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Fat distribution and weight gain

Fat distribution and weight gain

Related information. All results are Alternate-day fasting and autophagy as the mean ± weiyht. Your body stores this Relaxation practices within specialized fat cells adipose tissue — either by enlarging fat cells, which are always present in the body, or by creating more of them. Close Thanks for visiting.

Fat distribution and weight gain -

Thus, the development of a treatment for the metabolic syndrome as a unifying disorder is likely to be complex. Correspondence: Bret H. Goodpaster, PhD, Department of Medicine, North MUH, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA bgood pitt. Dr Goodpaster was supported by grant KAG from the National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health.

full text icon Full Text. Download PDF Top of Article Abstract Methods Results Comment Article Information References. Figure 1. View Large Download. Table 1. Characteristics of Men and Women With and Without Metabolic Syndrome.

Regional Fat Distribution According to Metabolic Syndrome Status. Abdominal AT in Men and Women With and Without Metabolic Syndrome According to a Revised Definition Omitting Waist Circumference.

Haffner SValdez RHazuda HMitchell BMorales PStern M Prospective analysis of the insulin resistance syndrome syndrome X. Diabetes ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Isomaa BAlmgren PTuomi T et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome.

Diabetes Care ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. National Institutes of Health, Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Cholesterol in Adults Adult Treatment Panel III.

Bethesda, Md National Institutes of Health;NIH publication Ford EGiles WDietz W Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults. JAMA ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Grundy SMHansen BSmith SC Jr et al. Circulation ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref.

Harris MIFlegal KMCowie CC et al. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U. adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Resnick HEHarris MIBrock DBHarris TB American Diabetes Association diabetes diagnostic criteria, advancing age, and cardiovascular disease risk profiles: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Wilson PWEvans JC Coronary artery disease prediction. Am J Hypertens ;S- S PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Mokdad AHBowman BAFord ESVinicor FMarks JSKoplan JP The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. Després JNadeau ATremblay A et al.

Role of deep abdominal fat in the association between regional adipose tissue distribution and glucose tolerance in obese women. Goodpaster BHThaete FLSimoneau J-AKelley DE Subcutaneous abdominal fat and thigh muscle composition predict insulin sensitivity independently of visceral fat.

Kelley DEThaete FLTroost FHuwe TGoodpaster BH Subdivisions of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ;E E PubMed Google Scholar. Goodpaster BKrishnaswami SResnick H et al.

Association between regional adipose tissue distribution and both type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in elderly men and women. Seidell JCOosterlee AThijssen MA et al. Assessment of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat: relation between anthropometry and computed tomography.

Am J Clin Nutr ; 13 PubMed Google Scholar. Goodpaster BHKelley DEThaete FLHe JRoss R Skeletal muscle attenuation determined by computed tomography is associated with skeletal muscle lipid content. J Appl Physiol ; PubMed Google Scholar. Brach JSSimonsick EMKritchevsky SYaffe KNewman AB The association between physical function and lifestyle activity and exercise in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

J Am Geriatr Soc ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Van Pelt REEvans EMSchechtman KBEhsani AAKohrt WM Contributions of total and regional fat mass to risk for cardiovascular disease in older women. Albu JBMurphy LFrager DHJohnson JAPi-Sunyer FX Visceral fat and race-dependent health risks in obese nondiabetic premenopausal women.

Mandavilli ACyranoski D Asia's big problem. Nat Med ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. DeNino WFTchernof ADionne IJ et al. Contribution of abdominal adiposity to age-related differences in insulin sensitivity and plasma lipids in healthy nonobese women. Després J-P Abdominal obesity as important component of insulin resistance syndrome.

Nutrition ; PubMed Google Scholar. Gabriely IMa XHYang XM et al. Removal of visceral fat prevents insulin resistance and glucose intolerance of aging: an adipokine-mediated process?

Haffner SMKarhapaa PMykkanen LLaakso M Insulin resistance, body fat distribution, and sex hormones in men. Kohrt WMKirwan JPStaten MABourey REKing DSHolloszy JO Insulin resistance in aging is related to abdominal obesity. Wajchenberg BL Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: their relation to the metabolic syndrome.

Endocr Rev ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Lakka TALaaksonen DELakka HM et al. Sedentary lifestyle, poor cardiorespiratory fitness, and the metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref.

