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Cancer prevention through education and awareness

Cancer prevention through education and awareness

The educatiln is solely the Zinc supplements of the preventlon and does Cancer prevention through education and awareness necessarily represent the High fiber diet views of prevetion NIH. Find awarrness more. It also proves that, with the same basic training program, teachers are capable of independently produce different cancer prevention campaigns with a wide diversity of contents and formats even in demanding conditions projects were implemented as an extra-curriculum activity, since in Portuguese schools health education is not formal. At the beginning of the training program the pre-test showed that the teachers already had a basic knowledge about cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer 63 8 —

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Its goals are to—. To help get waareness done, our work supports cancer screening and helps ensure that everyone can benefit equally from the tools Cancer prevention through education and awareness have to prevent, detect, and treat Cancer prevention through education and awareness.

Throough National Throhgh and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Awarenexs helps prwvention who are underserved get hhrough access to breast and cervical cancer screening services.

SinceStress relief through mindfulness program has served more than awarenwss million women educaton low incomes who are uninsured or underinsured.

Awzreness, communities are reaching more women for these awarreness. Colorectal cancer screening saves lives.

Still, many adults educstion not been screened as recommended. The Colorectal Cancer Control Program works with clinics, hospitals, and other health organizations to increase colorectal cancer screening.

Through our partnerships, more men and women can get screened for colorectal cancer. The number of people living longer after a cancer diagnosis continues to increase. Improvements in early detection and cancer treatments help make this possible.

Our work with partners and resources for survivors support healthy living beyond cancer. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to anx. Español Other Languages.

About Us. Español Spanish. Minus Related Pages. We are dedicated to helping all people reduce their cancer risk. Use proven ways to help all people get the right cancer screening tests at the right time. Our Reach We educate people about risk factors and cancer screening through educational campaigns, programs, and initiatives.

Programs Through our programs, we work with state health agencies, territories, tribes and tribal organizations, and other key organizations to develop, implement, and promote effective cancer prevention and control practices.

Colorectal Cancer Control Program CRCCP Works with health systems to increase colorectal cancer screening rates among people who are 45 to 75 years old. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program NBCCEDP Provides low-cost breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services.

National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program NCCCP Provides funding, guidance, and technical assistance to help programs implement plans to prevent and control cancer.

National Program of Cancer Registries NPCR Supports central cancer registries to collect data on cancer occurrence, the type of initial treatment, and outcomes.

Educational Campaigns Through our three national public health campaigns, we educate people about the symptoms of cancer and how to reduce your risk.

Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign Informs adults who are 45 years old or older about the importance of getting screened for colorectal cancer. Inside Knowledge About Gynecologic Cancer Raises awareness about cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar cancers.

Bring Your Brave Provides information about breast cancer to women younger than age Cancer Moonshot The Cancer Moonshot is a national initiative to end cancer as we know it. Improve the experience of patients and families living with and surviving cancer.

Breast and Cervical Cancer. Colorectal Cancer. Beyond Cancer. Featured Scientists. Organization Chart. Cancer and COVID Support for the Cancer Moonshot. NOFO DP Last Reviewed: August 1, Source: Division of Cancer Prevention and ControlCenters for Disease Control and Prevention.

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: Cancer prevention through education and awareness

Helping Young People Understand Cancer | Cancer Council NSW Review and Cancer prevention through education and awareness preventin tribal TRX exercises was also sought Cancer prevention through education and awareness to the educatuon. These findings xwareness that the youth who intend to share information and preventioh their Measuring body composition cancer wnd may well realize those behaviors. Include skin cancer prevention knowledge and skills in preservice and inservice education for school administrators, teachers, physical education teachers and coaches, school nurses, and others who work with students. CDC is not responsible for Section compliance accessibility on other federal or private website. Appointments at Mayo Clinic Mayo Clinic offers appointments in Arizona, Florida and Minnesota and at Mayo Clinic Health System locations.
Biologically informed ovarian cancer prevention: Promoting education and awareness

Learning through online videos, presentations, and at school were preferred, followed by educational games and social situations. Some participants stated that their learning preference depended on the content delivered.

Online videos, websites, and social media were identified as potential sources of misinformation. Participants preferred learning about cancer in an interactive, entertaining, relatable, and engaging manner. Participants desired fun, interesting, and knowledge-building content, visuals, and graphics to aid in learning, and a personal connection to the material.

Study participants reported being exposed to cancer content and topics from a wide variety of sources. Many participants stated that cancer is multifactorial in origin and relies on both physiological and behavioral factors.

