't use CoQ10 if you're pregnant or breast-feeding without your doctor's approval. There is a problem with information submitted for this request. Sign up for free and stay up to date on research advancements, health tips, current health topics, and expertise on managing health.

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Request Appointment. Coenzyme Q Products and services. Coenzyme Q10 By Mayo Clinic Staff. Thank you for subscribing! Sorry something went wrong with your subscription Please, try again in a couple of minutes Retry. Show references Coenzyme Q National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.

Accessed Oct. Pizzorono JE, et al. In: Textbook of Natural Medicine. Elsevier; Coenzyme Q10 PDQ -Health Professional Version.

National Cancer Institute. IBM Micromedex. Dluda PV, et al. The impact of coenzyme Q10 on metabolic and cardiovascular disease profiles in diabetic patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism.

Goudarzi S, et al.

The Evidence Behind Resveratrol and CoQ10's Effects on Aging The Aging Process and Coenzyme Q: Clk-1 Mouse Models Mayumi Takahashi, Kazuhide Takahashi, Takuji Shirasawa Pages search Search by keyword or author Search. Iskandarsyah, I. Klopfleisch, R. Biochemical assessment of coenzyme Q 10 deficiency. Cerebellum Ataxias. J Am Coll Cardiol.
Coenzyme Q in Aging Article Electrolyte balance control PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Heart sging caused by chemotherapy Several aginb studies suggest that CoQ10 may ajd prevent Powerful thermogenic effects damage caused by certain Coenzyme Q and aging drugs, adriamycin, sging other ane medications. Toggle menu Go to search Healthy snack alternatives. Plasma Coenzume Q 10 concentration one agibg after angioplasty was positively correlated with less inflammation and oxidative stress and predicted favorable left ventricular end-systolic volume remodeling at six months Meanwhile, the CoQ10 dissolved in oleic acid CoQOle emulgel had an odorless, jelly-like consistency and was bright orange in color. Studies in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, an animal model of atherosclerosis, found that coenzyme Q 10 supplementation with supra- pharmacological amounts of coenzyme Q 10 inhibited lipoprotein oxidation in the blood vessel wall and the formation of atherosclerotic lesions All living things, including people, experience the natural and unavoidable process of aging.
Improving the anti-ageing activity of coenzyme Q10 through protransfersome-loaded emulgel Primary and secondary coenzyme Q10 deficiency: the role of therapeutic supplementation. Article Contents Abstract. Schapira AHV Respiratory chain abnormalities in human disease. Coenzyme Q10 for patients with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The lysosomal membranes that separate those digestive enzymes from the rest of the cell contain relatively high concentrations of coenzyme Q Yakugaku Zasshi.
Coenzyme Q10 is an enzyme related to energy metabolism

CoQ10 was initially dissolved in oleic acid at a weight ratio of Protransfersome was then loaded with CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ10 and prepared using a composition of L-α-Phosphatidylcholine and Tween 80 at a molar ratio of The Protransf-CoQ10 was dispersed in an emulgel base consisting of Tween 80 and Span 80 to produce Protransf-CoQ10 emulgel.

The results showed that Protransf-CoQ10 could transform into transfersomal vesicles with particle sizes of approximately The dispersion of Protransf-CoQ10 into emulgel base resulted in stable Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel during 28 days of observation at low temperatures.

Moreover, the in vivo study revealed that Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel successfully increases the collagen density and number of fibroblast cells in UV radiation skin-aged induced-mice which reflects its potential for repairing the skin ageing process.

In addition, the h topical application of Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel showed that no erythema or skin rash was observed during the study. In conclusion, loading CoQ10 into protransfersomal Emulgel successfully enhanced the stability and anti-ageing efficacy enabling its potential use as anti-ageing cosmetics.

Premature skin ageing occurs because the skin, as the outermost organ, is always directly exposured to oxidants in the environment and is frequently a determining factor in social life.

In addition, with increasing age, the activity of mitochondria in the body as a producer of energy in regenerating cells and tissues decreases 1. Both these internal and external factors cause impaired tissue function and structural changes 2 culminating in skin ageing characterized by thinning of the epidermis and skin dermis and, ultimately, resulting in wrinkles, fine facial lines, and loss of elasticity 3 , 4.

Skin elasticity is largely dependent upon young collagen fibers and fibroblasts, collagen-producing cells in the dermis layer, whose numbers decrease during the ageing process 5.

Anti-ageing cosmetics have been widely used to promote skin regeneration, especially of the upper skin layers which protect the skin against dehydration, penetration by various microorganisms, allergens, irritants, reactive oxygen species ROS and radiation, thereby maintaining healthy skin 6.

Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 is one of the natural compounds often employed as an antioxidant, which plays a key role in stabilizing plasma and other intracellular membranes that protect against membrane phospholipid peroxidation 7.

CoQ10 acts by maintaining skin quality against free radicals 3 which have been known to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK pathway that produces matrix metalloproteinases MMPs such as collagenase, thus damaging collagen fibers 8 , 9 , During ageing, the levels of CoQ10 in organs, including the skin, also decrease with the result that it is necessary to supply CoQ10 to achieve normal levels of between 0.

Topical administration of CoQ10 has been shown to be effective in reducing wrinkles in skin that has been exposed to UV rays 3.