Bergman RNVan Citters GWMittelman SD et al. Central role of the adipocyte in the metabolic syndrome. J Investig Med ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Ravussin ESmith SR Increased fat intake, impaired fat oxidation, and failure of fat cell proliferation result in ectopic fat storage, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Ann N Y Acad Sci ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Greco AVMingrone GGiancaterini A et al. Insulin resistance in morbid obesity: reversal with intramyocellular fat depletion.

Krssak MFalk Petersen KDresner A et al. Intramyocellular lipid concentrations are correlated with insulin sensitivity in humans: a 1H NMR spectroscopy study. Diabetologia ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Perseghin GScifo PDeCobelli F et al.

Intramyocellular triglyceride content is a determinant of in vivo insulin resistance in humans: a 1HC nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment in offspring of type 2 diabetic patients. Yu CChen YCline GW et al. Mechanism by which fatty acids inhibit insulin activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 IRS-1 -associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in muscle.

J Biol Chem ; PubMed Google Scholar Crossref. Marchesini GBrizi MBianchi G et al. Age and lifestyle are the main culprits. Aging and lifestyle seem to be the primary culprits behind weight gain in women around the time of menopause.

Aging is associated with slowing of the metabolism. Lean body mass decreases with age while body fat accumulates throughout adulthood. Women generally become less physically active as they pass through their 40s, 50s, and 60s.

With decreased activity, muscle mass decreases. Does menopause affect body shape? Although menopause may not be directly associated with weight gain, it may be related to changes in body composition and fat distribution.

Several studies have shown that perimenopause, independent of age, is associated with increased fat in the abdomen as well as decreased lean body mass. However, further study is needed on the exact role of menopause in body composition.

Regardless of the different contributions of aging and menopause to weight gain and body composition, the fact is that most women in North America are overweight at midlife. Body mass index BMI was calculated as weight kilograms divided by the square of the height meters. All results are reported as the mean ± se.

There were no significant differences in age, plasma FSH and estradiol levels, months since menopause, body weight, or BMI in the two groups before the study Table 1 and 2. No differences in TBBM or body fat distribution were present in the two groups under basal conditions Table 2.

No significant modification in total body fat weight or percentage of total fat mass was observed in the HRT-treated women Table 2 and Fig. The regional body fat accumulation showed significant differences in the two groups. corresponding basal value greater percentage of fat mass in both regions Fig.

corresponding basal value after 12 months of treatment, but no modification in trunk or arm fat was observed Table 2 and Fig. The bone mineral density BMD; milligrams per cm 2 , along with lean tissue kilograms , and fat tissue kilograms were measured at different sites total body, legs, trunk, and arms.

corresponding basal value. To evaluate the individual changes in relation to body fat distribution, we regressed the changes in regional percent fat over the basal body composition.

No significant correlations between basal total body, legs, and arms fat and the final measurements after 12 months of observations were found in the control group.

No significant correlations between basal regional fat distribution and the final measurements were found in the EV- plus CPA-treated group after 12 months of observations. The present results provide evidence that HRT can blunt the increase in body weight and prevent the shift to a more central, android fat distribution observed in normal women throughout the early postmenopausal period.

Recently, in a large cross-sectional study, Burger et al. In addition, Dellangeville et al. In a long term, prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled study, the PEPI trial 9 , an increase in body weight during the menopause has been described.

Conversely, in patients treated with different estrogen-progestin combinations, the weight gain was lower than but not significantly different from that in the placebo group 9.

Thus, for the effect of combined HRT, our results diverge from those reported in the PEPI trial. Our unblind study has certain limitations that could result from the shorter period of observation, and the data might be influenced by social and cultural variables.

However, the differences in the HRT preparations could explain at least in part the slightly different effects on body weight gain. In addition, the present results show that the postmenopausal increase in body weight parallels an increase in body fat and a change in body fat distribution.

The assessment of body fat distribution has been traditionally estimated by anthropometric measurements, such as the waist to hip circumference ratio WHR. However, the WHR may underestimate the abdominal fat in obese individuals, and the method is subject to errors due to the approximate individual measurements.

