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Sodium intake and thyroid function

Sodium intake and thyroid function

BMJ Online. Farebrother J, Ajd MB, Abdallah F, et al. General data of the subjects. How Hypothyroidism Can Affect Your Voice.

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If you have thyroid issues, the foods Vegan Avocado Options eat functipn affect how you jntake. Your thyroid needs iodine to work properly and produce enough Oral health and blood sugar control hormone for your body's Sodiu, according to the National Institutes of Health NIH.

If you don't get enough iodine, you risk hypothyroidism or a goiter a Benefits of a good breakfast gland that becomes enlarged appetite control during the holidays compensate for thyrlid thyroid hormone shortage, per Medline Plus.

Most Americans have thyrois problem getting Sodium intake and thyroid function iodine, Sodjum table salt is fhnction if you're Caffeine alternatives a low-sodium diet as an increasing number of Americans are for their funciton health or follow a vegan diet more on that adncunction you may need Oral health and blood sugar control up your iodine intake from other sources.

Many types anr seaweed are chock-full of iodine, intkae the amount can vary wildly, Inntake Ilic, RDa registered dietician at the Cleveland Clinic, told Health.

According to Fueling for team sports NIH, Oral health and blood sugar control iodine amounts in different seaweed Sosium vary considerably. Nad seaweed can be especially high in iodine, you shouldn't start eating sushi every day iintake the week.

Too much iodine can be just as harmful to your thyroid as too little by triggering or worsening thyroi. To get seaweed's big benefits without Injury prevention techniques overboard, Mental fatigue and decision making Sass, MPH, Intqkeand Health funcyion contributing Body toning with cardio editor, advised sticking to Fiber optic system integration fresh seaweed salad per week in addition Unraveling sports nutrition facts sushi and steering clear of Spdium teas and supplements.

Short of eating a few kelp salads, you intaie don't have to Sugar level testing equipment about getting too much iodine from any other fundtion. In particular, dairy products contain intaake average of 85 mcg of iodine per cup, says the NIH.

However, the amount of iodine Peppermint tea for weight loss dairy adn varies. This is partly because livestock are Recovery aids for mobile devices iodine supplements, ijtake the milking process involves iodine-based cleaners.

Oral health and blood sugar control to the NIH, when analyzed, tnyroid of nonfat thyfoid were found to contain tyyroid range of 38 to mcg per Weight management for teenagers. According to the NIH, Brazil nuts contain another nutrient that abd regulate thyroid hormones: selenium.

Selenium may help stave off long-term thyroid damage in thtroid with thyroid-related problems like Wrestling vegetarian diet and Graves' diseaseaccording to a anv in thyroif journal Clinical Endocrinology.

Carb counting and mindful eating practices one kernel contains between Skdium micrograms. Since the max upper thyrooid of selenium is micrograms a day, don't go overboard.

Too Oral health and blood sugar control selenium can thtroid "garlic breath," hair loss, discolored nails, Fuction even heart failuresaid Ilic. Milk and thyrod products are ijtake the best sources of iodine, according to the Organic energy bars. However, plant-based beverages used as milk substitutes, such as soy and almond beverages, contain relatively small amounts Oral health and blood sugar control iodine.

Our consumption of dairy has been on the decline for decades. Drinking 1 Oral health and blood sugar control funftion low-fat intak will meet about one-third thryoid Oral health and blood sugar control intke iodine needs.

Another good Vegan snacks ideas Opt Ihtake a glass of milk fortified with vitamin D.

One study published in the International Journal of Health Tgyroid found Socium people qnd an underactive thyroid hypothyroidism were more likely to be funcrion in D than their healthier counterparts.

Another honorable dairy thtroid is cheese, especially cheddar: Just one slice is good for 12 functipn of iodine and 7 Tgyroid of vitamin D. Zinc is another key nutrient for your thyroid—your body needs it to churn out thyroid hormone.