CoQ10 demonstrates low solubility in water 0. This limits its penetration of the skin and explains it tendancy to be deposited in the stratum corneum 11 , Moreover, CoQ10 decomposes when exposed to light Loading CoQ10 into protransfersome, a vesicular carrier would probably constitute an effective strategy to enhance its biological activity within the skin in addition to increasing its stability.

Protransfersome, one of the provesicular nanocarriers that provides superior skin penetration and high stability, is widely used in transdermal delivery It possesses a flattened liquid crystal structure which is converted into an ultraflexible vesicle known as transfersome through the absorption of water from the skin during in situ hydration 15 , 16 , Transfersome is known to be an ultradeformable vesicle which is highly flexible and deformable, rendering it capable of passing through three skin penetration pathways Transfersome can rapidly penetrate the stratum corneum and enter the deeper skin layers via the intercellular lipid of the stratum corneum.

It can fuse with the cell membrane, enabling it to enter the transcellular pathway, and is able to penetrate intact through the hair follicle pathway to penetrate the deeper layers of the skin 19 , 20 , Protransfersome is composed of amphiphatic lipid components such as phosphatidylcholine which, significantly, form double-layer membrane of vesicles, and surfactant as an edge activator that increases the vesicle flexibility or deformability In general, protransfersome contains a larger number of phospholipids than that present in transfersomes.

During the manufacturing process, the protransfersome does not undergo an extrusion process to produce unilamellar vesicles as observed in the transfersome.

This is because the protransfersome is a provesicular carrier system which will be converted into transfersome after it comes into contact with water in situ Therefore, under a light microscope, the protransfersome can be seen to possess a palisade crystalline liquid form, whereas transfersomes are vesicular when in liquid media Moreover, it is well distributed within the skin layer and in vitro tests have proved it biocompatible with keratinocytes and fibroblasts, indicating its protective effect against oxidative damage and the potential for wound healing Previous reports have evaluated the use of nanocarriers for CoQ10 delivery such as a self-emulsifying drug delivery system SEDDS 26 , ethosomes 27 , transethosomes 28 , and microemulsion The low water solubility of CoQ10 frequently limits drug encapsulation efficiency in nanocarriers, thus the use of large amounts of lipid phase or ethanol may improve its loading.

In this study, a protransfersome containing CoQ10 will be prepared for anti-ageing emulgel. The high level of phospholipids contained in protransfersome is intended to improve drug loading. The use of protransfersome in the anti-ageing activity and irritation level of Protransf-CoQ10 emulgel was evaluated in vivo using UV-induced aged mice models.

This study could represent an attempt to improve CoQ10 anti-ageing activity with the result that is effective, safe and non-irritating. This study aims to evaluate the potential use of protransfersome for topical delivery of CoQ10 as an anti-ageing agent.

This study provides a scientific approach to successfully delivering low water solubility and poor permeable lipophilic substances and nanovesicular carriers specifically designed for anti-ageing cosmetics. The CoQ10 was loaded into protransfersomal emulgel composed of oleic acid containing soluble CoQ10, phospholipids as bilayer-forming lipids, and Tween 80 which acts as the edge activator of bilayer membrane after the protransfersome has been hydrated with skin water in situ, before being loaded into an emulgel base.

There were improvements in stability and potential efficacy to inhibit premature ageing of the skin in UV-radiation skin aged-induced mice models as demonstrated in this study. After dissolving the CoQ10 in oleic acid and encapsulated it into protransfersomes composed of phospholipids and Tween 80, the protransfersome-loaded CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ10 forms a bright orange, viscous, oily liquid, with a distinctive phospholipid smell, and viscous consistency.

After hydration with saline, lamellar vesicular structures rapidly formed and were ultimately transformed into transfersome vesicles, as shown in Fig.

The dispersion of Protransf-CoQ10 into the emulgel base Fig. CoQ10 dissolved in oleic acid CoQOle was in the form of a bright orange odorless emulgel Fig.

The darkening color of Protransf-CoQ10 emulgel probably due to large amount of L-α-Phosphatidylcholine content of which is dark yellow in color 30 and easily oxidized when it is exposed to air in for lengthy periods 31 , Visual appearance of protransfersomal CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ10 A , emulgel base B , protransfesomal CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel C , CoQ10 dissolved in oleic acid CoQOle Emulgel D , and CoQ10 loaded in emulgel CoQ10 Emulgel E.

The Intensity distribution of particle of protransfesomal CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel F , CoQ10 dissolved in oleic acid CoQOle Emulgel G , and CoQ10 loaded in emulgel CoQ10 Emulgel H. The particle size and polydispersity index value were further evaluated since they determine the ability of the vesicles to penetrate the deeper layers of the skin.

The smaller the particle size of the vesicles, the easier the vesicles are to penetrate. In addition, the smaller the polydispersity index value, the more homogeneous the particle size of the vesicles 17 , thus ensuring that a larger number of vesicles penetrate the skin.

From the results, it is evident that the entrapment efficiency value of the CoQ10 in Protransf-CoQ10 is comparatively high at The manual shaking method of 5 min duration was reflective of the real situation in which protransfersomes change into transfersomes.

The Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel had the smallest particle size compared to both CoQOle Emulgel and CoQ10 Emulgel, which were The polydispersity index values for Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel, CoQOle Emulgel, and CoQ10 Emulgel were 0. In order to evaluate any interaction between CoQ10 and protransfersomal matrix, a Fourier Transform Infra Red FTIR analysis was further observed.