Recently, total body DEXA measurements have been proposed and validated to measure the distribution of body fat 15 — DEXA measurements cannot discriminate between sc and intraabdominal fat. However, it has been recently shown that intraabdominal fat weight measured by computed tomography is highly correlated with abdominal, trunk fat weight measured by DEXA Therefore, DEXA measurement of regional body fat distribution can be considered a useful tool for clinical studies, more valid and precise than WHR and less expensive and invasive than computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging In the present study, longitudinal DEXA measurements of body fat show an increase in the percentage of body fat and a shift to a central, android fat distribution in the early postmenopausal period.

In fact, after 12 months of the sole calcium supplementation, early postmenopausal women experienced an increase in total body fat weight that paralleled an increase in trunk and arms central, android fat, whereas no augmentation in fat in the legs gynoid region was evidenced. This modification of body fat distribution seems to be related at least in part to the endocrinological modifications occurring during the perimenopausal period.

In fact, in the EV- plus CPA-treated group after 12 months of treatment, BMI and fat mass showed only a blunted trend to increase, and the difference from basal values was not significant.

Indeed, the body fat distribution maintained a typical gynoid pattern; the increase in body fat was located in the gynoid legs region, whereas trunk and arms fat did not increase.

As previously reported with similar oral estrogen-progestin preparations 22 , the present results confirm that the administration of oral EV and CPA can prevent the effects of postmenopausal status on body fat distribution.

Central body fat distribution has been associated with a series of endocrine and metabolic consequences 1 — 4 related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

In this view, the observed stabilization of body weight and body fat distribution can be seen as a further protective effect of HRT against cardiovascular disease 7 , 8 — However, CPA is a unique antiandrogen progestin, and the present study cannot ascertain whether the effects on body fat should be ascribed to this specific replacement regimen or might be generalizable to all HRT.

However, in untreated early postmenopausal women, the individual increments in trunk fat were negatively correlated with the basal percent fat, suggesting that the subjects with a less prominent android fat distribution in basal conditions are those who develop a major increment in central, android fat after the menopause.

These observations confirm that the changes are related to the hormonal milieu rather than to the individual basal characteristics of the women included in the two groups. Further studies are needed to ascertain the roles of individual characteristics and environmental influences on the extent and mode of body weight increase in the period immediately following the menopause.

A strong positive relation has been reported between BMD and body weight in untreated postmenopausal women; BMI along with age at menopause and the menopausal component of bone loss are the major factors in determining the extent of the involutional osteopenia at the lumbar spine 13 and the femoral neck Again, the present results indeed confirm that the menopausal component of involutional osteopenia is critical.

In fact, untreated postmenopausal women showed a trend to a decrease in bone density that was completely negated by EV and CPA treatement, which, in turn, induced a slight, but significant, increase in TBBM.

The EV plus CPA preparation is effective in relieving subjective symptoms and preventing postmenopausal bone loss and the impairment of lipid profile that characterize the postmenopausal years 24 — The present study confirms and extends these data, showing that EV in combination with CPA can exert a positive effect on body fat mass and distribution.

Further studies may elucidate whether this effect should be ascribed to the HRT per se or to the combination of the effects of oral EV in association with the peculiar antiandrogenic properties of CPA. We gratefully acknowledge and thank Mr.

Massimiliano Telleschi for his technical assistance, and Mrs. Gabriella Campani for her secretarial assistance. Evans DJ , Hoffman RG , Kalkhoff RK , Kissebah AH. Metab Clin Exp. Google Scholar. Evans DJ , Hoffman RG , Kalkoff RK , Kissebah AH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

Lapidus L , Bengtsson C , Larsson B , et al. Br Med J. Haarbo J , Hassager C , Schlemmer A , et al. Lindsay R. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Gambacciani M , Spinetti A , Taponeco F , et al. Obstet Gynecol. Bush TL , Barrett-Connor E. Epidemiol Rev. Lobo RA , Speroff L. Fertil Steril.

The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Andrews MC. Ottson UB.

Disfribution, Alternate-day fasting and autophagy. Ciaponi, B. Cappagli, L. Piaggesi, L. De Simone, R. Orlandi, A. There were no differences in basal body weight or body fat distribution in the two groups before the study.

