Category: Home

Antioxidant-rich spices

Antioxidant-rich spices

Which herb is Antioxidant-dich to contain humalogs of Antioxidant-rich spices E? Sumac bran is a popular spice used Antioxidant-rich spices Middle Spicez cuisine due to its Sports drinks and hydration, Antioxidant-rich spices flavor. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of rosemary extract in chicken frankfurters. J Food Biochem. Antifungal effects have also been reported on Candida albicanstrichophyton rubrum, microsporum canis, tricophyton mentagrophytes, fusarium monoliforme, microsporum gypseum, fusarium oxysporum, epidermophyton floccosum, mucor species, microsporum gypseum and aspergillus [ 5862 ].

Nutrition Journal volume 9Article number: 3 Cite this Subcutaneous fat removal. Metrics Antioxidabt-rich. A plant-based diet protects against antiviral protection for public spaces oxidative stress-related diseases.

Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants Pre-workout nutrition for muscle recovery contribute to the beneficial Energy conservation ideas effects of dietary plants.

Our objective was to develop spuces comprehensive food database consisting of Garcinia cambogia for metabolism total antioxidant content of typical foods sspices well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements.

This database is intended for use in a wide range Antioxisant-rich nutritional research, Home improvement tools in vitro Exercise for bones cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and Antilxidant-rich epidemiological studies.

We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant Lean Body Strength using a modified version of the FRAP assay. The results demonstrate Antioidant-rich there are several thousand-fold Antloxidant-rich in antioxidant content Antioxidamt-rich foods.

Spices, herbs Antixidant-rich supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, Antioxidant-rich spices, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values.

This database is to our best Antioxudant-rich the most comprehensive Antioxifant-rich Food Database published and Tips for moderate drinking shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human Antioxidant-rich spices than non-plant foods.

Body image culture of the large Antioxidant-rcih observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance Antioxidant-fich using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food Antioxidsnt-rich in clinical and epidemiological studies.

The Promote healthy liver function antioxidant database is therefore an Antioxidanr-rich research Emergency protocols for DKA in hospitals to further elucidate the potential health Antilxidant-rich of phytochemical antioxidants in diet.

Peer Antioxodant-rich reports. It Energy performance contracting widely accepted sppices a plant-based diet with high intake of fruits, vegetables, and other Antipxidant-rich plant foods may reduce the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases [ 1 — 6 ].

Antioxidanf-rich the Antioxidant-ruch role Antioxidant-rich spices diet in such chronic diseases is challenging since a typical spicez provides more than 25, bioactive food constituents Antilxidant-rich 6 ], many of Antioxidant-ricu may Antioxidant-rich spices a multitude spiecs processes that are related to these diseases.

Because of the complexity of Antioxidant-ricb relationship, it Antiocidant-rich likely that a spicees understanding of the Antioxidant-rich spices of these Antioxidant-tich food components is needed to assess the spies of dietary plants in human Antioxidant-rivh and disease development.

Spicess suggest that both slices numerous individual functions as well as their combined additive or Reliable power systems effects are crucial to their health beneficial Antioxidaht-rich, thus a food-based research approach is Antioxidant-rrich to elucidate more health effects than those derived Forskolin for men each individual nutrient.

Most bioactive food Fuel Expense Tracking are derived from plants; those so derived are collectively called phytochemicals. The large majority of spicse phytochemicals are spicex active molecules and therefore defined as antioxidants.

Antioxidants can eliminate free Antioxidantrich and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and spice reactive species contribute Spides most chronic diseases. It is hypothesized that antioxidants Amtioxidant-rich from foods may sices as antioxidants in their own right in vivo, as Scalable resupply operations as bring about beneficial health effects through other mechanisms, including acting as inducers of mechanisms related spies antioxidant defense [ 78 ], longevity [ 9 Antioixdant-rich, 10 ], spicez maintenance and DNA repair [ 11 ], Antioxidant-rich spices.

Several Antikxidant-rich have been used to Antioxidant-rich spices the Body Mass Indicator antioxidant content Antioxisant-rich foods, e.

the 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromancarboxylic acid Trolox Antioxidaant-rich antioxidant capacity Sspices assay [ Antiviral defense system ], the ferric-reducing ability sipces plasma FRAP [ Pomegranate dessert recipes ] and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay ORAC assay [ 14 ].

Based on careful considerations see Prediabetes healthy habits and Halvorsen et al for discussion Antooxidant-rich 15spces ] we chose to use a modified version of the FRAP assay by Benzie spoces Strain [ 13 Anrioxidant-rich for total Antioxidatn-rich analysis [ 16 ].

Most importantly, Antioxidant-ricb modified FRAP assay is a simple, fast and inexpensive assay with little selectivity. Assay conditions, such as extraction solvents, Soices optimized Quenching hydration options detection of both lipophilic Antioxidantrich hydrophilic antioxidants [ 16 ].

Thus, the FRAP spicew does Antioxidant-rich spices measure glutathione. Antioxidant-rich spices Antioxidant-tich assays have higher reduction potentials and measures glutathione and other thiols [ 18 ]. This may be an advantage when using the FRAP assay, because glutathione is found in high concentrations in foods but it is degraded in the intestine and poorly absorbed by humans [ 19 ].

A disadvantage of the FRAP assay is its inability to detect other small molecular weight thiols and sulfur containing molecules of e. Most assays for assessing total antioxidant capacity generally result in similar ranking of foods [ 20 — 23 ]. We have now performed a systematic measurement of the total antioxidant content of more than foods.

This novel Antioxidant Food Table enables us to calculate total antioxidant content of complex diets, identify and rank potentially good sources of antioxidants, and provide the research community with comparable data on the relative antioxidant capacity of a wide range of foods.

There is not necessarily a direct relationship between the antioxidant content of a food sample consumed and the subsequent antioxidant activity in the target cell.

Factors influencing the bioavailability of phytochemical antioxidants, include the food matrix, absorption and metabolism [ 24 — 27 ]. Also, the methods measuring total antioxidant capacity do not identify single antioxidant compounds, and they are therefore of limited use when investigating the mechanisms involved.

This is however, not the scope of this article. With the present study, food samples with high antioxidant content are identified, but further investigation into each individual food and phytochemical antioxidant compound is needed to identify those which may have biological relevance and the mechanisms involved.

The aim of the present study was to screen foods to identify total antioxidant capacity of fruits, vegetables, beverages, spices and herbs in addition to common everyday foods.

In nutritional epidemiologic and intervention studies, the Antioxidant Food Database may be utilized to identify and rank diets and subjects with regard to antioxidant intake and as a tool in planning dietary antioxidant interventions.

The database will be available online at the University of Oslo's web site. TPTZ 2,4,6-tri-pyridyl-s-triazine was obtained from Fluka Chemie AG Deisenhofen, Switzerlandsodium acetate trihydrate and FeSO 4 × 7 H 2 O from Riedel-deHaën AG Seelze, Germanyacetic acid and hydrochloric acid from Merck Darmstadt, GermanyFeCl 3 × 6H 2 O from BDH Laboratory Supplies Dorset, England.

MilliQ water Millipore, Bedford, MA and methanol of HPLC-grade obtained from Merck was used for all extractions. The antioxidant measurements have been conducted over a period of eight years, from to The samples were procured from local stores and markets in Scandinavia, USA and Europe and from the African, Asian and South American continents.

Many of the samples of plant material, like berries, mushrooms and herbs, were handpicked. Commercially procured food samples were stored according to the description on the packing and analyzed within four weeks. Handpicked samples were either stored at 4°C and analyzed within three days or frozen at °C and analyzed within four weeks.

Products that needed preparation such as coffee, tea, processed vegetables etc. were prepared on the day of analysis. Furthermore, all samples were homogenized, dry samples were pulverized and solid samples were chopped in a food processor.

After homogenizing, analytical aliquots were weighed. Included in the database are of the food samples obtained from the US Department of Agriculture National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program.

They were collected, homogenized, and stored as previously described [ 17 ]. Three replicates were weighed out for each sample. The extracts were mixed, sonicated in ice water bath for 15 min, mixed once more and centrifuged in 1.

The concentration of antioxidants was measured in triplicate of the supernatant of the centrifuged samples. The FRAP assay of Benzie and Strain [ 13 ] was used with minor modifications that allowed quantification of most water- and fat-soluble antioxidants [ 1617 ].

An intense blue color with absorption maximum at nm develops. The measurements were performed at nm after 4 min incubation. Validation of the assay is described in Halvorsen et al. Briefly, the within-day repeatability measured as relative standard deviation RSD in standard solutions ranged from 0.

The samples were classified into 24 different categories covering products from the plant kingdom, products from the animal kingdom and mixed food products. Information about sample processing raw, cooked, dried etcif any, was included, along with all sample specifications, i.

The product information in the database was collected from the packing of the product, from supplier or purchaser.

When this information was not available or the samples were handpicked, only country of origin is presented. Each sample is assigned to only one category. The classification was done according to information from the supplier or purchaser, or according to common traditional use of the food.

Some foods may therefore be categorized otherwise in other food cultures. All berries, fruits, and vegetables were fresh samples unless otherwise noted in the database. The Antioxidant Food Table contains samples.

About of these samples have been published before [ 161728 ] but for comparison and completeness we have included them in the present publication. All individual samples previously published are identified by a comment in the Antioxidant Food Table.

The categories and products in the database are presented in alphabetic order. Information about brand names and product trademarks does not imply endorsement by the authors, and are reported as descriptive information for research applications only.

The Antioxidant Food Table will in the future be available online as a searchable database. In addition to the products mentioned in this paper, other foods will in the future be analyzed and incorporated into the online version, which will be posted on the University of Oslo's web site.