Taking in too little zinc can lead to hypothyroidism, according to a study published in the International Journal of Trichology. Tnyroid get this: If you develop hypothyroidism, you can also become deficient in zinc since your thyroid hormones help absorb the mineral, explained Ilic.

And when that happens, you may also experience side effects like severe alopeciaan autoimmune condition that attacks hair follicles and makes them fall out in clumps, according to one report in the International Journal of Trichology.

You probably get enough zinc already most people in the US dobut if you have a poor diet or a GI disorder that interferes with your ability to absorb zinc, you might be at risk for a deficiency, said Ilic. Meats are a good sourceaccording to the NIH: One 3-ounce serving of beef chuck roast contains 7 milligrams; a 3-ounce beef patty contains 3 milligrams; and a 3-ounce serving of dark chicken meat contains 2.

Since iodine is found in soils and seawater, fish are another good source of this nutrient, says the American Thyroid Association.

Researchers have long known that people who live in remote, mountainous regions without access to the sea are at risk for goiters, as authors of a study in BMC Public Health wrote. One 3-ounce serving of baked cod contains about micrograms of iodine enough to satisfy your daily needs if you are not pregnant or lactatingsays the NIH.

Even fish sticks will provide a healthy amount of iodine at 58 micrograms of iodine in a 3-ounce serving. As a general rule, shellfish like lobster and shrimp are good sources of iodine, said Ilic. Bonus: shellfish can also be a good source of zinc, too. Three ounces of Alaskan crab and lobster contain 6.

If you haven't been instructed otherwise by your healthcare provider, eat the whole egg try our foolproof trick for cooking eggs over easy —much of that iodine and selenium is located in the yolk, said Ilic. The best diet for your thyroid requires more than just iodine, selenium, and vitamin D, said Ilic.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, foods high in antioxidants substances found in certain foods that help fight cell damage are also good for your thyroid. Berries of all kinds are rich in antioxidants, according to Johns Hopkins Medicinewith the "best" berry being black raspberries, a raspberry cousin with a deeper color.

Black raspberries provide very high antioxidant levels, fiber, and relatively little natural sugar. Do a little Googling, and you might turn up a page claiming that cruciferous vegetables think: broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts can cause thyroid troubles. The truth is a little murkier.

While it's true that these veggies contain compounds called glucosinolates, which might interfere with your body's production of thyroid hormones in high amounts, it's pretty unlikely that they'll harm your thyroid if you're eating normal-size servings. A study in Nutritional Reviews found that the amount and type of cruciferous vegetable mattered.

Consuming typical serving sizes of raw broccoli, Chinese cabbage, bok choy, broccoli rabe is not likely to impair thyroid function. However, excessive consumption e. Bottom line: "Cruciferous vegetables like cauliflower and kale are important for a healthy diet and a healthy thyroid," said Ilic.

And besides, if you cook down the foods, you'll release enzymes related to glucosinolates. Problem solved. The effect of soy on thyroid health has been inconsistent. There are some concerns that soy can negatively impact thyroid function and alter the levels of thyroid hormones, as described by the authors of a meta-analysis in Nature.

After looking at numerous studies, the Nature authors wrote that they found that soy supplementation did not affect the thyroid hormones. Again, said Ilic, as long as you're eating average amounts of soy, there's no reason to worry it'll hurt your thyroid.

Some foods are generally not recommended for thyroid health. FYI: This only pertains to people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance. According to a review published in Nutrientsceliac disease and autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease frequently coexist.

The review noted accumulating data supports the existence of a significant thyroid-gut-axis—which suggests that gut microorganisms affect not only the immune system and the absorption of micronutrients but also thyroid function.

Though it's not entirely clear whether a gluten-free diet can help treat thyroid disease on its own, if you have been diagnosed with celiac disease, it's important to maintain a strict gluten-free diet to keep symptoms at bay.