However, few participants recognized that cancer could be asymptomatic, and many identified tumors as the primary symptom of cancer development. This suggests that there is a lack of effective cancer and cancer prevention education for adolescents.

Inadequate knowledge of the signs and symptoms of cancer can lead to delayed presentation and diagnosis of cancer, resulting in worse outcomes [ 15 ]. Providing adolescents with the learning opportunities needed to influence healthy behaviors that persist into adulthood and the integration of formal instruction may better inform adolescents of the diagnostic process associated with cancer [ 16 ].

Adolescents in this study associated cancer with negative emotions, views, and attitudes. Most frequently, participants described cancer as life-altering, costly, and potentially fatal.

By addressing the emotions associated with cancer, adolescents may be better equipped to process cancer education and their experiences with cancer, leading to improved overall cancer awareness. Participants identified numerous risk factors for the development of cancer, including behavioral, physiological, and environmental elements.

However, some participants shared that they lacked cancer prevention knowledge. Therefore, being aware of the signs and symptoms of cancer can reduce cancer mortality if cases are detected and treated in the early stages of cancer development [ 19 ].

Educational cancer interventions for adolescents will result in increased knowledge of cancer prevention and could potentially have life-long impacts, improving survival rates [ 4 , 20 , 21 ].

Many participants acknowledged the importance of cancer prevention and expressed interest in learning more about prevention. Some reported engaging in preventative behaviors, such as sunscreen use, healthy diet, and exercise.

Many of these healthy habits and behaviors emerge during adolescence as adolescents develop independence and begin to take responsibility for their lifestyle choices around this time [ 22 ]. However, risky behaviors may also develop during adolescence and carry on into adulthood.

Dietary choices, sun exposure, and exposure to carcinogens are common cancer risk factors in adolescence [ 23 , 24 , 25 ].

In , 4. Targeting these cancer prevention areas is essential to lowering adolescent cancer risk. Engagement of adolescents through education is ideal due to their ability to actively learn at this stage of life and provides researchers and educators with an optimal opportunity for education and engagement in preventative behaviors [ 11 ].

Participants reported wanting to engage in preventative behavior, but shared numerous barriers to proper cancer education and preventative behaviors. Barriers to preventative behaviors included social and cultural norms, lack of knowledge, discomfort when talking about cancer, and forgetfulness.

These perceptions are mirrored by national data showing higher cancer death rates for African Americans and increased incidence rates for several cancers among rural populations [ 27 ]. Cancer disparities in the United States are well established and should be considered when developing cancer education materials and programs.

For instance, factors such as lower socioeconomic status SES , genetics, decreased treatment adherence, and other health conditions may contribute to higher cancer incidence and mortality in certain populations [ 28 ]. Adolescents in this study supported the importance of culturally competent educational materials that address population-specific concerns and barriers.

Adolescents reported using online resources such as websites, videos, and social media to learn about cancer. However, youth also identified these resources could be sources of potential misinformation and emphasized the importance of trustworthy sources when learning about cancer online.

Adolescents utilizing the internet as a source of information has been described in previous literature and our study further supports these findings [ 29 ]. Implementation of a personalized, interactive educational program using already established resources will allow for the promotion of cancer prevention.

Adolescent perspectives and preferences may have limited generalizability to the overall adolescent population in the United States, as data were collected from one Wisconsin high school and middle school. In addition, the sample was mostly comprised of white middle school students in a specific geographic region.

Due to the COVID pandemic, data collection was canceled at multiple sites, including high schools, thus leading to a majority middle school-aged sample. Additionally, due to the seriousness and sensitive nature of discussing cancer, some adolescents may have felt uncomfortable sharing their perspectives or knowledge in a focus group in front of their peers and the study team.

Future research should examine the perspectives and preferences of a more representative sample and incorporate other data collection measures. Adolescents learned about cancer through a variety of sources, including family and friends, healthcare professionals, online resources, such as social media, websites, and videos, and written materials.

Adolescents preferred interactive, relatable, and engaging educational content delivered through online videos, personal presentations, and educational games.

Many expressed an interest in learning about cancer and cancer prevention and recognized the importance of cancer prevention. However, some adolescents identified personal barriers to engaging in preventative behaviors and avoiding cancer risks.

Adolescents cited forgetfulness, lack of knowledge, desire to fit into social norms, and lack of personal connection to cancer as barriers to engaging in healthy behaviors. Educational interventions and programs should address barriers to preventative behavior and target specific areas of cancer prevention, such as having a healthy diet, limiting sun exposure, and avoiding tobacco products.