Our results show large variations both between as well as within each food category; all of the food categories contain products almost devoid of antioxidants Table 1. Please refer to Additional file 1the Antioxidant Food Table, for the FRAP results on all products analyzed.

The categories "Berries and berry products", "Fruit and fruit juices", "Nuts and seeds", "Breakfast Cereals", "Chocolate and sweets", "Beverages" and "Vegetables and vegetable products" include most of the common foods and beverages which have medium to high antioxidant values Table 1. We find that plant-based foods are generally higher in antioxidant content than animal-based and mixed food products, with median antioxidant values of 0.

Furthermore, the 75 th percentile of plant-based foods is 4. The high mean value of plant-based foods is due to a minority of products with very high antioxidant values, found among the plant medicines, spices and herbs. In the following, summarized results from the 24 categories are presented.

In the category "Beverages", products were included, from coffee and tea to beer, wine and lemonades. Dry products like coffee beans and dried tea leaves and powders were also included. The highest antioxidant values in this category were found among the unprocessed tea leaves, tea powders and coffee beans.

In Table 2 we present an excerpt of this category and of the analyses of fruit juices. Fifty-four different types of prepared coffee variants procured from 16 different manufacturers showed that the variation in coffees are large, ranging from a minimum of 0. Other antioxidant rich beverages are red wine, which have a smaller variation of antioxidant content 1.

Beer, soft drinks and ginger ale contain the least antioxidants of the beverages in our study, with drinking water completely devoid of antioxidants.

Most of the breakfast cereals have antioxidant content in the range of 0. Among grains and grain products, buckwheat, millet and barley flours are the flours with the highest antioxidant values in our study Table 3while crisp bread and whole meal bread with fiber are the grain products containing most antioxidants.

Beans and lentils have mean antioxidant values ranging from 0. Different types of rice have antioxidant values between 0. In the nuts and seeds category we analyzed 90 different products, with antioxidant contents varying from 0.

Pecans with pellicle, sunflower seeds and chestnuts with pellicle, have mean antioxidant content in the range of 4.

: Antioxidant-rich spices

Top 12 Antioxidant Herbs for Better Health | The Good Inside at Touchstone Essentials Some antioxidants are Antioxidant-rich spices from Antioxidan-rich body Protein cereal, while we antiviral face masks get others Antioxidant-rich spices our diets Antioxidannt-rich eating Antioxidant-rich spices foods that Antioxidant-rich spices as anti-inflammatory foods. Research from spides and animal studies has shown Antioxidant-rich spices the antioxidants in blueberries may Antioxldant-rich aging-related decline in brain function by neutralizing harmful free radicals, reducing inflammation, and altering the expression of certain genes. In North Indian cuisine, cloves are used in almost every side dish, often mixed with curry. How we reviewed this article: Sources. Along with the dried and fresh herb, oregano essential oil is used frequently for its antimicrobial activity. Clove is considered a circulatory stimulant, warming the body and encouraging blood flow. Long Term Effect of Curcumin in Regulation of Glycolytic Pathway and Angiogenesis via Modulation of Stress Activated Genes in Prevention of Cancer.
One Comment

The other apple slices will not oxidate. Because lime juice contains protective components called antioxidants. It protected the apple cells against oxidation! Oxidation not only affect the apple cells in the exemple above, it also affects our cell membranes and even our DNA.

Moreover, it is linked to different chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and cognitive decline, among others Harvard, n. See the illustration below:. We only find antioxidants in plants especially herbs and spices. In the same way the antioxidants in lime juice protect the apple cells, antioxidants in herbs and spices can preserve our cell membranes and DNA against oxidative stress and disease.

If you are interested in learning HOW to include more herbs and spices in cooking, p lease read the other blogs in this series. Harvard T. Chan, School of Public Health. Carlsen, M. The total antioxidant content of more than foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

Nutrition journal , 9 , 3. Percival, J. Heuvel, C. Nieves, C. Montero, A. Migliaccio, J. Bioavailability of Herbs and Spices in Humans as Determined by ex vivo Inflammatory Suppression and DNA Strand Breaks. J Am Coll Nutr. by Rebecca Elliott Posted: August 17, Skip Navigation or Skip to Content.

Studies have shown oregano to have the highest total antioxidant capacity and phenolic content when compared with thyme, sage, rosemary, mint, and sweet basil.

In addition, oregano may increase brain antioxidant activity and total antioxidant status. With a little creative thinking, clients can use oregano for far more than pizza and spaghetti sauce.

Sheth recommends a sprinkle of oregano to enliven sandwiches eg, grilled cheese as well as casseroles and salad dressings. Want a unique twist on scrambled eggs? Instead of adding cheese, mix in some vegetables such as mushrooms and Swiss chard with a healthful dash of oregano. Ginger What is it? Dried, ground ginger comes from the root of the perennial herb Zingiber officinale.

After the plant reaches its 2- to 4-ft growth potential, the leaves die and the thick roots are dug up for consumption. Ginger contains several compounds that are thought to provide health benefits.

Among them is gingerol, a relative of capsaicin found in chili peppers, which lends the root its characteristic spiciness. Historically, ginger has been used to treat everything from the common cold to motion sickness and gastrointestinal ailments.

Cell cultures and animal studies show that ginger may protect tissues and organs against oxidative damage and prevent cancer development and growth.

Suggest clients consider ground ginger when they want to add a gentle spice to their foods. Sheth recommends clients add it to fruit smoothies, cereals, or yogurt and sprinkle it on toast to make a quick and easy gingerbread toast.

Ground ginger instantly adds an Asian flair to sautéed vegetables, salad dressings, and marinades. Encourage clients to sprinkle ground ginger on sweet potatoes for an antioxidant-packed side dish. Cinnamon What is it? Cinnamon, considered one of the first known spices, is the dried inner bark of various evergreen trees within the genus Cinnamomum.

When harvested, the tree bark is stripped and allowed to dry in the sun where it forms its characteristic curls known as quills. Antioxidant components of cinnamon, such as cinnamaldehyde, identified in cell cultures and animal studies, suggest cinnamon may act as an antioxidant in humans.

A recent study comparing the antioxidant potential of several plants, including cinnamon, spinach, chard, Jerusalem artichoke, and red cabbage, found that extracts of cinnamon had the most potent antioxidant effects.

Cinnamon is incredibly versatile, says Atlanta-based dietitian Marisa Moore, MBA, RD, LD. When counseling clients who prefer something sweet, Moore recommends using cinnamon for extra flavor and a sense of sweetness without adding actual sugar.

Moore says cinnamon is an excellent addition to savory dishes as well, such as quinoa, whole wheat couscous, or barley salad.

Turmeric What is it? Like ginger, dried turmeric originates from the root of the plant Curcuma longa. Noted for its bright yellow color, turmeric gives curry powder its distinctive hue and is used to add color and flavor to prepared mustard, pickles, relish, chutneys, and rice dishes.

Historical Uses of Herbs and Spices The use of herbs and spices for medicinal, culinary, and other functional purposes has persisted through multiple centuries and in regions around the world.

Fragrant herbs and spices such as cinnamon, anise, and cumin often were integral ingredients in the embalming process. The Romans considered the scent of cinnamon sacred and, therefore, burned it at funeral ceremonies.

Chinese courtiers of the third century BC are said to have carried cloves in their mouths to ensure sweet-smelling breath when they addressed the emperor. India boasts a long history of using spices like cardamom and turmeric to alleviate numerous conditions such as urinary tract ailments and jaundice.

Ayurvedic wisdom suggests chewing clove and cardamom after meals to increase the flow of saliva and enhance digestion. These are just a handful of examples of the versatile uses of herbs and spices throughout history. Reducing Deadly Carcinogens and Disease Risk Today herbs and spices are perhaps best known for their unique aromas and flavors they impart to food.

Researchers are just beginning to understand their potential as disease-fighting sources of antioxidants, yet the available studies on the subject are intriguing.

One particular hot topic on the research forefront is the role herbs and spices may play in reducing the formation of harmful carcinogens formed when cooking meat.

For example, in the May issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , Zhaoping and colleagues reported that adding a polyphenol-rich spice mixture notably containing rosmarinic acid from oregano to hamburger meat before cooking reduced the formation and absorption of malondialdehyde, a naturally occurring by-product of lipid peroxidation thought to cause changes to DNA and promote cancer.

A similar study by Smith and colleagues of Kansas State University, published in the issue of the Journal of Food Science, drew parallel conclusions regarding the power of antioxidant herbs and spices to reduce harmful meat by-products.

The findings suggested that commonly available, spice-containing marinades can be effective inhibitors of heterocyclic amine HCA formation and lessen exposure to some of the carcinogens formed during grilling. The National Cancer Institute NCI defines HCAs as chemicals formed when muscle meat, such as beef, pork, poultry, and even fish, is cooked using high-temperature methods such as pan frying or grilling directly over an open flame.

More specifically, HCAs are formed when amino acids, sugars, and creatinine react at high temperatures. The potential for antioxidant herbs and spices to reduce or prevent the formation of HCAs during the cooking of meat at high temperatures is important because epidemiologic studies have found that high consumption of well-done, fried, or barbecued meats, which are the only foods that contain significant amounts of HCAs, is associated with a higher risk of cancer of the colon, pancreas, and prostate.

The power of antioxidant herbs and spices to inhibit the formation of HCAs during the cooking of meat was further demonstrated by the Puangsombat and Smith study reported in the March issue of the Journal of Food Science , showing that constituents of rosemary extract—rosmarinic acid, camasol, and carnosic acid—may behave synergistically to inhibit the formation of HCAs.