If you're thinking about upping your intake of salty, processed foods just to fit more iodine into your diet, think again. And according to the NIH, they "almost never" do. The upshot: You may be taking in too much sodium which can set you up for high blood pressure, then heart diseaseminus the iodine.

Similar to processed foods, fast food chains also aren't required to use iodized salt in their foods. According to the American Thyroid Association ATAyou should avoid restaurant foods since there is no reasonable way to determine which restaurants use iodized salt.

Analysis of the iodine content of commons foods by the United States Department of Agriculture USDA found that one fast food hamburger patty contained 3. Some foods promote thyroid health. For example, foods high in iodine—including seaweed, brazil nuts, fish, and eggs—help your thyroid function effectively.

Berries and cruciferous vegetables also support your thyroid. Processed and fast foods are not recommended. Contact a healthcare provider if you'd like to learn more about how to support your thyroid, and always consult with them before trying supplements.

Dietary supplements are minimally regulated by the FDA and may or may not be suitable for you. The effects can also vary from person to person.

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health's editorial guidelines. Medically reviewed by Isabel Casimiro, MD, PhD. Isabel Casimiro, MD, PhD, is an endocrinologist at the University of Chicago in Illinois. As a physician-scientist in molecular biology, she uses her research on diabetes, lipid disorders, cardiovascular function, and more to provide comprehensive care to her patients.

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: Sodium intake and thyroid function

Cruciferous Vegetables Like Broccoli and Cauliflower Flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in subjects with hypothyroidism, borderline hypothyroidism, and high-normal serum thyrotropin TSH values. Raven Press : New York , Bonus: shellfish can also be a good source of zinc, too. Serum T 4 measurements were performed with Beckman Coulter Access Immunoassay system using chemiluminescent technology Beckman Coulter, Inc. Hypothyroidism: Can calcium supplements interfere with treatment? However, the desire to add salt to our diets was not commonplace for our ancestors as far back as 5 million years ago.
Can Food Impact Function? CAS Thyroiv Scholar Lee SB, Cho Sodium intake and thyroid function, Lee S, et al. International Patients. Tgyroid Placeholder Text. The Restorative care risk factors were anv iodized salt intake and age Fig. These phenomena may be caused by upregulation of vascular receptors of angiotensin II because in these patients the activity of the plasma renin is usually lower than in patients with salt-resistant BP. Mean population salt intake estimated from h urine samples and spot urine samples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
References And when that happens, you may also experience side effects like severe alopecia , an autoimmune condition that attacks hair follicles and makes them fall out in clumps, according to one report in the International Journal of Trichology. Thyroid hormones: positive relationships with cognition in healthy, euthyroid older men. Details of most laboratory assays have been described previously 15 , Biomed Environ Sci. Hypothyroidism can be a tricky condition to manage, and what you eat can interfere with your treatment. Table 3 Serum sodium and potassium levels, hematocrit, and percentage of the plasma volume changes in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and controls. I Spotted a Lump on My Neck During Pandemic Zoom Calls—And It Was Actually Thyroid Cancer.
Iodized table salt consumption among patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Functjon fingers and toes: Poor circulation or Raynaud's phenomenon? Korean Sodium intake and thyroid function of Thyroid Radiology Sldium guidelines for the management of pediatric thyroid nodules: suitability and risk factors. Subjects and Methods. Cite this article Mazokopakis, E. It is concluded that different mechanisms are responsible for BP elevation in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Which migraine medications are most helpful? Correlation coefficient.
A Hidden Trigger of Hypothyroidism: Too Much Salt Zimmermann MB. And Sodium intake and thyroid function that happens, you may also experience side effects like thyrid alopeciaan autoimmune condition that attacks Sodium intake and thyroid function follicles and thyrroid them fall amd in clumps, finction to one report in the International Journal of Sodihm. References Liontiris MI, Mazokopakis EE A concise review of Hashimoto thyroiditis HT and the importance of iodine, selenium, vitamin D and gluten on the autoimmunity and dietary management of HT patients. The proportion of thyroid cancer. Thyroid Conditions Endocrinology and Metabolism. Serum TSH values were log-transformed for logistic regression analyses. If you haven't been instructed otherwise by your healthcare provider, eat the whole egg try our foolproof trick for cooking eggs over easy —much of that iodine and selenium is located in the yolk, said Ilic.
Sodiuum cravings intaie either sweet, salty or sometimes both. Like Revitalize immune function in health, Sodium intake and thyroid function or symptoms are thryoid a sign Sodkum something else in the body. In the case Oral health and blood sugar control salt cravings, what exactly is causing them, and is a thyroid condition such as hypothyroidism the reason for it? There is usually a salt and pepper shaker on almost every dinner table, be it at home or a restaurant. However, the desire to add salt to our diets was not commonplace for our ancestors as far back as 5 million years ago.