Educating adolescents on cancer prevention is essential to lowering their risk of cancer in the future. Verbatim quotes from focus group participants have been included in the manuscript. To facilitate openness, transparency, and reproducibility of our research, we have attached the focus group discussion guide used for this study in Appendix A.

Mattiuzzi C, Lippi G Current cancer epidemiology. J Epidemiol Glob Health 9 4 — Article Google Scholar. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A Cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin 70 1 :7— Cancer among children, adolescents, and young adults. Accessed April 15, Health Educ Res 28 5 — Xu L, Odum M Cancer awareness and behavioral determinants associated with cancer prevention—a quantitative study among young adults in rural settings.

J Cancer Educ — Kang J, Ciecierski CC, Malin EL, Carroll AJ, Gidea M, Craft LL, Spring B, Hitsman B A latent class analysis of cancer risk behaviors among U. college students. Prev Med — Bhatta MP, Phillips L Human papillomavirus vaccine awareness, uptake, and parental and health care provider communication among to year-old adolescents in a rural Appalachian Ohio county in the United States.

J Rural Health 31 1 — Henrikson NB, Morrison CC, Blasi PR, Nguyen M, Shibuya KC, Patnode CD. Behavioral counseling for skin cancer prevention: a systematic evidence review for the U. preventive services task force. Rockville MD : Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality US.

Kyle RG, Forbat L, Rauchhaus P, Hubbard G Increased cancer awareness among British adolescents after a school-based educational intervention: a controlled before-and-after study with 6-month follow-up. BMC Public Health Romer D Adolescent risk taking, impulsivity, and brain development: implications for prevention.

Dev Psychobiol 52 3 — Barros A, Santos H, Moreira L, Ribeiro N, Silva L, Santos-Silva F The cancer, educate to prevent model-the potential of school environment for primary prevention of cancer. J Cancer Educ 31 4 — Article CAS Google Scholar. Merten JW, Parker A, Williams A, King JL, Largo-Wight E, Osmani M Cancer risk factor knowledge among young adults.

J Cancer Educ 32 4 — PLoS ONE 9 5 :e J Adolesc Health 52 5 :S69—S Jassem J, Ozmen V, Bacanu F, Drobniene M, Eglitis J, Lakshmaiah KC, Kahan Z, Mardiak J, Pieńkowski T, Semiglazova T, Stamatovic L, Timcheva C, Vasovic S Delays in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer: a multinational analysis.

Eur J Pub Health 24 5 — Hansen DM, Larson RW, Dworkin JB. What adolescents learn in organized youth activities: a survey of self-reported developmental experiences. Journal of Research on Adolescence.

Trials World Health Organization. Accessed 26 April Accessed on April 27th, Over 11 percent of cancers and 9 percent of cancer deaths in women are from reproductive cancers.

Breast cancer, which has more public awareness, received 60 percent higher investment between and in research compared to reproductive cancers on a per case basis; this gap is even greater when comparison is based on cancer-related deaths. This team will create knowledge dissemination tools focusing on reproductive cancer prevention, to raise public awareness, and start a discussion about reproductive cancers.

Public education could improve outcomes and lead to a national focus and investment in clinical care and research on reproductive cancers.

Videos will be created and aimed at the target audience women who can benefit from prevention , focused on three areas:. This pilot study followed a quasi-experimental design, with a pre-test before the intervention and a post-test after its conclusion [17].

In the last classroom session, we applied again the second questionnaire post-test. This pilot study was approved accredited by two different review boards of Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science: a The Scientific and Pedagogical Council for Continuous Education and b The System for Monitoring Schools Surveys.

All the participants teachers and in the case of the students, their parents or tutors have provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. Data from surveys were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, version The distribution analysis of the variables under consideration revealed that these couldn't be considered normally distributed.

Thus, we opted for the use of nonparametric tests Related Samples Friedman's Two-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks , Related-Samples Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Independent-Samples Mann-Whitney U Test.

A total of 1, students spread over 82 classes were directly involved in the projects implemented by the 54 teachers that finished the training program.

We randomly selected - by cluster sampling - 21 of these classes to include in the experimental group a total of students out of 1, , according to the following inclusion criteria: classes from public schools attending to the 8th, 10th or 11th grade — in order to ensure a 1 year follow-up 9th and 12th grade students' conclude a study cycle and might move to a different school.