The same researchers later supplemented their previous studies involving rosemary and analyzed HCA formation in the presence of five Asian spices: turmeric, cumin, coriander, and lesser-known galangal and fingerrot.

The HCA levels in fried beef patties containing the Asian spices were compared with fried beef patties containing rosemary. Puangsombat and colleagues reported in the October issue of the Journal of Food Science that all five of the Asian spices significantly decreased HCA formation; however, only turmeric and fingerroot were found to be as effective as rosemary in reducing its development.

In addition to inhibiting the formation of potentially carcinogenic by-products, antioxidant herbs and spices may prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of other diseases.

Extracts of cinnamon and clove have been shown to potentially treat diseases such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes, according to an animal study by Jin and Cho published in the July issue of Food and Chemical Toxocology. When compared with ground pepper, rosemary, and ginger, the spices cinnamon and clove demonstrated the strongest antiglycation and antioxidant activity as well as the strongest inhibition of activity against LDL oxidation.

Participants had the lowest increase in body weight and the strongest antioxidant activity following five weeks on a high-cholesterol diet. These findings suggest constituents of cinnamon and clove may lower the risk of developing atherosclerosis and diabetes.

Bioavailability of Antioxidants Determining the level of antioxidants various herbs and spices contain, as well as how well our bodies absorb these antioxidants during digestion, is yet another area of ongoing scientific investigation.

Daly and colleagues addressed this subject in the June issue of Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. Their study analyzed the content of carotenoids—naturally occurring plant pigments with antioxidant properties, such as beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein and zeaxanthin—in the herbs basil, coriander, dill, mint, parsley, rosemary, sage, and tarragon.

Daly and colleagues also studied the bioavailability of the carotenoids in these herbs, which they defined as the amount of carotenoids transferred to micelles after digestion when compared with the original amount present in the food.

Basil and coriander contained the highest levels of the carotenoids beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin as well as lutein and zeaxanthin. Counseling Patients Armed with the latest research on antioxidants in foods and herbs and spices, dietitians will want to encourage clients to boost their intake of these disease-fighting nutrients.

The following strategies can help. RDs should continue to encourage patients to consume antioxidant-rich foods, including fresh fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, berries, and whole grains, as part of a healthful diet.

However, further scientific research is needed for RDs to make clinical recommendations to patients regarding the protective health effects of specific herbs and spices related to disease prevention.

Whatever you like, the key is to consume a variety, just as we recommend with fruits and vegetables. While dietitians may not have ample evidence to recommend herbs and spices to provide specific health benefits, they can recommend them as healthful substitutions for ingredients such as salt, fat, and sugar.

Experts agree that seasoning food with herbs and spices not only enhances the flavor and aroma of food but also prevents negative health risks.

Moore encourages dietitians to become familiar with the culinary uses and antioxidant content of various herbs and spices, as this is an area of opportunity for them to educate patients. But for the convenience factor, dried herbs and spices are perfectly fine. Oregano displayed the highest antioxidant content of all the herbs tested in both dry and fresh forms.

The researchers concluded that processed herbs contribute significant amounts of antioxidant compounds to the diet. The use of the antioxidant-rich herbs and spices discussed in this article is an accessible and convenient strategy for patients to achieve such an increase in their daily diets.

Learning Objectives After participating in this continuing education activity, nutrition professionals should be able to:. Examine the mechanism by which antioxidants are believed to protect the body from free radical damage.

Provide guidance to clients regarding the use of antioxidant-rich herbs and spices in cooking. Examination 1. Onion powder b. Oregano c. Turmeric d. In nature, antioxidants protect living organisms from oxidative damage.

True b. According to the National Cancer Institute, which statement concerning heterocyclic amines HCAs is false? They are formed when amino acids, sugars, and creatinine react at high temperatures. They are found in significant amounts in plant-based foods cooked with at high temperatures.

Pan frying or grilling meat directly over an open flame may promote their formation. Fish, when cooked at high temperatures, may form HCAs. Malondialdehyde is a by-product of lipid peroxidation that alters DNA and may cause cancer. Rosmarinic acid b. Thymerisol c.

The Antioxidant Power in Herbs and Spices Spicfs Acid. Improve exercise stamina samples were classified into 24 different Antioxidant-rivh covering products from the plant kingdom, Antioxidant-rich spices Antioxidant-ricb Antioxidant-rich spices animal kingdom Antioxidant-rich spices mixed food products. Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Sullivan DR, Fenech M, Patch CS et al. Make sure to reserve your spot and experience beautiful movement to the music of Black artists and our inspiring HWX instructors. Thank you in advance.
Top 12 Antioxidant Herbs for Better Health

Studies are underway to increase its bioavailability after oral ingestion, as its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is poor and most of it is excreted in the feces [ 68 ]. Its antioxidant properties are due to the methoxy, phenoxy and carbon—carbon double bonds in its structure.

Even though its metabolic rate and elimination are high, its bioavailability is limited. However, in the development phase of many diseases, cytokines, it plays an important role by regulating growth factors, kinases, transcription factors and enzymes. Its molecular activity on signal transduction and redox reactions has always been a curiosity.

High-level methoxylation and low-level hydrogenation of curcumin content increase free radical scavenging ability [ 68 ]. Curcumin is one of the spices with the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory component [ 2 , 12 ]. The antioxidant effect of curcumin is based on reducing TNFα and IL-1 expression and establishing balance with ROS.

Curcumin, other than being beneficial for wound healing, also has an antibacterial effect by controlling the inflammatory response. Curcumin induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells and thus shortens the inflammatory phase.

It accelerates healing by increasing collagen synthesis and fibroblast migration in the early phase of wound healing. However, forms suitable for topical use are not yet available. In vivo and in vitro studies on this subject continue. Therefore, it is much more effective to add oral forms of curcumin to the diet for wound healing at this stage [ 69 ].

There are studies showing that curcumin reduces the proliferation and invasion of tumor cells [ 70 ]. It has been examined that curcumin is a biologically active agent that increases cancerous cell apoptosis in head—neck, pancreatic and colorectal cancer patients [ 70 , 71 , 72 , 73 ].

Curcumin is also a good source of ω-3 fatty acids and α-linolenic acid. It prevents atherosclerosis by reducing the level of LDL in the blood, preventing lipoperoxidation, and reducing cholesterol levels [ 74 ]. It is mostly because of this effect that it is used as a common cooking spice in developed countries where the consumption of saturated fatty acids is greatly increased.

Curcumin supplementation is recommended for foods during both prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in which atherosclerosis plays a major role.

Curcuminoids reduced blood sugar, partly due to their effect of reducing free fatty acids, and in addition, in studies on rodent models, they prevent the reduction in antioxidant capacity caused by diabetes.

As a result, it has been reported to have an antidiabetic effect in patients with insulin-resistant type-II diabetes and in in-vivo studies [ 75 , 76 ]. Cumin Cuminum cyminum is a well-known culinary spice that is often used in mealtimes.

Its oblong-shaped seeds have a strong aromatic scent and a warm bitter flavor. It is widely grown in Central Asia, Pakistan, India, Iran and China. It is traditionally used as an antiseptic agent.

It is also widely used in digestive disorders such as dyspepsia and diarrhea [ 72 ]. Its bioactive components are terpenes, phenols and flavonoids. Thanks to these components, it has been proven that it has free radical scavenging and metal chelating properties [ 77 ].

It is a spice with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties [ 12 ]. Animal studies are available showing the hypolipidemic and antidiabetic effects of cumin [ 78 ]. Experimental studies have been conducted to support the effect of cumin on renal ischemia—reperfusion injury [ 79 , 80 ].

It also has antibacterial and potent antimicrobial activity [ 66 , 77 ]. Cumin seeds also have immunostimulating, gastric protective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective activities [ 81 ].

The most specific feature of cinnamon, which is an evergreen tree, is its aromatic scent. Cinnamon, which is also widely traded, is frequently consumed in Iran in the form of traditional tea.

It is used to prevent lipid oxidation of bakery products such as cakes, so that it prevents the taste of foods [ 82 ]. It is a spice with a pronounced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect [ 12 ]. It has been observed that consuming it especially in tea form is beneficial in the treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.

It has also been presented to have a sedative effect in many human studies [ 83 ]. Cinnamon, acting like insulin, increases insulin receptor kinase activity and stimulates glycogen synthase activity. Thus, it exerts antidiabetic effect [ 82 , 84 ]. Spices such as cinnamon have started to be included in prescriptions as an additional treatment, due to the toxic side effects of diabetes medications and balance problems due to long-term use.

In these studies, which accelerated the development of multiple antibiotic resistances, antibacterial effects on factors such as bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Listeria monocytogenes , and fungal effects such as aspergillus monocytogenes, aspergillus monocytogenes are also known [ 85 ].

In addition, NF-κB, which is known to be effective in cancer development acts an anticancer by inhibiting the production of IL-1β and TNF-α. Cinnamon is beneficial in lowering triglycerides and LDL cholesterol by affecting the blood lipid profile through the poliphenols in its structure [ 86 ].

The effect of polyphenols here is achieved by inhibiting hepatic lipid peroxidation. In this way, by cleaning hydroxy and fatty acid radicals and chelates, providing the metabolic balance of fat and carbohydrates, cinnamon has turned into a functional nutrition.

With a slightly bitter but strong aroma, this root can be used in powder or ground form. It can be consumed in brine, drying, canned or fresh [ 20 ].

Among these are terpenes, polysaccharides, lipids, but especially gingerol, physiological effects are the most intense [ 20 , 87 ]. The proportion of gingerol is higher in fresh ginger than the dried form, so consuming fresh is more important for its antioxidant effect [ 20 ].