As presented in Fig. This result indicates that CoQ10 successfully encapsulated protransfersome and no chemical interaction between the mixtures occurred 33 , 34 , Fourier-transform infrared spectra of Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 , Blank protransfersome, and protransfersome loaded CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ Moreover, according to the result of differential thermal analysis, the CoQ10 encapsulation into protransfersome produced changes in the structure of cristallinity.

CoQ10 and L-α-Phosphatidylcholine showed sharp endothermic peaks at Differential thermal analysis of Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 , L-α-Phosphatidylcholine as phospholipid component of protransfersome, and protransfersome loaded CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ A physical stability test was subsequently carried out to determine the physical resistance of the system when stored at different temperatures, namely; room temperature and a lower temperature for 28 days.

During the study, the parameters of particle size, polydispersity index, and pH were observed. As seen from Fig. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in the pH during the same period, although the pH value remained within the pH range of the skin. No significant difference existed in the particle size or particle size distribution of the preparation after 28 days of storage.

To evaluate the ability of protransfersomes to topically deliver CoQ10 and produce an effective anti-ageing activity, the Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel was topically applied for 14 days to the back skin of UV-rays-induced subjects who were subsequently observed for skin histopathology.

The control group subjects which received UV rays had the lowest collagen density of However, there was no significant difference between these groups. The use of protransfersomes successfully delivered CoQ10 providing protection against skin damage and repaired that resulting from exposure to UV rays.

The anti-ageing activity test result was further analyzed by observing the number of fibroblast cells capable of producing collagen. Therefore, the higher the number of fibroblasts, the more collagen was formed.

In this study, the assessed fibroblasts were young and light purple in appearance. The results showed that the CoQ10 Emulgel had a significantly different number of fibroblasts compared to the control group, with pro-CoQ10 Emulgel producing the highest number of fibroblasts, which was This shows that protransfersomes delivering CoQ10 successfully increase the number of fibroblasts.

The number of fibroblasts of mice back skin without and with UV-induced photoageing after topically applied with saline Normal skin and UV-induced skin , CoQloaded Emulgel, CoQ10 dissolved in oleic acid CoQOle Emulgel, and protransfesomal CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel once every 2 days for 2 weeks.

The safe use of Protransfersome-loaded emulgels in this study was also evaluated by conducting an in vivo irritation test. For further evaluation of severity level of skin irritation, scoring was then determined for each group. The histopathology of mice back skin stained with hematoxylin—eosin without and with UV-induced photoageing at 24 h after topically applied with saline Normal skin and UV-induced skin , CoQloaded Emulgel, CoQ10 dissolved in oleic acid CoQOle Emulgel, and protransfesomal CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel.

This result shows that the Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel does not irritate the skin, while the CoQOle Emulgel induced mild irritation due to the nature of oleic acid.

According to the Kruskall Wallis statistical test results, there was no significant difference between these emulgel preparations. The scoring results of histopathology of mice back skin s without and with UV-induced photoageing at 24 h after topically applied with saline Normal skin and UV-induced skin , CoQloaded Emulgel, CoQ10 dissolved in oleic acid CoQOle Emulgel, and protransfesomal CoQ10 Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel.

In this study, the Protransfersomes and Protransfersomal emulgel preparations for CoQ10 delivery as the active cosmetic ingredient have the potential to inhibit premature ageing of the skin. The main purpose of protransfersome formulation is to significantly encapsulate CoQ10 in order to modify the physicochemical characteristics of CoQ10, rendering it more water dispersible and able to penetrate the skin since high lipophilic CoQ10 demonstrates low water solubility and poor skin penetration.

Therefore, it was added to emulgel to increase its appropriateness for use. As far as the functional aspects of vesicles are concerned, the formation of transfersome due to hydration of protransfersome by water content in the emulgel base produces ultra-deformable vesicles which allow them to easily penetrate the skin.

In addition, previous reports showed that the presence of a gelling agent would act as a steric hindrance which would be adsorbed onto the vesicle surface preventing fusion or aggregation, thus increasing physical stability during storage 36 , The addition of lipid vesicles to gel is beneficial for increasing vesicle stability, prolonging drug release, improving dermal permeability, and enhancing drug deposition in the skin Protransfersomes have been developed as the nanometer-sized carrier form of transfersome provesicles and have a higher phospholipid content compared to transfersomes.

This enables the protransfersome system to demonstrate greater entrapment efficiency due to a higher number of vesicles formed that are subsequently available for encapsulating drugs, thus providing high stability when compared to the transfersome system Protransfersomes are able to carry active ingredients through the skin pores into the deeper layer.

The protransfersome system analyzed in this study has positive characteristics including nanometer size, and thick consistency resulting from its large phospholipid content.

When the protransfersome is observed using a light microscope, a palisade lamellar structure appears in the form of liquid crystals. This is due to differences in the degree of hydration of surfactants and phospholipid molecules triggered by solvent limitations.

The protransfersome forms as a mixture of flat liquid crystals resembling palisade and vesicular lamellae linked together To improve acceptability, the protransfersome was formulated as an emulgel preparation incorporating the use of an emulgel as the gel base. In this study, three types of emulgels were developed and evaluated for their anti-ageing and irritability activity, namely; Protransf-CoQ10 emulgel, emulgel loaded CoQ10 which was previously dissolved in oleic acid CoQOle emulgel and CoQ10 dispersed in an emulgel base CoQ10 emulgel.