Besides, the number of classes selected from each geographic region was defined accordingly to its demographic density. After defining the experimental group we selected 13 classes a total of students to include in the control group. These classes were selected according to the same inclusion criteria defined to the experimental group, from the same regions specifically from the same districts , with similar social, economic and demographic characteristics in terms of context, which had any kind of participation in this project any teachers of these schools were involved in the training program.

At the end of the program we had a drop out of 3 classes on the experimental group and 2 classes on the control group, resulting in a sample of 18 classes in the experimental group students and 11 classes in the control group students.

Most of them have a stable professional status, since Also, management and administration more information on teachers' professional data, Table S2. The trainees were also asked about their involvement in other professional activities, specifically in health related jobs and Fifty-six teachers When asked about the main reasons why they decided to participate in the program, Knowledge acquisition was also identified by Personal motivation was pointed out as the second most important reason, by Fifty-four The Pairwise Analysis allows us to identify which specific topics significantly differ from each other Table 2.

The assessment on trainees' knowledge revealed levels of These differences range from In Table 3 we compare the perception levels to knowledge levels at the beginning of the program. In general, the levels of knowledge are higher than the levels of perception.

The topic related to Cancer Biology is the only exception, where perception is above knowledge. The knowledge level on Cancer Prevention is The level of perception on Scientific Literature Databases is 7. The levels of knowledge were These differences range from 1.

In Table 3 we compare the perception levels to knowledge levels at the end of the program. The levels of knowledge are higher than the levels of perception in all topics.

These differences are 1. On Cancer Prevention this difference is 6. Cancer Biology increased At last, the overall assessment increased These results are presented in Table 1 , Figure 2 and Figure 3. The dropout rate at this training stage was 9.

This figure shows the teachers' self-perceptions regarding the pre-test and the post-test. Results are shown in four main subjects Cancer Biology, Prevention, Epidemiology and Scientific Literature Databases and Global perception.

This figure shows the teachers' knowledge regarding the pre-test and the post-test. Ninety six percent 54 out of 56 of the teachers that completed the training program have also achieved the implementation of their own cancer prevention education projects at their schools.

Cancer prevention projects were focused on breast, cervical, skin and colorectal cancer. A total of 1, students from 82 middle and high school classes, were directly involved in the projects, Almost all the projects implemented, Students were engaged in several events, from seminars to laboratory and outdoor activities, which provided a greater interaction between teachers and students, a critical point for the success of these actions.

In the cancer prevention education projects, Moreover, Besides involving directly their students, trained teachers' extended the intervention through the entire schools communities reaching an estimated total of five thousand students.

It is also important to emphasize that these cancer prevention projects, due to produced materials and activities, exceed the school context, reaching families and local communities data not shown.

All the trainees agreed about the coherence of contents presentation while In which concerns the adopted methodologies, In which refers to the adequacy of the training methods, only 7. About the impact of this training program, all the trainees considered it as relevant or very relevant to teachers' personal development and Also In the answers obtained about behavior changes of the teachers' and their students towards cancer prevention, Finally, The experimental group has 18 classes from 19 public schools from the North or Center region of Portugal, with a total of students.

This group is well balanced by gender, with The mean age is The control group has 11 classes from 5 public schools, with a total of students. In this group, The overall knowledge was On the control group, the levels of knowledge were Pre-test versus Post-test : Comparing the post-test with the pre-test results in the experimental group intra-group comparison , we can conclude a significant increase on cancer knowledge in three of the four topics: 4.

The knowledge on Cervical Cancer increased 2. The overall knowledge increased 5. On the control group, we can conclude no significant changes in three of the four topics: 2.

The knowledge on Cervical Cancer had a significant increase of 5. The overall knowledge increased 2. We worked with Biology teachers because: i as experts in biology, it is expected they will be more intrinsically motivated for cancer prevention than other teachers [18] ; ii some of the contents they teach are related to prevention; iii most of the times, they are responsible for health education programs at schools; iv they are often the first person that students contact when they have doubts, fears or worries about health, and thus they actively influence students health behaviors [19].

The sixty-two high school Biology teachers that participated in this pilot study constitute a homogeneous group in which concerns socio-demographic e. gender and age and career characteristics e.

years of service, job situation Tables S1 and S2. Teachers are mostly females, younger than 50 years old, teaching in middle and high schools, with a stable job situation, which gives them the opportunity to manage long-term projects Table S2. It is also clear that the participants share the same motivation profile, given the reasons invoked for participation in this program and the training activities of the last three years Figure 1.