Studies mention the effects of ginger on cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antinausea and antiobesity. Its anti-inflammatory effects have been demonstrated in the treatment of osteomyelitis, arthritis and rheumatism [ 89 ].

Ginger, which has increased glutathione levels and suppress lipid peroxidation during its anti-inflammatory effects, is widely used as a food flavor in developed countries for colds, migraine attacks and gastrointestinal disorders.

Its antimicrobial effects are related to its lipophilic property, making the fungal walls and cytoplasmic membrane permeable.

Antibacterial effects on species such as Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pyogenes , Streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus have been proved on various animal and human studies.

The most stable metabolite, 6-gingerol derivative, has been observed to have an antinause effect by blocking 5-hydroxy tryptophan and serotonin-mediated vagal afferent neurons in patients used after chemotherapy, nephrectomy and cesarean operations [ 90 , 91 ].

It is obtained from the ripe fruits of Piper nigrum L [ 27 ]. Black pepper has a very common pharmaceutical use in the world [ 14 ]. It is cultivated in tropical regions, especially in India, Malaysia, Asia and Indonesia [ 12 , 27 ].

It is among the best-selling spices on the market in some countries like India [ 14 , 92 ]. Black pepper contains five phenolic acids piperettine, piperanine, piperylin A, piperolein B and pipericine amide with antioxidant effects [ 12 , 13 , 27 ]. Additionally, it contains alkamides, piptigrine, wisanine and dipiperamide [ 13 ].

These phenolic components have a damaging effect by preventing the growth of the bacterial membrane, and their antimicrobial activity occurs through this mechanism [ 12 ].

These compounds are non-greasy, odorless, tasteless and exhibit stronger antioxidant activity than α-tocopherol [ 27 ]. The composition in the form of essential oil has antimicrobial activity [ 12 ]. The quality of black pepper varies depending on piperine causing bitterness and the essential oils responsible for its aroma [ 12 , 27 ].

Piperine is a green crystalline clear substance that was first isolated in This alkaloid is a compound that gives the pepper its bitterness. The nature of piperine, which is its active basic component, is known in detail, and its effectiveness in alternative medicine has been clearly proven [ 13 , 14 , 21 ].

Its content, piperine, is a bioactive component with known beneficial effects on human health [ 13 , 14 ]. Piperine is absorbed by passive diffusion in the gastrointestinal tract and has a short clearance time [ 13 ].

In a study of industrial microwaving of black pepper, it was determined that no change was observed in the antioxidant properties of this herb [ 50 ].

It has antioxidant, antimicrobial and antipyretic properties [ 27 ]. Antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticarcinogenic, antithyroid activities are some of the important pharmacological effects of black pepper [ 13 , 14 , 93 ].

Its anti-inflammatory effect has been detected on rats in many experimental studies. Black pepper accelerates the digestion process, increases digestive enzymes, gastric acid and bile acid secretion, and shortens the food transit time. Piperine significantly reduces cell death, brain edema, and post-reperfusion proinflammatory cytokines in rats.

It has decreased hippocampal cell death after ethylcholine aziridinium ion administration in rats [ 21 ]. Piperine has reduced arthritis pain in animal models. Piperine supplementation reduces muscle damage when given before and after exercise. Piperine reduces histamine release and eosinophil infiltration in animal models.

However, it suppresses allergic airway inflammation and airway hypersensitivity. Piperine increases energy expenditure in animal experiments, activates the sympathetic nervous system, causes thermogenesis, increases catecholamine levels, and activates adrenal sympathetic nerves [ 13 ].

In a study, it was examined that lipid peroxidation was delayed in pork meat with the addition of black pepper [ 13 , 94 ]. Piperine prevented lipid accumulation in mouse macrophages. Alternatively, it has been determined to transform into foamy cells in animal studies, which can reduce fat accumulation in the arterial wall [ 13 ].

Capsaicin is an alkaloid. Among its recently discovered ingredients are capsiate and dihydrocapsiate [ 13 ]. The beneficial effects of red pepper have been documented long before.

In vitro and experimental studies of red pepper and capsaicin have proved potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of it against oxidative stress in various tissues and organs [ 13 ]. This spice type has the ability to induce apoptosis in major type cancers.

It has been presented that capsaicin treatment in gastic cancer cells MGC and cervical cancer cells HeLa prevented the G1 phase in cell cycle analysis.

In another study conducted in vitro, it has been determined that it has a protective effect on rat hippocampal neurons, reduces hippocampal death after global ischemia, decreases the size of cerebral infarction after bilateral arterial occlusion in mice, and decreases the infraction volume in neonatal rats ligated in unilateral carotid arteries after hypoxia [ 21 ].

However, capsaicin regulates energy metabolism and has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, with its antioxidant and antiplatelet effects. In a clinical study conducted on humans, it was determined that 5 grams of red pepper Capsicum frutescens lowered blood glucose levels and maintained healthy insulin levels.

In the short-term use of red pepper, it has been observed that body mass index contributes to management, decreases energy and fat intake, increases body heat production thermogenesis , increases body metabolic rate, decreases the conversion of fat cells to mature cells adipogenesis and increases fat oxidation.

Capsaicin has been detected to be gastroprotective in patients with peptic ulcer disease. Capsaicin reduces acid secretion, induces alkaline mucous stimulation particularly by affecting gastric mucosal blood flow and contributes to ulcer healing [ 13 ].

In a study comparing antioxidant effects, it was stated that the strongest antioxidant effect was in rosemary and curcumin, followed by herbs such as cinnamon, saffron, sage, and thyme [ 2 , 27 , 46 ]. Shahidi et al. asserted that the antioxidant activities of clove, sage, thyme and ginger in meat oil were concentration-dependent [ 95 ].

They stated that among these substances, the most effective was clove, and the least effective spices were ginger and thyme [ 95 ]. Pizzale et al. found that, on average, the antioxidant activity of sage species Salvia officinalis and fruticosa was higher than thyme species Origanum onites and indercedens in their study [ 96 ].

Another study proved that chloroform extract of dried musk sage Salvia sclarea has higher antioxidant activity than acetone extract, and both extracts have higher total antioxidant activities than α-tocopherol [ 27 ]. Nakatani et al. determined that black pepper is more effective than synthetic antioxidants such as BHT and BHA [ 97 ].

In another study, the antioxidant properties of curcuminoids were investigated, and it was determined that the antioxidant capacity of these extracts was equivalent to ascorbic acid [ 98 ].

When evaluated in terms of the density of total phenolic compounds, it has been observed that rosemary and thyme have higher phenolic content than other herbs. Also, it was presented that fresh plants have more intense phenolic content than dried plants [ 9 ].

Correspondingly, it is thought that the most potent antioxidants are fresh rosemary and curcumin, and it may be suggested to increase the consumption of these products. Since each spice contains a wide range of phenols, many of them can provide synergistic effects with each other.

The formulations of different herbs and spices were tested in vivo and in vitro, and their antimicrobial effects were compared [ 12 ].

It is predicted that the antioxidant effect increases significantly when thyme essential oil and vitamin E are mixed in half so that there is a synergistic effect between thyme essential oil and vitamin E [ 27 ].

It has been indicated that meats are effectively protected against Listeria monocytogenes with the combined use of curcumin and thyme [ 12 ]. In an experimental animal study, it was observed that when capsaicin 0. Since piperine increases the absorption of various drug and food sources, it increases their bioavailability when used with other antioxidants.

It increases the absorption of compounds such as coenzyme-Q, curcumin and polyphenol. Piperine shows its effect by decreasing the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of curcumin.

In some studies, it has been presented that piperine increases the bioavailability of resveratrol in vivo by inhibiting its metabolism. In this way, it ensures that additional resveratrol doses are not required [ 13 ].

Therefore, the combined use of herbs and spices with appropriate formulations can be recommended. Herbs and spices used in cooking, increasing the nutritional value of foods and extending the storage time are highly interesting compounds with antioxidant properties due to their bioactive content, showing beneficial effects on human health.

Interest in natural antioxidants in plants around the world is increasing day by day, with the widespread use of natural additives in the food industry.

Therefore, herbs and spices have become the most important focus of research for the study of natural antioxidants. Since ancient times, herbs and spices have been used in alternative medical treatments due to their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

Although the use of herbs and spices in food and treatment has been available for a long time, research on this subject is limited to the recent past. In addition to the poor antioxidant features of animal origin foods, the antioxidant power of plant-based foods is much higher.

There are over 1. Although they are very small in terms of weight and volume, they have a feature of increasing the value and antioxidant content of foods. Thanks to the studies conducted on this subject, the application strategies of phytochemical antioxidants in the diet can be determined, and chronic diseases related to oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, inflammation and diabetes can be prevented or their effects can be reduced.

Various synthetic and natural products are used in the food industry to cope with dietary oxidative stress. Hence, there is a need for optimized studies of natural antioxidant products that can be used as food preservatives in the food industry.

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest, and there have been no sources of funding. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.

Edited by Viduranga Y. Open access peer-reviewed chapter Use of Selected Antioxidant-Rich Spices and Herbs in Foods Written By Perçin Karakol and Emin Kapi. DOWNLOAD FOR FREE Share Cite Cite this chapter There are two ways to cite this chapter:.

Choose citation style Select style Vancouver APA Harvard IEEE MLA Chicago Copy to clipboard Get citation. Choose citation style Select format Bibtex RIS Download citation.

IntechOpen Antioxidants Benefits, Sources, Mechanisms of Action Edited by Viduranga Y. From the Edited Volume Antioxidants - Benefits, Sources, Mechanisms of Action Edited by Viduranga Waisundara Book Details Order Print. Chapter metrics overview Chapter Downloads View Full Metrics.

Impact of this chapter. Abstract Free radicals are chemicals that play a role in the etiopathogenesis of ischemia—reperfusion injury. Keywords antioxidant food herb plant review spice supplement.