During the homogenization method for preparing necessary samples the particle size test involves manual shaking which is considered to closely replicate real-life conditions. The particle size of the emulgel loaded Co-Q10 remained in the nanometer range, indicating that adding emulgel base to the particle size of Protransf-CoQ10 had no effect.

The particle size of Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel is smaller than that of Protransf-CoQ10 itself. This indicates that the particles have turned into transfersome vesicles because they have been partially hydrated by the presence of water in the emulgel base.

The decreased vesicle size of protransfersomal CoQ10 after dispersion into the emulgel base is probably due to the shearing stress that occurs during the incorporation of Protransf-CoQ10 into hydrated Carbopol-based emulgel.

This causes the small vesicles formed and the emulgel matrix to be adsorbed onto the vesicle surface, preventing vesicle fusion or aggregation 36 , 37 , while spontaneous hydration of protransfersome produces larger vesicles than those resulting from dispersion into emulgel.

When compared to the particle sizes of CoQOle Emulgel and Co-Q10 Emulgel, those of all three emulgels-loaded CoQ10s can be measured in nanometers. Co-Q10 Emulgel is the largest in size because CoQ10 is only dispersed in the emulgel base, while Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel and CoQOle Emulgel had similar particle size and PDI probably due to CoQ10 solubility in Oleic Acid for both formulas From the results of the polydispersity index, it is evident that all particles have a uniform size distribution.

This indicates that the preparation will be stable during storage because it reduces the tendency for particle aggregation which causes the system to become unstable. A test was carried out to determine the physical stability of Protransf-CoQ10 emulgel when stored at different temperatures, namely; room temperature and colder temperatures for 28 days and whether differences in particle size, polydispersity index, and pH existed.

There was no significant difference in particle size, polydispersity index, and pH of Protransf-CoQ10 emulgel during the study period. The results of the anti-ageing activity of CoQ10 loaded in emulgel and evaluated for skin collagen density confirmed CoQOle Emulgel as having the highest percentage of collagen density, followed by Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel.

These two groups demonstrated significant improvement in collagen density compared with the control group whose subjects had been exposed to UV and who recorded the lowest density value.

This is probably due to soluble CoQ10 in Oleic Acid loaded into emulgel had been easily released from emulgel than that of Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel, which the formation of vesicle during hydration results in semipermeable bilayer membrane as water diffusion-limiting barriers for CoQ10 release.

The low collagen density has been known caused by imbalance between collagen synthesis by fibroblasts and collagen degradation of UV irradiation, while collagen synthesis is proportionally relate to fibroblasts resident Moreover, collagen synthesis by fibroblast will actively occur on the 4th day of 21 days The faster CoQ10 release from CoQ10 Ole Emulgel will stimulates fibroblast proliferation which increase expression of collagen matrix 46 , while the late CoQ10 release from Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel will result in delayed effects on fibroblast-stimulated collagen synthesis.

On the other hand, the Co-Q10 Emulgel-treated group had similar collagen density to that of normal mice, indicating that UV light damages collagen in the skin dermis. CoQ10 also promotes the fibroblast proliferation However, it seems that the fibroblast stimulation process to produce collagen matrix between normal and CoQtreated groups is different.

This situation differed from that of the group treated with CoQ10 in the emulgels. From these results, it can be concluded that CoQ10 provides protection against the ageing effects of UV rays. The anti-ageing activity test was further evaluated for the number of fibroblasts in the skin tissues.

Fibroblasts are cells capable of producing collagen. In this case, the assessed fibroblasts were young and light purple in color. The higher the number of fibroblasts, the more collagen was formed. The results showed that the CoQ10 emulgels had a significantly different number of fibroblasts compared to the control group, with the Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel having the highest number, which was This indicates that CoQ10 is able to increase the number of fibroblasts.

The safety of these anti-ageing emulgels was further evaluated by an irritancy test. The results indicated that the Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel produced no signs of irritation in the skin tissues observed, while the CoQOle Emulgel induced mild skin irritation due to the nature of oleic acid.

Protransf-CoQ10 Emulgel has potential as an anti-aging product. However, information is lacking about both the drug release profile and its dermal penetrability which supports the theory that protransfersome and its incorporation into emulgel could prove a useful model for developing skin anti-aging cosmetics.

Moreover, both the ability of protransfersome and protransfersomal emulgel to maintain drug stability and the physicochemical properties of the forms of skin dosage need to be evaluated for drug levels during study periods in line with ICH guidelines. Therefore, the product development involved could be comprehensively analyzed.

The results of this study indicate that emulgel-loaded protransfersomes, employed as delivery carriers of CoQ10, possess positive physical properties, thereby increasing anti-ageing activity with a low skin irritancy score. Proposing the incorporation of protransfersomal emulgel into cosmetics requires further studies especially on the acceptability test in humans and stability tests for longer storage times.

From the results of this study, although the primary nature of CoQ10 severely limits its skin delivery, protransfersome provides potential benefits when used as a delivery system for active cosmetic ingredients within skin ageing therapy.

In this study Coenzym Q10 CoQ10 was obtained from Kangcare Bioindustry Co. Nanjing, China. L-α-Phosphatidylcholine is a product of Sigma-Aldrich Buchs, Switzerland. Tween 80 and Span 80 were both purchased from Enviro Prima Co. Tangerang, Indonesia.