In fact, these individuals actively seek to keep updated with regard to their teaching practice and their commitments as educational agents, which is perceived by the number of previous courses training programs attended. The accreditation of training activities attended serves also as an indicator that these teachers look for initiatives relevant for their careers progression.

Interestingly, despite the teachers' motivation to attend training activities, only one third of them 21 participated in health-related education trainings Table S3 with only 3. These results reflect the reduced offer of training programs in health education namely in cancer prevention education.

Additionally, the existing training programs are promoted by private associations and patients groups being mostly delivered by health professionals. These programs do not have a formal accreditation and thus remain out of teacher's training scope [21] - [23].

At the beginning of the training program the pre-test showed that the teachers already had a basic knowledge about cancer. It is also important to notice that the levels for perception and knowledge are always higher for general topics like Cancer Biology and Cancer Prevention than for more restrict ones like Cancer Epidemiology or Scientific Literature Databases Table 1 , Figures 2 and 3.

The level of knowledge is always higher than the level of perception though not always statistically significant except for the topic Cancer Biology with perception being higher than knowledge.

This result might be explained by the fact that Cancer Biology is included in high schools Biology curriculum [24]. Teachers could be more confident, because they have to teach these contents to their students and they had an academic background in this area.

Introduction Teachers can help by discussing the following tips with their students. Fifty-four J Adolesc Health 52 5 :S36—S Myths and controversies Be cautious of any information obtained from unmonitored sources. Adolescence is a critical period for learning and developing healthy behaviors. Once a draft was finalized, then another project team member added references to relevant Alaska Curriculum Standards.
Reduce your risk | Canadian Cancer Society

Students can choose to participate in a survey, a focus group, or both. For the survey, they will answer a series of questions to help researchers to evaluate their current awareness of cancer, such as where they get their information, what types of cancers have impacted their lives, what outstanding questions they might have, and how they want to receive the answers to those questions.

The focus groups will explore similar themes, but in more detail. In groups of eight to 10, students will sit down with Abraham or one or more members of her researchers and answer questions, put ideas on a whiteboard, and have a free-flowing conversation about cancer topics.

Depending on the different personalities in the group, it is can be difficult for the students to open up and participate openly in the conversations. After the pilot, Abraham wants to continue working with the schools to help the teachers address the educational needs they uncover.

For example, if many students in a school report that family members have breast cancer or prostate cancer, they can narrow the educational focus to go more in-depth about those diseases.

Her team will also be helping the schools create engaging ways to deliver the information to students. Through our three national public health campaigns, we educate people about the symptoms of cancer and how to reduce your risk.

The Cancer Moonshot is a national initiative to end cancer as we know it. Its goals are to—. To help get this done, our work supports cancer screening and helps ensure that everyone can benefit equally from the tools we have to prevent, detect, and treat cancer. The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program helps women who are underserved get timely access to breast and cervical cancer screening services.

Since , the program has served more than 6 million women with low incomes who are uninsured or underinsured. Nationwide, communities are reaching more women for these screenings. Colorectal cancer screening saves lives. Still, many adults have not been screened as recommended. The Colorectal Cancer Control Program works with clinics, hospitals, and other health organizations to increase colorectal cancer screening.

Through our partnerships, more men and women can get screened for colorectal cancer. The number of people living longer after a cancer diagnosis continues to increase.

Improvements in early detection and cancer treatments help make this possible. Our work with partners and resources for survivors support healthy living beyond cancer. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to search. Español Other Languages. About Us. Español Spanish.

Minus Related Pages. Check your family history Tell your doctor if any of your close relatives have ever been diagnosed with cancer. Understand hormones The birth control pill and hormone replacement therapy may increase your risk of cancer.

Understand the risks and benefits. Get vaccinated Some viruses cause cancer. Check with your doctor about whether a hepatitis B or HPV vaccine is a good idea for you. Be safe at work Cancer-causing substances at work are responsible for a small percentage of cancers. Know your risk and protect yourself.

Know your environment Learn how to reduce your exposure to cancer-causing substances carcinogens. Myths and controversies Be cautious of any information obtained from unmonitored sources.

We have smoking cessation and health promotion programs for individuals, schools and workplaces. View all programs. Try our helpful tools It's My Life! is an interactive, evidence-based tool. It teaches you how 16 factors affect your risk of getting cancer and how you can reduce your risk by making simple changes.

SunSense fortune teller The fortune teller is a fun resource for primary school age children that uses origami to create a trivia game with questions about SunSense practices.

Instructions on how to assemble it are included.