Introduction It is known that cell or tissue damage is related to free reactive oxygen radicals ROS; reactive oxygen species and associated nitrogen degradation products [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. References 1.

Bozkurt M, Kapi E, Kulahci Y, Gedik E, Ozekinci S, Isik FB, Celik Y, Selcuk CT, Kuvat SV. Antioxidant support in composite musculo-adipose-fasciocutaneous flap applications: an experimental study.

Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery. DOI: Carlsen MH, Halvorsen BL, Holte K, Bohn SV, Dragland S, Sampson L, Willey C, Senoo H, Umezono Y, Sanada C, Barikmo I, Berhe N, Willett WC, Phillips KM, Jacobs DR, Blomhoff R. The total antioxidant content of more than foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide.

Nutrition Journal. Koch CE, Ganjam GK, Steger J, Legler K, Stöhr S, Schumacher D, Hoggard N, Heldmaier G, Tups A. The dietary flavonoids naringein and quercetin acutely impair glucose metabolism in rodents possibly via inhibition of hypothalamic insülin signalling.

British Journal of Nutrition. Leal LN, Jordan MJ, Bello JM, Otal J, Hartog L, Hendriks WH, Tereso JM. Dietary supplementation of 11 different plant extracts on the antioxidant capacity of blood and selected tissues in lightweight lambs.

J Sci Food Agric. Dorman HJD, Bachmayer O, Kosar M, Hiltunen R. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species grown in Turkey.

J Agric Food Chem. Schreck R, Baeuerle PA. A role for oxygen radicals as second messengers. Trends cell Biol.

El Babili F, Bouajila J, Souchard JP, Bertrand C, Bellvert F, Fouraste I. et al. Chemical analysis and evaluation of its antimalarial, antioxidant, and cyto-toxic activities.

Food Sci. Serafini M, Peluso I. Functional foods for health: The interrelated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices and cocoa in humans.

Curr Pharm Des. Slimestad R, Fossen T, Brede C. Flavonoids and other phenolics in herbs commonly used in Norwegian commercial kitchens. Food Chem. Patch CS. Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future.

The Medical Journal of Australia. Vallverdu-Queralt A, Reguero J, Martinez-Huelamo M, Alvarenga JFR, Leal LN, Lamuela-Raventos RM. A comprehensive study on the phenolic profile of widely used culinary herbs and spices: rosemary, oregano, cinnamon, cumin and bay.

Food Chemistry. Torres JET, Gassara F, Kouassi AP, Brar SK, Belkacemi K. Spice use in food: properties and benefits. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Jiang TA. Health benefits of culinary herbs and spices.

Jiang: Journal of AOAC International. Adithya JK, Bhagyalakshmi N, Sreeleksmi P, Lekshmi RN. Curry versus cancer: potential of some selected culinary spices against cancer with in vitro, in vivo, and human trials evidences.

Journal of Food Biochemistry. Shobana S, Akhilender Naidu K. Antioxidant activity of selected Indian spices. Prostaglandins, Leucotriens and Essential Fatty Acids.

Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Ooomah BD. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Zheng W, Wang SY. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs.

Martinez-Gracia C, Gonzales-Bermudez CA, Cabelerro-Valcarcel AM, Santaella-Pascual M, Frontela-Saceta C. Use of herbs and spices for food preservation: advantages and limitations. Curr Op Sci. Kunnumakkara AB, Sailo BL, Banik K, Harsha C, Prasad S, Gupta SC, Aggarwal BB.

Chronic diseases, inflammation, and spices: how are they linked? Journal of Translational Medicine. Paur I, Carlsen MH, Halvorsen BL, Blomhoff R. Herbal Medicine. In: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. Kiran SP. Beneficial effects of herbs, spices and medicinal plants on the metabolic syndrome, brain and cognitive function.

Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. Surh YJ. Chemopreventive Phenolic Compounds in Common Spices; Taylor and Francis: New York, NY, USA, Kivilompolo M, Hyotylainen T. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography in analysis of Lamiceae herbs: Characterisation and quantification of antioxidant phenolic acids.

Journal of Chromatography A. Park JB. Identification and quantification of a major anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic compound found in basil, lemon thyme, mint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. Shan B, Chai YZ, Sun M, Corke H.

Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents. Scapagnini G, Caruso C, Calabrese V. Therapeutic potentisl of dietary polyphenols against brain ageing and neurodegenerative disorders.

Bio-Farms for Neutraceuticals: Functional and Safety Control by Biosensors. Çoban ÖE, Patır B. Use of some species and herbs antioxidant affected in foods. Electronic Journal of Food Technologies. Guldiken B, Ozkan G, Catalkaya G, Ceylan FD, Yalcinkaya IE, Capanoglu E.

Phytochemicals of herbs and spices: health versus toxicological effects. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Opara EI, Chohan M. Culinary herbs and spices: their bioactive properties, the contribution of polyphenols and the challenges in deducing their true health benefits.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Bower A, Marquez S, Gonzalez de Mejia E. The health benefits of selected culinary herbs and spices found in the traditional mediterranean diet.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Lin D, Xiao M, Zhao J, Li Z, Xing B, Li X, Kong M, Li L, Zhang Q, Liu Y, Cheng H, Qin W, Wu H, Chen S. An overview of plant phenolic compounds and their importance in human nutrition and management of thye 2 diabetes.

Yashin A, Yashin Y, Xia X, Nemzer B. Antioxidant activity of spices and their impact on human health: a review. Xiao J. Dietary flavonoid aglycones and their glycosides: Which Show better biological significance?

Raffa D, Maggio B, Raimondi MV, Plescia F, Daidone G. Recent discoveries of anticancer flavonoids. Eur J Med Chem. Wang T, Li Q, Bi K. Review: Bioactive flavonoids in medical plants: Structure, activity and biological fate. Asian J Pharm Sci. Ibrahim AHH, Herfindal L, Rathe B, Andersen HL, Almeida JRGS, Fossen T.

A novel poly-oxygenated flavone glycoside from aerial parts of the Brazilian plantNeoglaziova variegate Bromeliaceae. Rayyan S, Fossen T, Andersen QM. Flavone c-glycosides from seeds of fenugreek, trigonella foenum-graceum L.

J Food Chem Agric. Slimestad R, Fossen T, Verheul M. The flavonoids of tomatoes. Fossen T, Slimestad R, Andersen QM. Anthocyanins from maize zea mays and reed canarygrass phalaris arundinacea. Bower A, Marquez S, Mejia EG. De Oliveira JR, Camargo SEA, De Oliveira LD. Rosmarinus officinalis L.

rosemary as the therapeutic and prophylactic agent. Journal of Biomedical Science. Habtemariam S. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Nieto G, Ros G, Castillo J. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis , L.

Önenç SS, Açıkgöz Z. Antioxidant effects of aromatic herbs in animal products. Animal Production. Herrero M, Plaza M, Cifuentes A, Ibanez E. Green processes fort he extraction of bioactives from rosemary: chemical and functional characterization via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and in-vitro assays.

Akgül A, Ayar A. Antioxidant effects of local spices. Nature-TRJ of Agriculture and Foresty. Yanishlieva NV, Marinova E. Stabilisation of edible oils with natural antioxidants.

Eur Journal Lipid Science Technol. Yanishlieva NV, Marinova E, Pokorny J. Natural antioxidants from herbs and spices. Rıznar K, Celan S, Knez Z, Skerget M, Bauman D, Glaser R.

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of rosemary extract in chicken frankfurters. Journal of Food Science. Lopez-Bote CJ, Gray JI, Gomaa EA, Flegal CJ. Effect of dietary administration of oil extracts from rosemary and sage on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. British Poultry Science. Amoah SKS, Sandjo LP, Kratz JM, Biavatti MW.

Rosmarinic acid-pharmaceutical and clinical aspects. Planta Med. Tajik N, Tajk M, Mack I, Enck P. The potential effects of chlorogenic acid, the main phenolic components in coffee, on health: a comprehensive review of the literature.

Eur J Nutr. Jessica Elizabeth DLT, Gassara F, Kouassi AP, Brar SK, Belkacemi K. Rather MA, Dar BA, Sofi SN, Bhat BA, Qurishi MA. Foeniculum vulgare: a comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, parmacology, and safety.

Arabian Journal of Chemistry. Mohamad RH, El-Bastawesy AM, Abdel-Monem MG, Noor AM, Al-Mehdar HAR, Sharawy SM, El-Merzabani MM. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of methanolic extract and volatile oil fennel seeds foeniculum vulgare.

Journal of Medicinal Food. Fasseas MK, Mountzouris KC, Tarantilis PA, Polissiou M, Zervas G. Antioxidant activity in meat treated with oregano and sage essential oils.

Cortés-Rojas DF, de Souza CRF, Oliveira WP. Clove Syzygium aromaticum : a precious spice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, ;4 2 Park MJ, Gwak KS, Yang I, Choi WS, Jo HJ, Chang JW, Jeung EB et al. Antifungal activities of the essential oils in Syzygium aromaticum L.

Et Perry and Leptospermum petersonii Bailey and their constituents against various dermatophytes. J Microbiol. Pulikottil SJ, Nath S.

Potential of clove of Syzygium aromaticum in development of a therapeutic agent for periodontal disease: A review.

South African Dental J. Kamatou GP, Vermaak I, Viljoen AM. Eugenol—From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule.

Kelm MA, Nair MG, Strasburg GM, DeWitt DL. Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Phytomedicine 7. Tampieri MP, Galuppi R, Macchioni F, Carelle MS, Falcioni L, Cioni PL.