The oleic acid used in this study was acquired from Brataco Co. Surabaya, Indonesia. All other reagents were of the available pharmaceutical and analytical grades.

The protransfersome was composed of L-α-Phosphatidylcholine, Oleic Acid, and Tween 80 as shown in Table 2 and prepared with modifications by the method previously reported by Gupta Initially, CoQ10 was stirred until completely dissolved in a mixture of oleic acid and Tween Finally, L-α-Phosphatidylcholine was added and stirred until dissolved to produce Protransf-CoQ The emulgel base was produced using Carbopol added to a combination of Tween 80 and Span 80 to form a homogenous emulgel base with the addition of Triethylamine TEA to adjust the pH to 6.

Protransf-CoQ10, CoQ10 solution in oleic acid, and CoQ10 powder were subsequently added to this emulgel base and mixed homogenously to produce Protransf-CoQ10 emulgel, CoQOle emulgel, and CoQ10 emulgel, respectively.

The evaluation of physical characteristics includes particle size, polydispersity index, ζ-potential, microscopic observation, entrapment efficiency, and physical stability during storage.

The dispersion of Protransf-CoQ10 into an emulgel base at a weight ratio of produced Protransf-CoQ10 emulgel whose color changes to brownish orange and the reduction on its pungent odor.

Meanwhile, the CoQ10 dissolved in oleic acid CoQOle emulgel had an odorless, jelly-like consistency and was bright orange in color. These characteristics were identical to those of CoQ10 emulgel, although the latter had a more transparent appearance due to the absence of oleic acid from the formula.

Approximately 50 mg of CoQloaded protransfersome and emulgels were resuspended in 5 mL of 0. The samples were then prepared using the manual shaking method for 5 min The suspension was further diluted by pipetting μL of sample and added with 2 mL of deionized water Otsuka Indonesia, Lawang, Indonesia for sample measurement.

The Protransf-CoQ10 was observed microscopically to evaluate its transformation ability in relation to transfersome vesicles by placing a small amount of sample on a glass slide and covering it with a cover glass. A drop of 0. The evaluation was conducted using an optical microscope before, during, and after addition of 0.

Approximately mg of Protransf-CoQ10 was weighed, and then hydrated with 2 mL phosphate buffered saline PBS pH 7. Lee BJ, Tseng YF, Yen CH, Lin PT. Nutr J. Levy G, Kaufmann P, Buchsbaum R, et al. Madmani ME, Yusuf Solaiman A, Tamr Agha K, et al.

Coenzyme Q10 for heart failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. McCarty MF. Toward practical prevention of type 2 diabetes. Med Hypotheses. Nahas R. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches to blood pressure reduction: An evidence-based review. Can Fam Physician. Ochiai A, Itagaki S, Kurokawa T, Kobayashi M, Hirano T, Iseki K.

Improvement in intestinal coenzyme q10 absorption by food intake. Yakugaku Zasshi. Ostrowski RP. Effect of coenzyme Q 10 on biochemical and morphological changes in experimental ischemia in the rat brain.

Brain Res Bull. Palan PR, Connell K, Ramirez E, Inegbenijie C, Gavara RY, Ouseph JA, Mikhail MS. Effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy on serum levels of coenzyme Q10 and other lipid-soluble antioxidants. Quinzii CM, Dimauro S, Hirano M.

Human coenzyme q 10 deficiency. Neurochem Res. Raitakari OT, McCredie RJ, Witting P, Griffiths KA, Letter J, Sullivan D, Stocker R, Celermajer DS. Coenzyme Q improves LDL resistance to ex vivo oxidation but does not enhance endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic young adults. Free Radic Biol Med.

Rakel D. Rakel: Integrative Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; Rosenfeldt FL, Haas SJ, Krum H, Hadj A, Ng K, Leong JY, Watts GF. Conenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials.

J Hum Hypertens. Rosenfeldt F, Hilton D, Pepe S, Krum H. Systematic review of effect of coenzyme Q10 in physical exercise, hypertension and heart failure. Salles JE, Moises VA, Almeida DR, Chacra AR, Moises RS. Myocardial dysfunction in mitochondrial diabetes treated with Coenzyme Q Diabetes Res Clin Pract.

Sander S, Coleman CI, Patel AA, Kluger J, White CM. The impact of coenzyme Q10 on systolic function in patients with chronic heart failure. J Card Fail. Shults CW, Haas R. Clinical trials of coenzyme Q10 in neurological disorders. Shults CW. Therapeutic role of coenzyme Q 10 in Parkinson's disease.

Pharmacol Ther. Singh U, Devaraj S, Jialal I. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation and heart failure. Nutr Rev. Spigset O. Reduced effect of warfarin caused by ubidecarenone. Torkos S. Drug-nutrient interactions: A focus on cholesterol-lowering agents.

Int J Integrative Med. Watson PS, Scalia GM, Galbraith A, et al. Lack of effect of coenzyme Q on left ventricular function in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. Weant KA, Smith KM. The role of coenzyme Q10 in heart failure.

Ann Pharmacother. Witte KK, Clark AL, Cleland JG. Chronic heart failure and micronutrients. Share Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email Home Health Library. Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10; Ubiquinone.

Furthermore, CoQ10 works as an antioxidant in both the mitochondria and cell membranes, thereby helping to prevent cellular damage.