February is National Cancer Prevention Month During the COVID pandemic, the project team and community advisory board attempted several pivots in order to continue the project and reach the intended audience of young people in the Northwest Arctic. Research Funding. To further refine your search, toggle appropriate sections on or off. Community Engagement for Identifying Cancer Education Needs in Puerto Rico Article 10 October Education and Training. To better understand and enhance cancer education within the state, Abraham secured a grant from the American Cancer Society to fuel her research into what Wisconsin youth ages 13 to 18 know about cancer and cancer prevention.
Giving students factual information about preventioj increases their understanding and reduces Prrevention risk Coenzyme Q gossiping and bullying. Most students want to be supportive, but need the tools and Wducation to do so effectively. Before starting a discussion with your students, consider their age and maturity and anticipate any difficult questions they might ask. You might practise what you will say, or ask the family how they would like you to approach the class. There are a number of books about cancer that you can share with your students. Cancer prevention through education and awareness

Cancer prevention through education and awareness -

The good news is you can reduce your risk of cancer right now. Are you interested in participating in a research study to help with an app that will provide personalized recommendations for Canadians to reduce their cancer risk? Sign up to go Dry this Feb and feel the health benefits while you raise funds to fuel life-saving cancer research and a nationwide support system so no one has to face cancer alone.

Home Cancer information Reduce your risk. There's a lot you can do to reduce your risk of cancer — starting with living a healthy, active lifestyle. Can cancer be prevented? See if you're eligible! Live smoke-free The single most important thing you can do to reduce your risk of cancer is to live smoke-free.

Find out more. Be sun safe Enjoy the sun safely — protect your skin and protect your eyes. Have a healthy body weight Besides living smoke-free, having a healthy body weight is one of the best things you can do to reduce cancer risk.

Eat well Eating well is an important part of reducing your cancer risk. Move more, sit less Not enough physical activity and too much sitting increases your cancer risk.

Aim for 30 minutes of activity every day and take frequent, short breaks from sitting. Limit alcohol Drinking any type or amount of alcohol increases your risk of developing cancer.

The less alcohol you drink, the lower your cancer risk. Katie Cueva, Laura Revels, … Alan C. Julio Jiménez, Axel Ramos, … Eida Castro. Cancer is the leading cause of death in Alaska, with disproportionate burdens impacting Alaska Native people [ 1.

Deaths from cancer in rural Alaska represent not only an unnecessary loss of human life but also a loss of Alaska Native knowledge keepers who are vital in passing culture from one generation to the next.

This holds true for the Northwest Arctic region of Alaska, where cancer mortality rates for Alaska Native people were However, cancer mortality rates are not intractable; they have generally declined in Alaska for both the White and Alaska Native populations over the past 20 years [ 2.

Further, the leading causes of cancer incidence among Alaska Native people colorectal, lung, and breast all have modifiable risk factors, which presents an opportunity for health promotion efforts to reduce cancer risk [ 1. Alaska Native people suffer disproportionately from risk factors that increase cancer risk: in , Similarly, Culturally relevant health promotion efforts have the potential to reduce both cancer risk factors and alleviate disparities impacting Alaska Native people.

Previous culturally relevant health promotion efforts developed with and for Alaska Native people have led to self-reported decreases in cancer risk factors and improved self-efficacy to share cancer-related health information [ 6. In part due to health promotion efforts, the percentage of Alaska Native adults who reported receiving a breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer screening has attained parity with rates for both Alaska White adults and US White adults [ 5.

However, there is still work to be done. Health promotion that supports individuals to be physically active, receive recommended cancer screening exams, stay tobacco- and alcohol-free, and maintain a healthy weight are critical needs to reduce cancer disparities and realize a future where Alaska Native people live longer, healthier lives.

A project team member from the Institute of Social and Economic Research at the University of Alaska Anchorage had previously been involved in studies in the Northwest Arctic on subsistence and climate change, and heard repeated concerns from community members about cancer.

The sharing circles specifically recruited high school students, community members, high school teachers and school staff, and health professionals.

Hosting sharing circles with participating communities laid the foundation for cancer education to incorporate culturally relevant content, cultural values, and Indigenous knowledge to promote cancer prevention and control.

Sharing circle participants enthusiastically encouraged the development of cancer education for young people, and several individuals indicated their interest in participating on a community advisory board CAB.

Sharing circle participants identified a need for online cancer education that addressed topics such as mitigating cancer risk factors by reducing tobacco use, eating healthy, being physically active, vaccination against HPV, and receiving screening exams.