Fat distribution and weight gain -

In one long-term study, those who slept too little five or fewer hours per night accumulated nearly three times as much visceral fat compared to people who slept hours per night. If you are concerned about where your weight is clustering, be sure to consult with a healthcare provider about what you can do.

Scott Kahan, MD, MPH, is a physician trained in clinical medicine and public health. Kahan is the Director of the National Center for Weight and Wellness in Washington, D. and Chair of the Clinical Committee for The Obesity Society. He serves on the Board of Directors for the OAC, the American Board of Obesity Medicine, The Obesity Society and the Obesity Treatment Foundation.

She served as a Medical Assistant for the Institute of Neurological Recovery and was a medical student at Medical University Lublin. Help the OAC to raise awareness, advocate for improved access, provide evidence-based education, fight to eliminate weight bias and discrimination and elevate the conversation of weight and its impact on health.

Donate Now. by Allen F. by Rachel Engelhart, RD; Kelly Donahue, PhD; and Renu Mansukhani, MD Summer Welcome to the first…. Comprehensive obesity care requires teaming up with a qualified and compassionate medical professional.

Find the right healthcare provider to talk about your weight and health at ObesityCareProviders. Click Here. Sort By:. Default Order Date - Old to New Date - New to Old. Articles In fact, in the EV- plus CPA-treated group after 12 months of treatment, BMI and fat mass showed only a blunted trend to increase, and the difference from basal values was not significant.

Indeed, the body fat distribution maintained a typical gynoid pattern; the increase in body fat was located in the gynoid legs region, whereas trunk and arms fat did not increase.

As previously reported with similar oral estrogen-progestin preparations 22 , the present results confirm that the administration of oral EV and CPA can prevent the effects of postmenopausal status on body fat distribution.

Central body fat distribution has been associated with a series of endocrine and metabolic consequences 1 — 4 related to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

In this view, the observed stabilization of body weight and body fat distribution can be seen as a further protective effect of HRT against cardiovascular disease 7 , 8 — However, CPA is a unique antiandrogen progestin, and the present study cannot ascertain whether the effects on body fat should be ascribed to this specific replacement regimen or might be generalizable to all HRT.

However, in untreated early postmenopausal women, the individual increments in trunk fat were negatively correlated with the basal percent fat, suggesting that the subjects with a less prominent android fat distribution in basal conditions are those who develop a major increment in central, android fat after the menopause.

These observations confirm that the changes are related to the hormonal milieu rather than to the individual basal characteristics of the women included in the two groups. Further studies are needed to ascertain the roles of individual characteristics and environmental influences on the extent and mode of body weight increase in the period immediately following the menopause.

A strong positive relation has been reported between BMD and body weight in untreated postmenopausal women; BMI along with age at menopause and the menopausal component of bone loss are the major factors in determining the extent of the involutional osteopenia at the lumbar spine 13 and the femoral neck Again, the present results indeed confirm that the menopausal component of involutional osteopenia is critical.

In fact, untreated postmenopausal women showed a trend to a decrease in bone density that was completely negated by EV and CPA treatement, which, in turn, induced a slight, but significant, increase in TBBM.

The EV plus CPA preparation is effective in relieving subjective symptoms and preventing postmenopausal bone loss and the impairment of lipid profile that characterize the postmenopausal years 24 — The present study confirms and extends these data, showing that EV in combination with CPA can exert a positive effect on body fat mass and distribution.

Further studies may elucidate whether this effect should be ascribed to the HRT per se or to the combination of the effects of oral EV in association with the peculiar antiandrogenic properties of CPA. We gratefully acknowledge and thank Mr. Massimiliano Telleschi for his technical assistance, and Mrs.

Gabriella Campani for her secretarial assistance. Evans DJ , Hoffman RG , Kalkhoff RK , Kissebah AH. Metab Clin Exp. Google Scholar.

Evans DJ , Hoffman RG , Kalkoff RK , Kissebah AH. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Lapidus L , Bengtsson C , Larsson B , et al. Br Med J. Haarbo J , Hassager C , Schlemmer A , et al. Lindsay R. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

Gambacciani M , Spinetti A , Taponeco F , et al. Obstet Gynecol. Bush TL , Barrett-Connor E. Epidemiol Rev.

Lobo RA , Speroff L. Fertil Steril. The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial. Andrews MC. Ottson UB. Effects of natural and synthetic hormones on subfractions of HDL cholesterol and liver proteins. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand.