Key takeaways: Resveratrol and CoQ10 supplementation extends the life of several organisms, and positively impacts metabolic function in animals. Further research is needed to fully understand the effects of both supplements and their effects on longevity in humans.

Optimal glucose levels are often correlated with a longer lifespan, and multiple studies show that both supplements improve glucose levels. Diana Licalzi, MS, RD Diana is a Content Strategist and Team Nutritionist at InsideTracker.

As a Registered Dietitian and self-proclaimed "biohacker," Diana enjoys researching and testing the latest trends and technology in the field of nutrition and aging. You'll often find Diana , completing a hour fast, conducting self experiments, or uncovering strategies to increase longevity.

Follow her on Instagram at dietitian. References [1] Antihyperglycemic effects of short term resveratrol supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients. Still reduced cardiovascular mortality 12 years after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years: A validation of previous year follow-up results.

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Coenzyme Q and aging -

In both groups, the rats killed at 6 months showed lower hydroperoxide levels than those killed at 12 and 24 months. The value obtained for this parameter at 24 months in PUFA group was similar to that found at 12 months, but in the group supplemented with CoQ 10 this value was smaller.

The hydroperoxide values after in vitro induction of oxidative damage in mitochondria from month-old rats with AAPH are shown in Figure 3. The rats not supplemented with CoQ 10 showed significantly higher values than did supplemented animals.

Animals supplemented with CoQ 10 showed higher values than did the nonsupplemented group at 6 and 12 months. CoQ 9 Table 3 was higher in supplemented animals at 12 and 24 months.

Regarding the aging effect, the PUFA group showed lesser values at 12 months compared to 6 months, and higher values at 24 months compared to 12 months. CoQ 10 Table 3 was higher in the supplemented rats at 12 and 24 months. The aging effect in the PUFA group was observed only at 24 months, registering higher values than those at 6 and 12 months.

For the supplemented group, higher values were found at 12 months compared to 6 months, and at 24 months compared to 6 and 12 months. Both cytosolic antioxidant enzymes Table 4 showed a gradual increase in their activities with age in the two experimental groups, with higher values at 12 months than at 6 months and at 24 months than at 6 and 12 months.

The CoQ 10 -supplemented rats showed higher values at 24 months for catalase and at 6 months for glutathione peroxidase. The concentration of these cytochromes is shown in Table 4.

CCO activity is show in Figure 4. In both groups, the activity of this enzyme showed a gradual decrease with age, with lesser values at 12 months than at 6 months and at 24 months than at 6 and 12 months. The aim of this study was to investigate possible changes during aging in lipid peroxidation and functionality of heart mitochondria, depending on a lifelong supplementation or not with CoQ 10 , in rats fed a diet rich in PUFAs throughout their life.

Thus, we tried to test whether CoQ 10 supplementation might attenuate aging-related oxidative alterations observed in the heart of rats fed a PUFA-rich diet Confirmation of that effect enables the preservation of beneficial aspects of PUFA on health, such as those related to cardiac diseases 6 , 9 , Prior to the analysis of possible effects of CoQ 10 supplementation, it was necessary to assess adaptation of the rats to such supplementation.

In the present study, we found that supplementation led to higher CoQ 10 levels at 12 and 24 months of age in heart mitochondria. Considering that, besides plasma, liver, and spleen, most of the tissues are resistant to increased amounts of coenzyme Q from exogenous sources 26 , we can state that our lifelong supplementation schedule based on a low CoQ 10 concentration 0.

The analysis of hydroperoxide levels as an indicator of lipid peroxidation reveals that, regardless of the dietary manipulation, cardiac mitochondrial lipid peroxidation was higher at 12 and 24 months than at 6 months of life. This result agrees with previously reported data 12 , 27 , 28 , and is consistent with the free radical theory of aging of Harman 1.

However, there were important differences between experimental groups with respect to this parameter. Animals fed a PUFA-rich diet and supplemented throughout life with CoQ 10 0. In addition, although both groups reached the highest hydroperoxide value at 12 months, the nonsupplemented animals maintained this value until 24 months of age, whereas the supplemented animals were able to decrease it significantly.

Thus, at 24 months of age, the supplemented animals reached a hydroperoxide value close to that of nonsupplemented animals at 6 months of life.

There are different ways through which CoQ 10 could be able to cause these differences in hydroperoxide levels, such as changes in the mitochondrial fatty-acid profile and therefore its susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, increasing antioxidant defenses or acting on the free radicals sources.

We have studied, partially, all these ways. It has been shown that modifications of the mitochondrial fatty-acid profile can modulate the susceptibility of the mitochondrial membranes to lipid peroxidation during aging In this sense, administration of CoQ 10 has been shown capable of modifying the phospholipid fatty-acid composition in monocytes and granulocytes However, under our experimental conditions, the study of the mitochondrial fatty-acid profile shows that lifelong CoQ 10 supplementation was not able to modify this parameter significantly.

Both experimental groups registered higher levels of saturated fatty acids associated with age and lower monounsaturated fatty acids. This result agrees with previous data reported by our research group 12 for heart in aged rats fed a PUFA-rich diet.