Additionally, sharing circle respondents asked for a website with short audiovisuals and activities that could be used in classroom settings. Participants also asked for information on local cancer statistics and requested that information be shared both visually and through story.

These findings resonated with previous research in distance delivered cancer education with Alaska Native people, where cancer education learners have requested learning through stories and visuals as well as through interactivity and local statistics [ 8.

Further description of the sharing circle process and findings are documented elsewhere [ The COVID pandemic began shortly after the sharing circles were conducted, which led to a dramatic decrease in cancer screenings in the USA and may lead to increases in cancer mortality [ Alaska Native people suffered disproportionate mortality from the COVID pandemic [ These issues heighten the need to increase cancer prevention measures in rural Alaska, which this project contributes to.

This project was guided by principles of Community Based Participatory Action Research CBPAR that honors Indigenous Ways of Knowing [ The project process and curricula were grounded in Empowerment Theory [ As a CBPAR approach, sharing circles were conducted as a first step in developing a cancer education program focused on empowering individuals to change behavior and shift social norms to reduce cancer risk and control cancer in the Northwest Arctic.

The project was reviewed by the Universit of Alaska Anchorage Institutional Review Board and Maniilaq Association, the tribal nonprofit corporation in the Northwest Arctic that manages health, tribal, and traditional assistance programs, as well as social services for the region. Review and approval from tribal entities was also sought prior to the project.

This framework guided the collaboration of the project team. Consequently, this project sought both to create lesson plans that aligned with these ways of knowing and to build relationships with community members and potential collaborators.

Empowerment theories are both a foundation of CBPAR and a natural extension. Empowerment-oriented approaches are also fundamental in working with Indigenous communities.

Historical trauma linked to the colonization of Indigenous peoples has disrupted traditional food systems and cultural practices that facilitated physical activity, healthy eating, and limited tobacco use, which is linked by some Indigenous researchers to contemporary cancer disparities [ Acknowledging historical trauma and its impacts, CBPAR theorists advocate that work with Indigenous communities focus on self-determination and empowerment [ Intertwined with self-determination, empowerment is a contextual, participatory process that advances social justice and redistributes power to increase control [ Empowerment-oriented approaches are designed to:.

Youth are uniquely situated to empower health behavior change due to their potential to live positive health behaviors and role model that behavior as future leaders and elders of the next generations. This work began with relationship building and collaboration with potential learners, with findings affirming the importance of story and visuals in the lessons.

Partnership with key stakeholders allowed curricula to also incorporate visuals, stories, and language from the region in the curriculum. The 11 cancer education lessons were 1 what is cancer? The research team had planned to return to each participating community to conduct digital storytelling workshops and develop a sustainability plan.

However, the COVID pandemic prevented travel. Consequently, the researchers and CAB adjusted to reach out to young people through social media, convene virtual CAB meetings, refine the lessons, translate key messages into the local language of Inupiaq, guest instruct cancer education online, etc.

These approaches were well received but generated little pilot data. When case rates began to drop and vaccination rates increased, travel restrictions were lifted and a member of the project team went to the region.

The research team member assisted these eight student teachers, ensured learners were invited to complete pre- and post-lesson surveys, and gave a school-wide presentation. The region is not connected via road to any urban centers see Fig.

Substantial work has been undertaken in previous projects to learn how to create culturally relevant, distance-delivered, cancer education [ This line of research has resulted in the development of a framework for developing culturally relevant cancer education, including four domains: 1 collaborating, 2 content, 3 contextualizing, and 4 connecting [ 8.

The project team developed a website with eleven different cancer-related topics. The website included a page on each topic with a visual or audiovisual element, basic information, and links to lesson plans with classroom activities.

The lesson plans and website were also included as part of the Northwest Arctic Borough School District Curriculum, allowing teachers in the district easy access to the materials as well as district support to instruct the lessons.

To create each lesson plan, a project team member drafted an outline in Microsoft Word that included objectives, materials needed, resources, relevant vocabulary, printable activities such as role plays or crosswords, and links to relevant audiovisuals housed on the website as well as an outline to guide instruction and student homework.

Once a draft was finalized, then another project team member added references to relevant Alaska Curriculum Standards. The lesson plan was then uploaded onto the website, with key themes incorporated into a page of the website to increase accessibility of content.

To assess the impact of the cancer education lessons, both a pre-lesson survey and a post-lesson survey were developed for each lesson. Post-surveys also included questions on what respondents liked about the lessons and what could be done to improve them. Pre- and post-lesson surveys were collected in Qualtrics, downloaded in May and then cleaned and summarized in Microsoft Excel.