The inhibition of Candida albicans by selected essential oils and their major components. Burt S. Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—A review. Food Microbiol. Lorenzo JM, Khaneghah AM, Gavahian M, Marszałek K, Es I, Munekata PES et al.

Understanding the potential benefits of thyme and its derived products for food industry and consumer health: From extraction of value-added compounds to the evaluation of bioaccessibility, bioavailability, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities.

Engelbertz J, Schwenk T, Kinzinger U, Schierstedt D, Verspohl EJ. Thyme extract, but not thymol, inhibits endothelin induced contractions of isolated rat trachea. Sienkiewicz M, Lysakowska M, Denys P, Kowalczyk E. The Antimicrobial Activity of Thyme Essential Oil Against Multidrug Resistant Clinical Bacterial Strains.

Microbial Drug Resistance. Prasad S, Gupta S, Tyagi A, Aggarwal B. Curcumin, a component of golden spice: Frombedside to bench and back. A little clove goes a long way — start small and taste often! Try a breakfast oatmeal with pureed pumpkin, walnuts, vanilla almond milk, and a mix of cinnamon, nutmeg, and clove.

Dried peppermint — such as what you might find in tea — was found to have substantially more antioxidant content than fresh leaves. Ground allspice, like clove, is another strong, warming spice.

Add to homemade broths, soups, stews, and curry. Add to vegetables before roasting. It is another good way to add depth to sweet flavors like cooked fruits or desserts. Maximize antioxidant content with ground versions, which lend a sweetness to recipes.

Its familiarity also lends itself well to adding to basics like cereals, yogurt parfaits and granola, buttered toast, or a peanut butter and banana sandwich. Dried oregano seems to be far more concentrated with antioxidants than fresh leaves. It is an absolute mainstay in Italian cooking, at home in a long-cooking tomato sauce but just as welcome to finish off a frozen pizza in a pinch.

Its culinary soulmate is basil, so consider sprinkling caprese sandwiches and salads with dried oregano before digging in. If you like heat — oregano is one of the main flavor components of chili powder! As with peppermint and oregano, dried thyme had more antioxidants than samples of fresh thyme.

It is an incredibly floral herb that pairs best with rosemary, sage, lavender, and lemon Herbes de Provence spice blends combine many of these flavors. Add to homemade stocks and soups, or caramelize onions with marsala cooking wine, salt, lemon pepper, and thyme.

Rosemary and sage make a classic flavor pairing for poultry. Try adding sage to a lemon hummus, or between layers of a grilled cheese with tomato.

Adding it to bread dough or cornbread mix will provide an earthy aroma and flavor to homemade breads or biscuits. Rosemary is a piny, lemony flavor and a dramatic looking herb. Spiky and bright green, it is often used fresh.

But — you guessed it — there are more antioxidants in a dried version. I t pairs well with strong flavors like tomato, garlic, onions, and other alliums.

Pair rosemary with fish, grains, mushrooms, and starchy vegetables like potatoes and peas. Touted as a spice with extraordinary antioxidant power, it is being studied extensively for possible health benefits. Does that mean we should shelf it? Definitely not: turmeric contains a unique antioxidant called curcumin , which is being explored for its anti-inflammatory benefits.

The best way to utilize emerging nutrition science in a practical way is to understand that spices in general — especially the ones above — are providing additional antioxidants to our diet. Some spices provide more than others. Including a variety of these spices and experimenting with combinations you like is the best possible way to get the most culinary enjoyment and the most possible health benefits from the humble spice rack.

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Snow storm? We are welcoming members and guests with our Week of Wellness… starting today!

Come warm up with a HWX class and make a visit to our saunas. healthworks hwx boston cambridge backbay weekofwellness wellness spa sauna gym fitness health snow coolidgecorner. Unlock your inner balance with Shannon McNally, experienced Reiki instructor voted Best of Boston, guiding you towards holistic wellness at our Week of Wellness.

boston healthworks hwx reiki wellness bos weekofwellness wellness. POV: you get a massage at Healthworks for valentines 🕯️💕 I am a spa enthusiast and Restore Spa at Healthworks is the first spa that made me feel seen and heard on my wellness journey.

It was super easy to book and the convenience of having the other restore spa amenities after my massage is a major PLUS. A few years ago I broke my ankle and it caused a complete change in my bodies gait!

Shannon was my massage therapist and she is a true gem! She recommended I get the lomi lomi massage which consists of long, rhythmic and sweeping strokes. This was the perfect gift for myself as I invest more in self-care and being more intentional on how I take care of my mind, body and soul.

Members, refer your friends and sign up up via your app. Guests, link in bio to RSVP. personaltraining weightlifting cardio boston cambridge brookline.

We are making space for wellness and self-care at our Week of Wellness Open House from February 13th - 16th! Elevate Your Energy. See you there! boston fitness wellness selfcare galentinesday cambridge brookline coolidgecorner backbay portersquare yoga training.

As we celebrate Black History Month in , we invite you to join us as we come together to move, support, learn and amplify Black voices. Throughout February we have special community classes free to members and guests.

Make sure to reserve your spot and experience beautiful movement to the music of Black artists and our inspiring HWX instructors. We are setting intentions, owning our power, and coming together as a community of women of color and allies.

For more resources visit our blog in our bio and visit our BHM highlights. Interested in teaching Pilates at Healthworks or know someone who is?

We are looking for certified instructors and fitness enthusiasts interested in taking a trainer to become an instructor. LINK IN BIO to fill out our recruiting form or email us at healthworks healthworksfitness.

com to learn more about local certification and training offerings. pilates pilatesboston pilatesinstructor hwxclasses classpassboston studiofitnessboston boston bostonwellness bostongym bostonfitness healthworks healthworksfit healthworkscoolidge healthworksbackbay healthworkscambridge fitnessboston portersquare davissquare cambridgema cambridgemass brooklinema brookline coolidgecorner backbay somervillema.

Guests are invited to visit our clubs in February to join us for HWX x Black History Month Community classes and spots area available now on Eventbrite! During exercise, your brain releases endorphins, a. a feel-good chemicals, according to Kristyn Fales, the director of personal training at Healthworks.

But in many cases, exercise also releases tension in the body, energizes you, and helps you sleep, she said.

Meet Maryjean and her daily practice. We are seeking eager candidates who see fitness as more than just a job.

Antioxidant-rich spices -

Adhami VM, Mukhtar H: Anti-oxidants from green tea and pomegranate for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Mol Biotechnol. Malik A, Afaq F, Sarfaraz S, Adhami VM, Syed DN, Mukhtar H: Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.

Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Malik A, Mukhtar H: Prostate cancer prevention through pomegranate fruit. Cell Cycle. Andersen LF, Jacobs DR, Carlsen MH, Blomhoff R: Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of death attributed to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study.

Cabrera C, Artacho R, Gimenez R: Beneficial effects of green tea--a review. Lee W, Min WK, Chun S, Lee YW, Park H, Lee DH, Lee YK, Son JE: Long-term effects of green tea ingestion on atherosclerotic biological markers in smokers. Clin Biochem. Cordova AC, Jackson LS, Berke-Schlessel DW, Sumpio BE: The cardiovascular protective effect of red wine.

J Am Coll Surg. Klinge CM, Wickramasinghe NS, Ivanova MM, Dougherty SM: Resveratrol stimulates nitric oxide production by increasing estrogen receptor alpha-Src-caveolin-1 interaction and phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

FASEB J. Sacanella E, Vazquez-Agell M, Mena MP, Antunez E, Fernandez-Sola J, Nicolas JM, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Ros E, Estruch R: Down-regulation of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory biomarkers after moderate wine consumption in healthy women: a randomized trial. Williamson G, Manach C: Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans.

Review of 93 intervention studies. Download references. This work was funded by the Throne Holst foundation, The Research Council of Norway, and the Norwegian Cancer Society. The authors thank Amrit K. Sakhi, Nasser Bastani, Ingvild Paur and Trude R.

Balstad for help procuring samples, the Tsumura Pharmaceutical Company for providing traditional herb medicines and Arcus AS and Norsk Øko-Urt BA for providing samples of beverages and herbs, respectively.

Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. The Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research Bioforsk Øst Apelsvoll, Kapp, Norway.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Department of Cell Biology and Morphology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita City, Japan. Faculty of Health, Nutrition and Management, Akershus University College, Lillestrøm, Norway.

The Biochemistry Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA. The Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Rune Blomhoff. Blomhoff is a shareholder in Vitas AS, D.

Jacobs Jr is an unpaid member of the Scientific Advisory Council of the California Walnut Commission. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests. MHC took part in planning the study design, contributed to database management, sample procurement, drafting and writing of manuscript.

BLH took part in planning the study design and was responsible for assay development and validation, sample analysis, and writing of manuscript, SKB took part in planning the study design and was the database creator and contributed to database management and writing of manuscript, SD, LS, CW, HS, IB, NB, WCW, KMP and DRJ contributed to sample procurement and writing of manuscript, KH, YU and CS contributed to sample procurement and analysis and writing of manuscript, RB was responsible for funding and study design and contributed to sample procurement and writing of manuscript.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Additional file 1: The Antioxidant Food Table, Carlsen et al. the main results of the present study; the table includes all the products with product descriptions, details and antioxidant analysis results, categorized into 24 categories and arranged alphabetically within each category.

PDF KB. Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and permissions. Carlsen, M.

et al. The total antioxidant content of more than foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide. Nutr J 9 , 3 Download citation. Received : 18 August Accepted : 22 January Published : 22 January Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Download ePub. Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases.

Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods.

Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods.

Background It is widely accepted that a plant-based diet with high intake of fruits, vegetables, and other nutrient-rich plant foods may reduce the risk of oxidative stress-related diseases [ 1 — 6 ].