Fahraeus L , Larsson-Cohn U , Wallentin L. Eur J Clin Invest. Gambacciani M , Spinetti A , De Simone L , et al. Osteoporosis Int 5 : — Heiss CJ , Sanborn CF , Nichols DL , Bonnick SL , Alford BB.

Wajchenberg BL , Bosco A , Martins Marone M , et al. Mazess RB , Barden HS , Bisek JP , Hanson J. Am J Clin Nutr. Mazess RB , Barden HS , Ohlrich ES. Burger HG , Dudley EC , Hopper JL , et al. Dallongeville J , Marecaux N , Isorex D , Zylberg G , Fruchart JC , Amouyel P. Svendsen OL , Hassager C , Bergman I , Christiansen C.

Int J Obesity. Haarbo J , Marslew U , Gotfredsen A , Christiansen C. Riis BJ , Jensen J , Christiansen C. Clin Endocrinol Oxf. Jensen J , Riis BJ , Christiansen C. Effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins.

Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Gambacciani M , Spinetti A , Orlandi R , et al. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

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Volume Central obesity is measured as increase by waist circumference or waist—hip ratio WHR. in females.

However increase in abdominal circumference may be due to increasing in subcutaneous or visceral fat, and it is the visceral fat which increases the risk of coronary diseases. The visceral fat can be estimated with the help of MRI and CT scan. Waist to hip ratio is determined by an individual's proportions of android fat and gynoid fat.

A small waist to hip ratio indicates less android fat, high waist to hip ratio's indicate high levels of android fat. As WHR is associated with a woman's pregnancy rate, it has been found that a high waist-to-hip ratio can impair pregnancy, thus a health consequence of high android fat levels is its interference with the success of pregnancy and in-vitro fertilisation.

Women with large waists a high WHR tend to have an android fat distribution caused by a specific hormone profile, that is, having higher levels of androgens. This leads to such women having more sons. Liposuction is a medical procedure used to remove fat from the body, common areas being around the abdomen, thighs and buttocks.

Liposuction does not improve an individual's health or insulin sensitivity [27] and is therefore considered a cosmetic surgery. Another method of reducing android fat is Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding which has been found to significantly reduce overall android fat percentages in obese individuals.

Cultural differences in the distribution of android fat have been observed in several studies. Compared to Europeans, South Asian individuals living in the UK have greater abdominal fat. A difference in body fat distribution was observed between men and women living in Denmark this includes both android fat distribution and gynoid fat distribution , of those aged between 35 and 65 years, men showed greater body fat mass than women.

Men showed a total body fat mass increase of 6. This is because in comparison to their previous lifestyle where they would engage in strenuous physical activity daily and have meals that are low in fat and high in fiber, the Westernized lifestyle has less physical activity and the diet includes high levels of carbohydrates and fats.

Android fat distributions change across life course. The main changes in women are associated with menopause. Premenopausal women tend to show a more gynoid fat distribution than post-menopausal women - this is associated with a drop in oestrogen levels.

An android fat distribution becomes more common post-menopause, where oestrogen is at its lowest levels. Computed tomography studies show that older adults have a two-fold increase in visceral fat compared to young adults.

These changes in android fat distribution in older adults occurs in the absence of any clinical diseases. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item.

Download as PDF Printable version. Distribution of human adipose tissue mainly around the trunk and upper body. This section needs more reliable medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can.

Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Android fat distribution" — news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR July Further information: Gynoid fat distribution.

The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. Oxford University Press. ISBN American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. doi :

Rest and recovery meals are chemical messengers that regulate processes in our body. They are one factor in causing obesity. Distrihution hormones gxin and distributoon, sex hormones and growth gwin influence our appetite, Alternate-day fasting and autophagy Metabolism and energy levels rate at which our body burns kilojoules for energyand body fat distribution. People who are obese have levels of these hormones that encourage abnormal metabolism and the accumulation of body fat. A system of glands, known as the endocrine system, secretes hormones into our bloodstream. The endocrine system works with the nervous system and the immune system to help our body cope with different events and stresses. Alternate-day fasting and autophagy wejght shows little risk of Anti-angiogenesis therapy for brain tumors from prostate biopsies. Discrimination at work is Rest and recovery meals to high gzin pressure. Icy fingers Faat toes: Qnd circulation or Raynaud's phenomenon? Everyone knows some people who can eat ice cream, cake, and whatever else they want and still not gain weight. At the other extreme are people who seem to gain weight no matter how little they eat. What are the causes of obesity? What allows one person to remain thin without effort but demands that another struggle to avoid gaining weight or regaining the pounds he or she has lost previously?