The enzymatic and nonenzymatic components of the antioxidant system studied followed a similar response in both groups with higher levels related to age except coenzyme Q levels in nonsupplemented animals. Previously, increased cardiac antioxidant levels associated with age have been reported 12 , 29 , It has been postulated that a compensatory antioxidant defense system exists to counteract oxidative stress associated with aging, and therefore some antioxidants would be expected to accumulate, such as α-tocopherol, at the sites in which it is needed Despite the similar pattern followed by both experimental groups with respect to the antioxidant system, there were important differences between them.

For the nonenzymatic antioxidants, α-tocopherol levels were higher, at least at 6 and 12 months of age, in the supplemented animals, and this group also showed a gradual increase associated with age in coenzyme Q content both CoQ 9 and CoQ 10 , whereas the nonsupplemented group showed no age-associated changes in coenzyme Q content.

Results from the present study agree with those of other groups. It is of interest to note that, although our study did not use high CoQ 10 dosages, as other studies 26 , 31 , we found the mentioned increase in α-tocopherol and CoQ 9 concentration. The aforementioned suggest that both acute supplementation of high dosages and chronic administration of low dosages of oQ 10 are able to induce levels of α-tocopherol and CoQ 9.

It is noteworthy that the higher levels of α-tocopherol shown in nonsupplemented month-old animals were not accompanied by a similar pattern in the coenzyme Q contents, and several results indicate that these two lipid-soluble antioxidants are in fact more efficient when acting together Thus, it seems to indicate that old mitochondrial membrane from supplemented animals could be more prepared against oxidative injury than is that from nonsupplemented animals.

To test this hypothesis, we have induced in vitro oxidative stress against these old membranes using the potent free radical generator AAPH. The results indicate that, despite the similar PUFA content of these membranes and hence a theoretically similar susceptibility to oxidative damage , mitochondrial membranes from old supplemented animals registered lower AAPH-induced hydroperoxide values and therefore proved to be more resistant against oxidative damage.

This result is important because one of the problems with aged cardiac mitochondria is that they are more susceptible to oxidative damage and therefore predispose the heart to greater injury during oxidative insults 3.

With respect to enzymatic antioxidants, both showed the highest activities at 24 months, which we believe is due to an increase in free radical generation at this age, because it has been suggested to be the most important factor for the induction of the activities of these enzymatic antioxidants 2.

Increased catalase activity has been associated with greater resistance to oxidative damage 2 , and it has been suggested that catalase can function as a major pathway for detoxifying H 2 O 2 in cardiac tissue With our data alone, it is difficult to ascertain the mechanisms by which CoQ 10 supplementation can increase the activity of this antioxidant enzyme, and thus this issue needs further study.

Nevertheless, it has been showed that CoQ 10 administration was able to increase in mice heart the gene expression of glutathione S -transferase, another element of the antioxidant system family 5. We can not rule out that a similar interaction could exist between CoQ 10 and catalase.

The third possible way by which coenzyme Q could modulate lipid peroxidation levels is by acting on the free radical source, the mitochondrial electron transport chain METC.

Aging has been associated with decay in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity 28 and an increased rate of mitochondrial O 2. Thus, it has been suggested that there could be an obstruction or partial blockage of electron flow through some respiratory complexes associated with age; therefore, a greater number of free radicals could be generated at these sites along the METC 12 , Results related to cytochrome content and CCO activity obtained in our study agree with the aforementioned.

As has been suggested, this situation could give rise to a possible partial blockage of electron flow and therefore higher free radical production. Thus, taking together the fact that the antioxidant enzymes activity increase at 24 months compared with 12 months and the fact that CCO activity was the lowest at the oldest age, despite of the similar hydroperoxides values between the two ages, we can suggest that at 24 months of life the generation of free radicals was higher than at 12 months and therefore the oxidative insult.

In contrast, CoQ 10 supplementation appears to improve these age-associated alterations or changes in the METC. Besides a slight effect on cytochromes content, mostly at 12 months of life, CoQ 10 supplementation can increase CCO activity, with respect to that in nonsupplemented animals, throughout life.

In addition, CoQ 10 supplementation led to a higher content of this molecule and its homologue CoQ 9 at the mitochondrial membrane level nonsupplemented animals did not show this effect. This should be important for the METC function, because, as has been widely reported, under physiological conditions, the mitochondrial concentration of coenzyme Q does not saturate the enzymes that use it as a substrate In conclusion, on the basis of these results we can suggest that previously reported positive effects of CoQ 10 supplementation on mean and maximal life span of rats fed a PUFA-rich diet might be a consequence, at least in part, of a lower oxidative stress level and perhaps, to a minor extent, to a smaller decrease in mitochondrial function.

In addition, these results could lead to a better understanding of the beneficial effects on heart function after administration of CoQ 10 , although investigation of different diets and further studies in humans are still needed to elucidate this protective role of CoQ Decision Editor: James R.

Smith, PhD. Effect of supplementation with coenzyme Q 10 CoQ 10 throughout life on rat weight. Results are mean ± standard error of the mean of 20 animals. a , 12 or 24 months vs 6 months for the same group; b , 24 months vs 12 months for the same group.

Effect of supplementation with coenzyme Q 10 CoQ 10 throughout life on hydroperoxide levels on rat heart mitochondria.

Effect of supplementation with coenzyme Q 10 CoQ 10 throughout life on cytochrome c oxidase activity in rat heart mitochondria. Note : Results represent mean ± standard error of the mean of six samples. Effect of Supplementation With Coenzyme Q 10 CoQ 10 Throughout Life on Rat Heart Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Profile.