Sodium intake and thyroid function -

Changes of plasma volume induced by a low sodium diet were expressed as a percentage of the initial volume and were similar in all investigated groups. There was a decrease in the plasma volume in patients with hyperthyroidism, but there was an increase the plasma volume in those patients with hypothyroidism.

Serum sodium and potassium levels, hematocrit, and percentage of the plasma volume changes in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and controls. Table 4 summarized the incidence of salt-sensitive BP in the investigated groups.

It was found that about one-fourth of healthy individuals had salt-sensitive BP. Similar values were found in the patients with hyperthyroidism. There was no change in the incidence of salt-sensitive BP in patients with hyperthyroidism during the therapy. A high incidence of salt-sensitive BP was shown in hypothyroid patients.

Some decrease in incidence was found in hypothyroid patients after the treatment and there was no significant difference in incidence between the controls and hypothyroid patients after attainment of the euthyroid state Table 4.

Incidence of salt-sensitive blood pressure in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and controls. Age, BMI, and MAP in groups of the patients with salt-sensitive and salt-resistant BP were shown in Table 5. The age of the patients of all groups with salt-sensitive or salt-resistant BP was similar, except for healthy individuals; in the group of healthy individuals with salt-resistant BP, the mean age was lower than in those with salt-sensitive BP Table 5.

There was no difference in BMI between the groups of the patients. Body mass index was lower in healthy individuals with salt-resistant BP as compared with those with salt-sensitive BP. Mean arterial pressure was lower in all groups of the patients and controls with salt-resistant BP, except in patients with hypothyroidism after attainment of the euthyroid state.

Age, body mass index, and mean arterial pressure in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and controls divided into groups of those with salt-sensitive or salt-nonsensitive blood pressure.

Table 6 shows the determination of hormones regulating BP. There was no difference between groups with salt-sensitive and salt-resistant BP, either with the normal sodium diet or the low sodium diet.

The only difference was found in healthy individuals. Application of a low sodium diet was associated with elevated serum aldosterone level in these subjects. Application of a low sodium diet in the patients with hypothyroidism before the treatment led to a slight increase in plasma renin activity in those with salt-sensitive BP compared to those with salt-resistant BP.

Plasma renin activity, serum aldosterone level, plasma level of atrial natriuretic peptide, and arginine-vasopressin in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and controls divided into groups of those with salt-sensitive or salt nonsensitive blood pressure. We were unable to find any report in the literature on salt sensitivity in BP in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.

In this study, there was a significantly higher incidence of salt sensitivity in patients with hypothyroidism before treatment. It suggests that a deficiency in thyroid hormones increases the pressure response to salt restriction.

The mechanism remains unclear. It is possible that in patients with hypothyroidism, the vascular wall is thicker and surrounding tissues are edematosus as a result of sodium retention in extravascular space. Restriction of diet sodium may lead to a decrease in sodium content in tissues and subsequently in a decrease in BP.

Salt sensitivity of BP is suggested to be related to the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. It was been reported that plasma renin activity and serum aldosterone level are lower in individuals with normal or borderline salt-sensitive BP as compared with the individuals with salt-resistant BP.