Two-sample t -tests were run on the average of correct answers of knowledge-based questions to assess pre- to post-lesson changes. The project was reviewed by the University of Alaska Anchorage Institutional Review Board and Maniilaq Association, the tribal nonprofit corporation in the Northwest Arctic that manages health, tribal, and traditional assistance programs as well as social services for the region.

Surveys were completed for six of the developed cancer education lessons. A total of evaluation surveys were started, and were completed. Participants were asked to enter an email to receive an electronic gift card on each of the surveys. No emails were entered on 50 surveys, and a total of 43 unique emails were entered on the remaining 74 surveys.

During the cancer education week, 45 unique individuals received gift cards for completing surveys, while additional survey completers may not have requested gift cards.

Demographics are summarized in Table 1. Each student was invited to take a pre-lesson survey at the beginning of a lesson as well as a post-lesson survey at the end of a lesson. Participants reported wanting to engage in preventative behavior, but shared numerous barriers to proper cancer education and preventative behaviors.

Barriers to preventative behaviors included social and cultural norms, lack of knowledge, discomfort when talking about cancer, and forgetfulness. These perceptions are mirrored by national data showing higher cancer death rates for African Americans and increased incidence rates for several cancers among rural populations [ 27 ].

Cancer disparities in the United States are well established and should be considered when developing cancer education materials and programs. For instance, factors such as lower socioeconomic status SES , genetics, decreased treatment adherence, and other health conditions may contribute to higher cancer incidence and mortality in certain populations [ 28 ].

Adolescents in this study supported the importance of culturally competent educational materials that address population-specific concerns and barriers. Adolescents reported using online resources such as websites, videos, and social media to learn about cancer.

However, youth also identified these resources could be sources of potential misinformation and emphasized the importance of trustworthy sources when learning about cancer online. Adolescents utilizing the internet as a source of information has been described in previous literature and our study further supports these findings [ 29 ].

Implementation of a personalized, interactive educational program using already established resources will allow for the promotion of cancer prevention. Adolescent perspectives and preferences may have limited generalizability to the overall adolescent population in the United States, as data were collected from one Wisconsin high school and middle school.

In addition, the sample was mostly comprised of white middle school students in a specific geographic region. Due to the COVID pandemic, data collection was canceled at multiple sites, including high schools, thus leading to a majority middle school-aged sample.

Additionally, due to the seriousness and sensitive nature of discussing cancer, some adolescents may have felt uncomfortable sharing their perspectives or knowledge in a focus group in front of their peers and the study team.

Future research should examine the perspectives and preferences of a more representative sample and incorporate other data collection measures. Adolescents learned about cancer through a variety of sources, including family and friends, healthcare professionals, online resources, such as social media, websites, and videos, and written materials.

Adolescents preferred interactive, relatable, and engaging educational content delivered through online videos, personal presentations, and educational games. Many expressed an interest in learning about cancer and cancer prevention and recognized the importance of cancer prevention.

However, some adolescents identified personal barriers to engaging in preventative behaviors and avoiding cancer risks. Adolescents cited forgetfulness, lack of knowledge, desire to fit into social norms, and lack of personal connection to cancer as barriers to engaging in healthy behaviors.

Educational interventions and programs should address barriers to preventative behavior and target specific areas of cancer prevention, such as having a healthy diet, limiting sun exposure, and avoiding tobacco products.

Educating adolescents on cancer prevention is essential to lowering their risk of cancer in the future. Verbatim quotes from focus group participants have been included in the manuscript.

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Accessed 28 April Br J Cancer — Pediatr Blood Cancer 63 8 — Download references. The authors appreciate Claire Rosenberger for her assistance with editing the manuscript and providing feedback throughout the writing process. We express gratitude to Erin Bailey for her assistance with management of the IRB protocol, revising the focus group guide, data collection, and data analysis and Laura Stephenson for assisting with data collection.

We would also like to thank Cody Fredrick for assisting with drafting the focus group guide and data collection. This study was supported in part by American Cancer Society ACS grant IRG— and the UWCCC University of Wisconsin-Madison Carbone Cancer Center. This study was supported by the KL2 grant KL2 TR and grant UL1TR to UW ICTR by the Clinical and Translational Science Award CTSA program, through the NIH National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences NCATS.

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. Social and Administrative Sciences Division , University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Pharmacy, Highland Avenue, Suite , Madison, USA. Social and Administrative Sciences Division, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Pharmacy, Madison, WI, , USA.

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