Note : Results are mean ± standard error of the mean of 20 animals. Effect of Supplementation With Coenzyme Q 10 CoQ 10 Throughout Life on Rat Heart Mitochondrial Levels of α-Tocopherol, Coenzyme Q 9 , and CoQ 10 , and on Activity of Cytosolic Antioxidant Enzymes, Catalase, and Glutathione Peroxidase.

Notes : Results are mean ± standard error of the mean of 20 animals. We are grateful for financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology grant Ali Ochoa and Dr.

José L. Harman D. Extending functional life span. Exp Gerontol. Beckman KB, Ames BN. The free radical theory of aging matures. Physiol Rev. Lesnefsky EJ, Moghaddas S, Tandler B, Kerner J, Hoppel CL. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac disease: ischemia-reperfusion, aging, and heart failure.

J Mol Cell Cardiol. Salvioli S, Bonafe M, Capri M, Monti D, Franceschi C. Mitochondria, aging and longevity—a new perspective. FEBS Lett. Lee CK, Pugh TD, Klopp RG, et al.

The impact of α-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q 10 , and caloric restriction on life span and gene expression patterns in mice. Free Radic Biol Med. Lakatta EG, Sollott AJ. Mol Interv. Lakatta EG, Levy A. Arterial and cardiac aging: major shareholders in cardiovascular disease enterprises. Part II: Aging heart in health: links to heart disease.

Oxeham H, Sharpe N. Cardiovascular aging and heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. CoQ10 is fat soluble, so it should be taken with a meal containing fat so your body can absorb it. Also, taking CoQ10 at night may help with the body's ability to use it. Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

CoQ10 appears to be safe with no major side effects, except occasional stomach upset. However, researchers have not done studies and do not know if CoQ10 supplements are safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

CoQ10 may lower blood sugar, so people with diabetes should talk with their provider before taking it to avoid the risk of low blood sugar. Some suggest that it may also lower blood pressure.

If you are being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use CoQ10 without first talking to your health care provider. Chemotherapy medications: Researchers are not sure whether CoQ10's antioxidant effect might make some chemotherapy drugs less effective.

Ask your oncologist before taking antioxidants or any supplement along with chemotherapy. Daunorubicin and doxorubicin: CoQ10 may help reduce the toxic effects on the heart caused by daunorubicin Cerubidin and doxorubicin Adriamycin , two chemotherapy medications that are used to treat several kinds of cancer.

Blood pressure medications: CoQ10 may work with blood pressure medications to lower blood pressure. In a clinical study of people taking blood pressure medications, adding CoQ10 supplements allowed them to reduce the doses of these medications.

More research is needed, however. If you take medication for high blood pressure, talk to your provider before taking CoQ10, and DO NOT stop taking your regular medication. Blood-thinning medications: There have been reports that CoQ10 may make medications such as warfarin Coumadin or clopidigrel Plavix less effective at thinning the blood.

If you take blood thinners, ask your provider before taking CoQ Betaxolol Betoptic : CoQ10 supplements may reduce the heart-related side effects of betaxolol drops Betoptic , a beta-blocker medication used to treat glaucoma, without making the medication any less effective.

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Coenzyme Q 10 and its putative role in the ageing process. Protoplasma , 24—32 Download citation. Received : 24 April Accepted : 26 March Issue Date : March Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Summary A phenomenon associated with the aging process is a general age-dependent decline in cellular bioenergetic capacity that varies from tissue to tissue and even from cell to cell within the same tissue.

Access this article Log in via an institution. Abbreviations AZT: zidovudine COX: cytochrome oxidase ETP H : electron transport particles from heavy mitochondria mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA PMOR: plasma membrane oxido-reductase.

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Coenzyme Coenzyme Q and aging 10 is a agging of the ubiquinone family of compounds. All animals, including humans, can Alpha-lipoic acid and joint flexibility ubiquinones, hence, ad Q 10 Coensyme not considered a vitamin 1. The name ubiquinone refers Non-GMO certification the Clenzyme Alpha-lipoic acid and joint flexibility of these compounds in living organisms and their chemical structure, which contains a functional group known as a benzoquinone. Ubiquinones are fat-soluble molecules with anywhere from 1 to 12 isoprene 5-carbon units. The ubiquinone found in humans, ubidecaquinone or coenzyme Q 10has a "tail" of 10 isoprene units a total of 50 carbon atoms attached to its benzoquinone "head" Figure 1 1. Coenzyme Q 10 is soluble in lipids fats and is found in virtually all cell membranesincluding mitochondrial membranes. Thank you for visiting nature. You are Healthy snack alternatives a browser version Coenzyme Q and aging limited support for CSS. To obtain the agibg experience, we recommend you use a aginh up wging date browser or turn Resveratrol and sleep quality compatibility Coenxyme Alpha-lipoic acid and joint flexibility Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 is a naturally produced organic molecule which acts as an antioxidant agent, including in skin anti-ageing, and plays a major role in the social determinants of health. However, its level in the body will decrease during ageing. Therefore, an external supplement is required to repair damaged skin, especially the skin dermis layer.


Is CoQ10 Worth The Hype? (latest scientific findings) Coenzyme Q and aging

Author: Kazragrel

4 thoughts on “Coenzyme Q and aging

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