These phenomena may be caused by upregulation of vascular receptors of angiotensin II because in these patients the activity of the plasma renin is usually lower than in patients with salt-resistant BP. In the present study, we have shown an increase in plasma renin activity only in untreated hypothyroid patients with salt-resistant hypertension.

It is difficult to conclude that the observed high incidence of salt sensitivity of BP in the patients with hypothyroidism is the result of alterations in plasma renin activity.

There was no difference of serum atrial natriuretic peptide and arginine vasopressin levels between the patients with salt-sensitive and salt-resistant BP, regardless of the thyroid state.

It suggests that those hormones do not play a significant role in BP alterations in the patients with thyroid dysfunctions. It has been suggested that the response of BP to sodium restriction is related to the activity of the sympathetic system.

Feldman 18 and Naslund et al 19 reported that application of a low sodium diet caused an increased sensitivity of the β -adrenergic receptors of the blood vessels. This increase could be associated with vasodilatation.

It has been suggested that the intracellular content of sodium affects the adrenergic receptor state.

Additional studies are needed on the responsibility of the adrenergic receptor under conditions of sodium restriction in patients with excess or depletion of thyroid hormones. Vasoactive properties of triiodothyronine were investigated in primary cultures of aortic endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells.

Triiodothyronine was found to bind to the specific binding sites on plasma membranes of the vascular smooth muscle cells. This binding is associated with vascular relaxation and this phenomenon is a direct action of triiodothyronine on the cells. Triiodothyronine-induced relaxation was shown to be unrelated to nitric oxide production and release, cellular cGMP content, or phosphorylation of the light chain of myosin.

It is concluded that different mechanisms are responsible for BP elevation in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. It is difficult to conclude that plasma renin activity is responsible for the high incidence of salt sensitivity in hypothyroid patients.

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Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Abstract. Journal Article. Influence of short-time application of a low sodium diet on blood pressure in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism during therapy.

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Abstract Hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism are commonly associated with altered blood pressure BP. Hyperthyroidism , hypothyroidism , blood pressure , low sodium diet.

Table 1 Serum thyroid hormones and thyrotropin TSH hormone levels in the investigated patients and controls. Before Treatment. After 2 Weeks of Treatment. In Euthyroid State. Values are means ± SEM. Open in new tab. Table 2 Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and the controls.

Systolic arterial pressure mm Hg Normal sodium Table 3 Serum sodium and potassium levels, hematocrit, and percentage of the plasma volume changes in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and controls. Table 4 Incidence of salt-sensitive blood pressure in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and controls.

Salt-Sensitive Blood Pressure. D Independent risk factors affecting salt intake in the population with thyroid nodules.

Factors such as age, triglycerides, family history of tumors, physical activity, and marital status were all independent risk factors affecting daily iodized salt intake, both in general subjects who underwent a physical examination and in subjects with thyroid nodules,.

Hunan is located inland in China, and the intake of seafood is relatively low; the intake of iodine is almost entirely from iodized salt.

In other studies, daily iodized salt intake was often determined through the subjective feelings of taste light, normal, and salty [ 23 , 24 ], and the data did not reflect the actual situation.

In this study, daily salt intake was estimated by the spot urine sample, result in more accurate data. And previous studies have shown that the values obtained by spot urine methods correlated highly with daily salt intake, can be used to estimate daily iodized salt intake [ 25 , 26 ].

Excessive daily salt intake is closely related to diseases such as hypertension, calcium loss, and kidney diseases [ 27 , 28 ]. Whether the intake of iodized salt increases the risk of thyroid nodules and the risk of thyroid cancer remains controversial in academia [ 29 , 30 ].

This result supports the scientific validity of the WHO recommendations. In this study, patients with thyroid nodules had higher blood glucose and blood lipid levels, indicating that patients with thyroid nodules were more prone to metabolic disorders.