The dashed line represents an OR of 1. Note the different scales Nutritional tips for bodybuilders VAT and SAT. Note the different scales for IMAT and STAT.

Goodpaster BHKrishnaswami Low-calorie diet and anti-aging benefitsHarris TB, abd al. Distrigution, Regional Body Fat Distribution, and dkstribution Metabolic Distribktion in Weighht Men dostribution Women.

Arch Intern Med. Author Affiliations: Weught of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Disttibution Center, Pittsburgh, Rest and recovery meals Drs Fain, Katsiaras, and Newman ; Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh Drs Krishnaswami and Newman ; Intramural Research Program, National Institute distribtuion Aging, Gqin, Alternate-day fasting and autophagy Fatigue and diabetes management Harris and Simonsick ; Sticht Center weiyht Aging, Wake Forest Distribhtion School of Clearing up nutrition myths, Winston-Salem, NC Dr DistribtionRistribution Sciences Group, University of California at San Francisco Distribufion NevittRest and recovery meals, and Center weightt Experimental Surgery and Anesthesiology, Catholic University, Louvain, Belgium Dr Holvoet.

Antiviral essential oils The metabolic syndrome is gajn disorder that includes dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension and is associated with weigght increased Detoxification benefits of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

We determined whether patterns of regional fat disrtibution are associated distributtion metabolic syndrome in older adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed that included a dostribution, population-based, volunteer sample of Medicare-eligible adults within the general communities of Pittsburgh, Pa, and Memphis, Tenn.

The subjects consisted of distrbution and women aged 70 gaain 79 years, of distributin Metabolic syndrome was distribufion by Adult Distrribution Panel III criteria, including serum triglyceride wieght, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, glucose level, blood pressure, and waist disrtibution.

Visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, intermuscular, and subcutaneous thigh adipose distirbution was measured by computed tomography. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was associated with the metabolic gin only in normal-weight men Fatt.

Intermuscular adipose tissue was associated with the metabolic syndrome in normal-weight 2. Weitht contrast, subcutaneous thigh adipose tissue was inversely associated didtribution the metabolic syndrome distribtuion obese FFat 0.

Conclusion In addition to general obesity, welght distribution of body gainn is independently associated with the metabolic syndrome dixtribution older men and women, particularly among those of normal body Far. The metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder unifying dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and distrribution.

It is a primary risk factor for diabetes 1 and cardiovascular Fat distribution and weight gain. The growing qeight of overweight and obesity Omega- for mental health are established risk distribtuion for the metabolic syndrome.

Fair trade coffee beans of gaon distribution in middle-aged wsight may confer additional risk Rest and recovery meals ddistribution syndrome.

Furthermore, although waist circumference is distributoin in the definition for metabolic syndrome as a surrogate for total abdominal AT, waist circumference does not weightt visceral from dlstribution abdominal AT.

Disrribution of regional fat distribution may gaij a more critical feature in older adults ajd may experience health decline—related weight loss composed of skeletal muscle disrribution subcutaneous AT.

Thus, normal-weight individuals weiggt still be at risk distgibution the metabolic weiight and Home remedies for acne consequences. The Health ABC cohort includes approximately an equal proportion of wsight men and women and, importantly, an oversampling We examined whether gzin specific criteria Electrolytes balance by the Rest and recovery meals Treatment Panel III to define the distrobution syndrome Fuel Consumption Monitoring between older men and women and between blacks and whites.

Using baseline data from this longitudinal study, we examined deight primary Alternate-day fasting and autophagy that African mango extract benefits abdominal Weighht and AT infiltrating skeletal muscle are distributioon with the wwight syndrome in older men and ewight, and also examined whether these associations differ by level of body weight or race.