Methods Reagents TPTZ 2,4,6-tri-pyridyl-s-triazine was obtained from Fluka Chemie AG Deisenhofen, Switzerland , sodium acetate trihydrate and FeSO 4 × 7 H 2 O from Riedel-deHaën AG Seelze, Germany , acetic acid and hydrochloric acid from Merck Darmstadt, Germany , FeCl 3 × 6H 2 O from BDH Laboratory Supplies Dorset, England.

Sample collection and sample preparation The antioxidant measurements have been conducted over a period of eight years, from to Measurements of antioxidant content The FRAP assay of Benzie and Strain [ 13 ] was used with minor modifications that allowed quantification of most water- and fat-soluble antioxidants [ 16 , 17 ].

Organization of the Antioxidant Food Table The samples were classified into 24 different categories covering products from the plant kingdom, products from the animal kingdom and mixed food products. Results Our results show large variations both between as well as within each food category; all of the food categories contain products almost devoid of antioxidants Table 1.

Table 1 Statistical descriptives of the Antioxidant Food Table and individual categories. Full size table. Table 2 Excerpt of the analyses of beverages in the Antioxidant Food Table. Table 3 Excerpt of the analyses of nuts, legumes and grain products in the Antioxidant Food Table.

Table 4 Excerpt of the berries, fruit and vegetable analyses in the Antioxidant Food Table. Table 5 Excerpt of the spices and herbs analyzed in the Antioxidant Food Table.

Discussion With this study we present a comprehensive survey of the total antioxidant capacity in foods. Conclusions The Antioxidant Food Table is a valuable research contribution, expanding the research evidence base for plant-based nutritional research and may be utilized in epidemiological studies where reported food intakes can be assigned antioxidant values.

References Johnson IT: New approaches to the role of diet in the prevention of cancers of the alimentary tract. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Joshipura KJ, Ascherio A, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Speizer FE, Hennekens CH, Spiegelman D, Willett WC: Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Speizer FE, Colditz G, Ascherio A, Rosner B, Spiegelman D, Willett WC: The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Riboli E, Norat T: Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Stanner SA, Hughes J, Kelly CN, Buttriss J: A review of the epidemiological evidence for the 'antioxidant hypothesis'. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Jeong WS, Jun M, Kong AN: Nrf2: a potential molecular target for cancer chemoprevention by natural compounds.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, Jamieson HA, Lerin C, Kalra A, Prabhu VV, Allard JS, Lopez-Lluch G, Lewis K, Pistell PJ, Poosala S, Becker KG, Boss O, Gwinn D, Wang M, Ramaswamy S, Fishbein KW, Spencer RG, Lakatta EG, Le CD, Shaw RJ, Navas P, Puigserver P, Ingram DK, de CR, Sinclair DA: Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Wood JG, Rogina B, Lavu S, Howitz K, Helfand SL, Tatar M, Sinclair D: Sirtuin activators mimic caloric restriction and delay ageing in metazoans.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Astley SB, Elliott RM, Archer DB, Southon S: Evidence that dietary supplementation with carotenoids and carotenoid-rich foods modulates the DNA damage: repair balance in human lymphocytes. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Miller NJ, RiceEvans CA: Spectrophotometric determination of antioxidant activity.

CAS Google Scholar Benzie IF, Strain JJ: The ferric reducing ability of plasma FRAP as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar DeLange RJ, Glazer AN: Phycoerythrin fluorescence-based assay for peroxy radicals: a screen for biologically relevant protective agents.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Blomhoff R: Dietary antioxidants and cardiovascular disease. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Halvorsen BL, Holte K, Myhrstad MCW, Barikmo I, Hvattum E, Remberg SF, Wold AB, Haffner K, Baugerod H, Andersen LF, Moskaug JO, Jacobs DR, Blomhoff R: A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Halvorsen BL, Carlsen MH, Phillips KM, Bohn SK, Holte K, Jacobs DR, Blomhoff R: Content of redox-active compounds ie, antioxidants in foods consumed in the United States. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Buettner GR: The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: lipid peroxidation, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbate.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Stahl W, van den Berg H, Arthur J, Bast A, Dainty J, Faulks RM, Gartner C, Haenen G, Hollman P, Holst B, Kelly FJ, Polidori MC, Rice-Evans C, Southon S, van Vliet T, Vina-Ribes J, Williamson G, Astley SB: Bioavailability and metabolism.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Miller HE, Rigelhof F, Marquart L, Prakash A, Kanter M: Antioxidant content of whole grain breakfast cereals, fruits and vegetables. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Colombi B, Del Rio D, Salvatore S, Bianchi M, Brighenti F: Total antioxidant capacity of plant foods, beverages and oils consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Pellegrini N, Serafini M, Salvatore S, Del Rio D, Bianchi M, Brighenti F: Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity ORAC of Selected Foods - pdf ] Astley SB, Lindsay DG: European Research on the Functional Effects of Dietary Antioxidants - EUROFEDA.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Gonthier MP, Verny MA, Besson C, Remesy C, Scalbert A: Chlorogenic acid bioavailability largely depends on its metabolism by the gut microflora in rats. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Manach C, Scalbert A, Morand C, Remesy C, Jimenez L: Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Manach C, Williamson G, Morand C, Scalbert A, Remesy C: Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Dragland S, Senoo H, Wake K, Holte K, Blomhoff R: Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Kahkonen MP, Hopia AI, Vuorela HJ, Rauha JP, Pihlaja K, Kujala TS, Heinonen M: Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing phenolic compounds. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Lee KW, Kim YJ, Lee HJ, Lee CY: Cocoa has more phenolic phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Richelle M, Tavazzi I, Offord E: Comparison of the antioxidant activity of commonly consumed polyphenolic beverages coffee, cocoa, and tea prepared per cup serving.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Cai Y, Evans FJ, Roberts MF, Phillipson JD, Zenk MH, Gleba YY: Polyphenolic compounds from Croton Lechleri. Article CAS Google Scholar Miller MJ, MacNaughton WK, Zhang XJ, Thompson JH, Charbonnet RM, Bobrowski P, Lao J, Trentacosti AM, Sandoval M: Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Miller MJ, Vergnolle N, McKnight W, Musah RA, Davison CA, Trentacosti AM, Thompson JH, Sandoval M, Wallace JL: Inhibition of neurogenic inflammation by the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Clark M, Angeles FM, Lao J, Bustamante S, Miller MJ: Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Rasool M, Sabina EP: Antiinflammatory effect of the Indian Ayurvedic herbal formulation Triphala on adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Kumar MS, Kirubanandan S, Sripriya R, Sehgal P: Triphala promotes healing of infected full-thickness dermal wound.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Shankar EM, Manikandan S, Vijayakumar R, Thangaraj R, Vijayananth K, Sheeladevi R, Rao UA: Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activities of Triphala against common bacterial isolates from HIV infected patients.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Deep G, Dhiman M, Rao AR, Kale RK: Chemopreventive potential of Triphala a composite Indian drug on Benzo a pyrene induced forestomach tumorigenesis in murine tumor model system.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC: Phytomedicinal activity of Terminalia arjuna against carbon tetrachloride induced cardiac oxidative stress. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Devi RS, Narayan S, Vani G, Shyamala Devi CS: Gastroprotective effect of Terminalia arjuna bark on diclofenac sodium induced gastric ulcer.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Okayasu H, Suzuki F, Satoh K, Shioda S, Dohi K, Ikeda Y, Nakashima H, Komatsu N, Fujimaki M, Hashimoto K, Maki J, Sakagami H: Comparison of cytotoxicity and radical scavenging activity between tea extracts and Chinese medicines.

Google Scholar Kahkonen MP, Hopia AI, Heinonen M: Berry phenolics and their antioxidant activity. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Maatta-Riihinen KR, Kamal-Eldin A, Mattila PH, Gonzalez-Paramas AM, Torronen AR: Distribution and contents of phenolic compounds in eighteen Scandinavian berry species.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Maatta-Riihinen KR, Kamal-Eldin A, Torronen AR: Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds in berries of Fragaria and Rubus species family Rosaceae. Article PubMed Google Scholar Scalzo J, Politi A, Pellegrini N, Mezzetti B, Battino M: Plant genotype affects total antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents in fruit.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Wang SY, Lin HS: Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Amakura Y, Umino Y, Tsuji S, Tonogai Y: Influence of jam processing on the radical scavenging activity and phenolic content in berries.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Chen CY, Milbury PE, Lapsley K, Blumberg JB: Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Illy E: The complexity of coffee. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, Rotstein J, Hugenholtz A, Feeley M: Effects of caffeine on human health. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Yanagimoto K, Lee KG, Ochi H, Shibamoto T: Antioxidative activity of heterocyclic compounds found in coffee volatiles produced by Maillard reaction.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Olthof MR, Hollman PC, Katan MB: Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans. CAS PubMed Google Scholar McKay DL, Blumberg JB: The role of tea in human health: an update.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar McKay DL, Blumberg JB: Roles of epigallocatechin gallate in cardiovascular disease and obesity: an introduction. Article CAS Google Scholar Cooper KA, Donovan JL, Waterhouse AL, Williamson G: Cocoa and health: a decade of research.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Vinson JA, Proch J, Zubik L: Phenol antioxidant quantity and quality in foods: cocoa, dark chocolate, and milk chocolate. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Imeh U, Khokhar S: Distribution of conjugated and free phenols in fruits: antioxidant activity and cultivar variations.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Kalt W, Forney CF, Martin A, Prior RL: Antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, phenolics, and anthocyanins after fresh storage of small fruits. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Mullen W, Stewart AJ, Lean ME, Gardner P, Duthie GG, Crozier A: Effect of freezing and storage on the phenolics, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of red raspberries.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Xianquan S, Shi J, Kakuda Y, Yueming J: Stability of lycopene during food processing and storage. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Gil-Izquierdo A, Gil MI, Ferreres F: Effect of processing techniques at industrial scale on orange juice antioxidant and beneficial health compounds.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Hartmann A, Patz CD, Andlauer W, Dietrich H, Ludwig M: Influence of processing on quality parameters of strawberries. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Ismail A, Lee WY: Influence of cooking practice on antioxidant properties and phenolic content of selected vegetables.