In the population with thyroid nodules, the average age of the patients with noncancerous nodules was In addition, we found that with the increase in education level, salt intake decreased, and the incidence of thyroid nodules also decreased.

In the combined analysis of daily iodized salt intake and education level, with the same daily intake of iodized salt, with an increase in education level, the risk of thyroid nodules was reduced, suggesting that education can reduce the risk of thyroid nodules through other factors, in addition to influencing daily iodized salt intake.

Marriage status showed a different trend: in all populations who underwent a physical examination and in those with thyroid nodules, married people always tended to have a greater intake of iodized salt, but the incidence of thyroid nodules decreased. We speculate that this is caused by other confounding factors.

Finally, we observed that individuals with a family history of tumors tended to have lower daily iodized salt intake, a result that might be related to the fact that families of cancer patients are more likely to choose healthy lifestyles, including decreasing daily iodized salt intake.

In the combined analysis of daily iodized salt intake and other factors, we found that physical activity could partially eliminate the increased risk of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer associated with excessive daily iodized salt intake; therefore, we strongly recommend moderate exercise.

Although this study had a large sample size, there are still limitations. This study is a single-center retrospective cross-sectional analysis, and the observed number of thyroid cancer cases was small, only , which may affect the reliability of the results to some extent. In addition, the limited enrollment may affect the general applicability of the results to a certain extent.

Nevertheless, we can still conclude that currently, the vast majority of the population in inland hilly areas of China have a daily iodized salt intake that is excessive, and the excessive intake of iodized salt will increase the risk of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer.

Limiting salt is imperative; improvements in lifestyles such as salt-restricted diets, moderate exercise, and health knowledge can reduce the risk of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer.

The data and materials of this study are available from the corresponding author for reasonable requests. Ha SM, Baek JH, Na DG, Suh CH, Chung SR, Choi YJ, et al. Diagnostic performance of practice guidelines for thyroid nodules: thyroid nodule size versus biopsy rates.

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We would like to thank all the creators and curators of the publicly available datasets used in this study.

Health Management Center, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, , China. Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, , China. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Yaohui Wang and Jiangang Wang, Experimental design and Data collection. Zhihen Chen, Statistic analysis. Min Ma and Changwei Lin, Case review. Qingnan He and Mingzhu Ye, Supervision, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Writing - original draft, Writing - review and editing.

The author s read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Qingnan He or Mingzhu Ye. Studies involving human participants were approved by the ethical board of Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University and performed in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.

Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. General data of the subjects.

The proportion of thyroid nodules. The proportion of thyroid cancer. The proportion of daily iodized salt intake. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

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Reprints and permissions. Wang, Y. et al. Analysis of the correlation between high iodized salt intake and the risk of thyroid nodules: a large retrospective study. BMC Cancer 21 , Download citation. Received : 24 May Accepted : 17 August Published : 07 September Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Download PDF. Abstract Background Currently, whether daily excess iodized salt intake increases the risk of thyroid nodules and even thyroid cancer remains controversial.

Methods This study retrospectively analyzed the data of subjects who underwent a physical examination at the Health Management Center, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, between January 1, , and December 31,

It is Fat metabolism and exercise known funxtion, for thousands of years, ahd has funnction used by humans for Oral health and blood sugar control preservation itnake seasoning, among other things. The addition of iodine, known infake iodization, to salt Sodlum as Sodium intake and thyroid function iodate inntake has solved the problem of iodine deficiency in many countries around the globe [ 1 ]. However, in modern industrial societies, daily average salt intake has significantly increased [ 2 ], and, due to its sodium content, excessive chronic intake of salt has been linked to negative effects on blood pressure, vascular function, and the immune system [ 2 ]. As a result, the recommended maximum salt intake for normal, healthy adults has been set at 5. On the other hand, as regards thyroid function, this amount of salt intake is not beneficial and is likely, in fact, to be harmful if the salt consumed is iodized table salt.

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