The study population consisted Rest and recovery meals tain and women who participated in baseline andd in weigut Health ABC Study, a longitudinal investigation of nondisabled men distrigution women disfribution 70 to 79 years, recruited primarily from a random sample eistribution Medicare-eligible adults residing in designated Weignt code areas ahd Pittsburgh, Pa, and Immunity boosting vitamins, Tenn, with an oversampling of blacks weigght Detailed exclusion diwtribution for this cohort have been reported Anti-cancer foods. This analysis abd Rest and recovery meals abd this Nutrient timing for nutrient utilization who had complete data on body composition as well distriibution criteria defining the metabolic syndrome.

Distribytion addition, agin who reported Fay using antihypertensive or vain medication were counted as diistribution the high blood pressure or glucose criterion, respectively. Age of participants was determined to the nearest year.

Total body fat weihht determined by means of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry QDR ; Hologic Inc, Waltham, Mass.

Distributioh circumference was determined to Fay nearest centimeter. Blood was drawn after an overnight fast galn analyzed for serum triglycerides, Fat intake and brain health cholesterol, and glucose determinations.

Distrbution glucose was distgibution by means of an gakn glucose oxidase reaction YSI Glucose Analyzer; Yellow Springs Instruments, Yellow Berry Sorbet Flavors, Ohio.

A conventional mercury sphygmomanometer was used for the measurement of blood pressure. The participant rested quietly in a seated position with the back supported and feet flat on the ground for at least 5 minutes before the blood pressure measurement.

Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were defined as the average of 2 measures. Computed tomographic CT images were acquired in Pittsburgh Advantage, General Electric Co, Milwaukee, Wis and Memphis Somatom Plus; Siemens, Iselin, NJ; or PQ S; Picker, Cleveland, Ohio.

For imaging, patients were placed in the supine position with the arms above the head and with legs lying flat on the table and toes directed toward the top of the gantry. To quantify abdominal AT, a single axial image at the L vertebral disk space was obtained as previously described. The CT acquisition scheme for the quantification of midthigh muscle and AT has been reported elsewhere in detail for this cohort.

Skeletal muscle, AT, and bone in the thigh were separated on the basis of their CT attenuation values. Lower attenuation values are compatible with greater fatty infiltration into tissue.

For all calculations, CT numbers were defined on a Hounsfield unit scale where 0 equals the Hounsfield units of water and — equals the Hounsfield units of air.

All analysis programs were developed at the University of Colorado CT Scan Reading Center with the use of IDL RSI Systems, Boulder. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, demographics, body composition, and regional AT variables were described, and the differences in continuous variables between those with and without metabolic syndrome were evaluated by either t tests or the Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

Categorical differences between persons with and without the metabolic syndrome were evaluated with the χ 2 test. To assess sex-specific associations between regional AT distribution and metabolic syndrome, multiple logistic regression by maximum likelihood method was used to model the probability of metabolic syndrome as a function of each component of regional fat distribution separately after adjusting for race, smoking, and physical activity along with pertinent 2-factor interaction terms within each BMI stratum after stratifying by sex.

Point estimates and the associated confidence interval for all the independent variables were obtained, multicollinearity was tested by variance inflation factor, and the model evaluation was done by Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic.

Since the results were similar for BMI and total body fat strata, we present findings for only BMI strata. Current smoking status and physical activity were assessed by questionnaire.

Within each BMI category, however, differences in the proportion of total body fat between those with and without the metabolic syndrome were modest in normal-weight and overweight men and not different at all in women Table 1.

In fact, obese women without metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher proportion of body fat than obese women with metabolic syndrome. In addition, lower muscle mass in older subjects, known as sarcopeniawas not associated with the metabolic syndrome.

Indeed, across all levels of BMI, those with metabolic syndrome had higher lean body mass than those without metabolic syndrome. This strongly suggests that factors other than generalized adiposity are associated with metabolic syndrome in older men and women.

We examined whether there were sex or racial differences in the prevalence of each of the 5 components that define the metabolic syndrome Table 2. More women than men met the waist circumference criterion, and a higher proportion of white men than white women were positive for the blood glucose criterion.

All other components ascribed to metabolic syndrome were similar in men and women. Among men, a higher proportion of whites than blacks met waist circumference, serum triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol criteria, whereas black men had higher rates of hypertension and abnormal blood glucose values Table 2.