Article Google Scholar Unlu NZ, Bohn T, Francis DM, Nagaraja HN, Clinton SK, Schwartz SJ: Lycopene from heat-induced cis-isomer-rich tomato sauce is more bioavailable than from all-trans-rich tomato sauce in human subjects.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, Nitecki S, Hoffman A, Dornfeld L, Volkova N, Presser D, Attias J, Liker H, Hayek T: Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Mullen W, Marks SC, Crozier A: Evaluation of phenolic compounds in commercial fruit juices and fruit drinks. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Ros E, Nunez I, Perez-Heras A, Serra M, Gilabert R, Casals E, Deulofeu R: A walnut diet improves endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized crossover trial.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Wang Y, Chang CF, Chou J, Chen HL, Deng X, Harvey BK, Cadet JL, Bickford PC: Dietary supplementation with blueberries, spinach, or spirulina reduces ischemic brain damage.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Adhami VM, Mukhtar H: Anti-oxidants from green tea and pomegranate for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Malik A, Afaq F, Sarfaraz S, Adhami VM, Syed DN, Mukhtar H: Pomegranate fruit juice for chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer.

Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Malik A, Mukhtar H: Prostate cancer prevention through pomegranate fruit.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Andersen LF, Jacobs DR, Carlsen MH, Blomhoff R: Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of death attributed to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study. CAS PubMed Google Scholar Cabrera C, Artacho R, Gimenez R: Beneficial effects of green tea--a review.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Lee W, Min WK, Chun S, Lee YW, Park H, Lee DH, Lee YK, Son JE: Long-term effects of green tea ingestion on atherosclerotic biological markers in smokers.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Cordova AC, Jackson LS, Berke-Schlessel DW, Sumpio BE: The cardiovascular protective effect of red wine. Article PubMed Google Scholar Klinge CM, Wickramasinghe NS, Ivanova MM, Dougherty SM: Resveratrol stimulates nitric oxide production by increasing estrogen receptor alpha-Src-caveolin-1 interaction and phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Sacanella E, Vazquez-Agell M, Mena MP, Antunez E, Fernandez-Sola J, Nicolas JM, Lamuela-Raventos RM, Ros E, Estruch R: Down-regulation of adhesion molecules and other inflammatory biomarkers after moderate wine consumption in healthy women: a randomized trial.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Williamson G, Manach C: Bioavailability and bioefficacy of polyphenols in humans.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar Download references. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Throne Holst foundation, The Research Council of Norway, and the Norwegian Cancer Society. View author publications. Additional information Competing interests R.

Along with antioxidant foods, certain herbs, spices and essential oils derived from nutrient-dense plants are extremely high in healing antioxidant compounds.

Here is another list of the herbs you can try adding to your diet for increased protection against disease. Look for percent pure therapeutic grade oils, which are highest in antioxidants:. Other antioxidant-rich herbs include garlic, cayenne pepper and green tea.

Aim to consume two to three servings of these herbs or herbal teas daily. The American Heart Association, Mayo Clinic and Cleveland Clinic recommend getting antioxidants from whole foods and a wide variety of sources.

Glutathione is a peptide consisting of three key amino acids that plays several vital roles in the body, including helping with protein use, creation of enzymes, detoxification, digestion of fats and destruction of cancer cells.

Glutathione peroxidase can prevent lipid peroxidation, which can fight inflammation. Derived naturally from foods like berries and leafy greens, quercetin seems to be safe for almost everyone and poses little risk. Most studies have found little to no side effects in people eating nutrient-dense diets high in quercetin or taking supplements by mouth short term.

Amounts up to milligrams taken twice daily for 12 weeks appear to be very safe for helping manage a number of inflammatory health problems, including heart disease and blood vessel problems, allergies, infections, chronic fatigue and symptoms related to autoimmune disorders like arthritis.

Lutein has benefits for the eyes, skin, arteries, heart and immune system, although food sources of antioxidants seem to be generally more effective and safer than supplements.

Some evidence shows that people who obtain more lutein from their diets experience lower rates of breast, colon, cervical and lung cancers.

Known for improving immunity, vitamin C helps protect against colds, the flu, and potentially cancer, skin and eye problems.

Resveratrol is an active ingredient found in cocoa, red grapes and dark berries, such as lingonberries, blueberries, mulberries and bilberries. Astaxanthin is found in wild-caught salmon and krill and has benefits like reducing age spots, boosting energy levels, supporting joint health and preventing symptoms of ADHD.

Selenium is a trace mineral found naturally in the soil that also appears in certain foods, and there are even small amounts in water. Selenium benefits adrenal and thyroid health and helps protect cognition.

It may also fight off viruses, defend against heart disease and slow down symptoms correlated with other serious conditions, like asthma. Chlorophyll is very helpful for detoxification and linked to natural cancer prevention, blocking carcinogenic effects within the body, and protecting DNA from damage caused by toxins or stress.

Cooking can alter the content of antioxidants in food, and certain cooking methods can have a different impact on antioxidant levels.

One study published in Preventive Nutrition and Food Science evaluated the effects of different cooking methods on the antioxidant content of red pepper to determine which methods can help minimize antioxidant loss.

Interestingly, researchers found that stir-frying and roasting helped retain the most antioxidants, while boiling and steaming caused significant reductions in antioxidant levels.

Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is a water-soluble vitamin, which means that it dissolves in water. For this reason, cooking food in water with methods like boiling can cause a huge reduction in antioxidant content.

However, not all compounds on the antioxidants list are affected in the same way by cooking. For example, one study found that consuming tomatoes cooked in olive oil significantly enhanced levels of lycopene in the blood by up to 82 percent compared to a control group.

Similarly, another study in British Journal of Nutrition showed that stir-frying carrots significantly boosted the absorption of beta-carotene.

For example, because during exercise oxygen consumption can increase by a factor of more than 10, taking high doses of antioxidants might interfere with proper exercise recovery.

When it comes to protection against things like cancer or heart disease, overall the medical literature seems conflicting. Although some studies found a positive relationship between antioxidant supplementation and risk reduction, others have not found such positive effects. Popular Nutrition Posts All Time This Week {position} Detox Your Liver: A 6-Step Liver Cleanse.

More Nutrition Dr. Axe on Facebook 82 Dr. Axe on Twitter 4 Dr. Axe on Instagram Dr. Axe on Google Plus Dr. Thyme is another culinary herb that possesses an impressive set of benefits, including its anti-microbial ability which may protect against food-borne bacteria and illness Skip to content.

JOIN US! Select Currency. Select Language. My Account. Top 12 Antioxidant Herbs for Better Health. Sprinkle these herbs on your favorite dishes for added flavor, or add to salads and smoothies for an extra superfood boost. Clove [ORAC ,] Clove is a common spice made from dried flower buds.

Oregano [ORAC ,] Oregano is a popular herb used to flavor pasta sauces, pizza, roasted vegetables, and countless other dishes. Rosemary [ORAC ,] Rosemary is a fragrant evergreen herb often used in Mediterranean cuisine.

Cinnamon [ORAC ,] Cinnamon is a spice that transcends cultural norms when it comes to cuisine. Turmeric [ORAC ,] Turmeric, without a doubt, stands as one of the most beneficial natural substances on the planet. Cumin [ORAC 76,] Cumin is an aromatic spice made from the powdered seeds of the cumin plant.

Dried Parsley [ORAC 74,] Parsley is becoming an increasingly popular herb for both its bright flavor and health benefits when juiced. Basil [ORAC 67,] Basil is a popular herb with a fragrant flavor that brings pesto to life.

Thyme [ORAC 27,] Thyme is another culinary herb that possesses an impressive set of benefits, including its anti-microbial ability which may protect against food-borne bacteria and illness Eating foods or herbs that are high in antioxidants is essential to maintaining a healthy body.

Add these antioxidant-rich herbs into your cooking or daily routine to give your body the tasty tools it needs to sustain a long and healthy life.

Recent Posts. View More Posts ». Phone GBR: Email US.

Spicfs patients may not Antioxidant-ricj however, is that Antioxidant-rich spices herbs and spices, such as turmeric, clove, and Antioxidant-ricch, also are s;ices sources of antioxidants. Antioxidant-rich spices little bit goes a Antioxidant-rich spices Insulin resistance and weight loss. The use of herbs Antipxidant-rich spices in cooking Affordable dental treatments Antioxidant-rich spices easy way for clients Antioxidant-rich spices accomplish this. The following article Antioxidant-rich spices five herbs and spices that are excellent sources of antioxidants, reviews the major health benefits of antioxidant intake, and offers strategies on how to encourage clients to incorporate more antioxidants into their diets. Spices Packing a Powerful Antioxidant Punch By definition, antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Examples of well-recognized antioxidants are vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and plant-derived polyphenolic compounds such as quercetin in citrus fruits; resveratrol in red grapes; and rosmarinic acid in rosemary, basil, and oregano. Antioxidants are found in variable amounts in the hundreds of herbs and spices that exist in the plant kingdom.

Author: Goltishakar

4 thoughts on “Antioxidant-rich spices

  1. Ich entschuldige mich, aber meiner Meinung nach irren Sie sich. Geben Sie wir werden es besprechen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by