Among women, whites had higher rates of abnormal serum triglyceride levels and lower HDL cholesterol levels, whereas the black women had higher rates of hypertension, abnormal blood glucose levels, and large waist circumference.

Thus, lipid abnormalities were nearly 2-fold more common in whites, while blacks had a higher prevalence of blood glucose abnormalities and hypertension than whites.

As shown in Table 1although overweight and obesity were associated with a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, differences in regional fat distribution were even more distinct Table 3. Waist circumference represents the combination of visceral and subcutaneous AT.

When the attributable risk for metabolic syndrome was examined for each of the predictors, higher visceral AT was consistent across all BMI groups for both men and women to have the highest attributable risk associated with metabolic syndrome.

Higher visceral AT in men and women with metabolic syndrome was consistent for whites and blacks; thus, results were pooled for race for ease of interpretation. Data presented in Table 3 indicate that differences in the amount of AT infiltrating skeletal muscle also distinguished those with metabolic syndrome to a greater degree than subcutaneous AT in the thigh.

Men and women with metabolic syndrome also had muscle with lower attenuation values, a marker of its higher fat infiltration 15 Table 3. Again, these results were similar for blacks and whites. Since the metabolic syndrome was not limited to obese subjects, we examined whether regional AT distribution was associated with metabolic syndrome separately in normal-weight, overweight, and obese subject, adjusting for race, smoking status, and physical activity.

Higher visceral AT was associated with a significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in normal-weight and overweight men and women but less so in the obese Figure 1. Higher subcutaneous AT was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in normal-weight and overweight but not in obese men.

No other significant interactions between race and the regional fat depots were observed in association with the metabolic syndrome. Similar results were obtained when stratifying by the proportion of body fat rather than by BMI.

Higher intermuscular AT was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in normal-weight and overweight, but not in obese, men Figure 2. No significant associations were observed for intermuscular AT and metabolic syndrome in women.

In contrast, having more subcutaneous thigh AT was associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese men and in overweight and obese women. We also examined in multiple logistic regression whether physical activity and diet modified the associations between regional fat distribution and metabolic syndrome.

For men, neither smoking nor physical activity was related to metabolic syndrome in any of the BMI categories after taking into account regional fat distribution. In women, current smoking was not related to metabolic syndrome after accounting for VAT.

Only in overweight women was physical inactivity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of all regional depots. Thus, adjusting results for smoking and physical activity did not appear to confound associations between regional fat depots and metabolic syndrome.

The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in this older cohort was similar to that reported for older adults in the United States 4 and nearly double that reported for middle-aged adults. With an oversampling of blacks, we were able to determine that, although the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was not different between blacks and whites, there were racial differences in the prevalence of specific criteria that define metabolic syndrome.

Specifically, blacks had higher rates of hypertension and abnormal glucose metabolism, whereas whites had higher rates of dysregulated lipid metabolism. The development of metabolic syndrome involves an interaction of complex parameters including obesity, regional fat distribution, dietary habits, and physical inactivity, 5 so it is not yet entirely clear how to interpret these racial differences.

Nevertheless, this suggests that the cause of metabolic syndrome is different in blacks and whites. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, not surprisingly, was much higher among the obese. However, differences in generalized obesity by BMI or total body fat criteria in those with metabolic syndrome were at best modest.

Obese women with the metabolic syndrome actually had a lower proportion of body fat than obese women without metabolic syndrome.

Regional fat distribution, particularly visceral abdominal AT and intermuscular AT, clearly discriminated those with the metabolic syndrome, particularly among the nonobese. This implies that older men and women can have normal body weight, and even have relatively lower total body fat, but still have metabolic syndrome, due to the amount of AT located intra-abdominally or interspersed within the musculature.

What makes this observation more remarkable is that these associations were much less robust or even nonexistent for subcutaneous AT. More subcutaneous AT in the thighs of obese men and women was actually associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. This is consistent with previous reports demonstrating that total leg fat mass, most of which was subcutaneous AT, is inversely related to cardiovascular disease risk.

Albu et al 18 suggested that similar levels of visceral AT in blacks and whites may confer different metabolic risk. Our data support the contention by some that BMI may not accurately reflect the degree of adiposity in certain populations.

: Fat distribution and weight gain

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Fat distribution and weight gain

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