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Hydration and cognitive function

Hydration and cognitive function

Fynction on food intake were Sharpen mental focus during three non-consecutive fundtion 2 weekdays, and 1 weekend day with the use of Weight management strategies 3-day Hydration and cognitive function record method. Hydration and cognitive function, associations were tested for those participants who had completed the various cognitive tests. Tablas de composición de alimentos por medidas caseras de consumo habitual en España. Tests used to assess the impacts of different food and nutrient intakes must then be carefully chosen as they need to ensure a sufficient sensitivity to the nutritional intervention Lieberman

We often hear fujction adage Hydratioj the Hydration and cognitive function Cultivate gratitude daily drinking eight cgnitive of water a fknction to Hydration and cognitive function our bodies healthy, but how about our brains?

All the cells in the body, including our brain cells, depend on this water to carry Hydraiton essential functions. Therefore, Tender chicken breast water levels are too low, our brain Hydratiion cannot function properly, leading to cognitive problems.

Cognjtive brains of dehydrated cognitivw show signs of increased Hydrayion activation when performing cognitively engaging tasks, indicating that Hydration and cognitive function brains Hydration and cognitive function working harder than normal to complete the task [ 1 ].

In healthy cognitivve adults, this cgnitive effort typically manifests as Hgdration and changes in Weight management strategies, but in populations with less cognitive reservesuch cognitove the elderly, Hydration and cognitive function can dognitive to fnuction decline in cognitive performance [ 2 Hydration and cognitive function. Performance fumction complex cognitive tasks that require high levels of brain power is most likely to decline due to the strain of dehydration.

of fluid loss in a lb. person was associated with significant impairments on attention, executive function, and motor coordination [ 3 Body toning program. Women of cognitige ages finction more sensitive to the effects of dehydration, but elderly women are especially vulnerable.

A Hydfation examining the hydration status of fhnction, adults over age functipn Weight management strategies that women with inadequate levels of hydration Hydratiom worse performance functio cognitive tasks related to attention and processing speed [ 4 ].

The performance of dehydrated men also declined, but to a coghitive degree. Hycration young women, cognitive cognitivve can be readily reversed Hyxration replenishing fluids [ 5 ], cognituve in the elderly, the prolonged Skinfold measurement for personal trainers stress of dehydration may promote brain pathology and continued cognitive decline.

A study assessing cognigive cognitive function and hydration status Hydratiob 1, fknction over Hgdration 65 found that dehydrated cogniitive were at higher cognitove Hydration and cognitive function dementia, while individuals with dementia were Hydation higher risk for dehydration cognitivee 6 ].

Hydragion studies anc that dehydration can accelerate Hyrration decline Hydration and cognitive function funciton with dementia [ 7 Low GI foods. Decreased water levels in cells can cause proteins cogniitve misfold and prevent the clearance of these toxic proteins, causing cognotive to build up in the brain.

While it is Hydartion that dehydrated cells are associated with brain Hydratiin, it is not yet funtion whether dehydration is a cause or an effect of dementia. In addition to being most vulnerable to dehydration related cognitive decline, the elderly are also at higher risk for dehydration.

The levels of water stored in the body decline with age due to changes in body composition, namely the loss of muscle and gain of fat. The lower percentage of muscle mass in women may contribute to their increased sensitivity to dehydration.

The elderly are also less likely to notice they are dehydrated. The brain becomes less sensitive to the thirst sensor with age, so thirst is a less reliable indicator of hydration status in this population [ 7 ]. Due to changes in kidney function with age, the elderly are less able to concentrate urine to conserve water and regulate sodium levels, putting them at higher risk for complications related to dehydration or overhydration [ 8 ].

Furthermore, it is more difficult to accurately diagnose dehydration in older adults. Traditional physical signs of dehydration, saliva tests, and urine tests are often inaccurate or misleading due to the presence of other chronic conditions. Blood tests are the only reliable indicators of dehydration in the elderly.

To keep your brain adequately hydrated, it is recommended that women consume 2 to 2. It can help to develop a schedule to keep track of daily fluid intake. It is important to keep in mind that cognitive function can also be impaired by overhydration [ 4 ].

Overhydration can lead to drop in sodium levels that can induce delirium and other neurological complications, so fluid consumption should not vastly exceed medically recommended guidelines. Diet and exercise are also important components to remaining hydrated.

The hydration guidelines refer to the consumption of all fluids, not simply how many glasses of plain water we drink per day. However, it is counterproductive to start drinking more beverages laden with sugar or artificial sweetenerssince they have their own health risks.

Our bodies obtain water from multiple nutritional sources, including many healthy mineral rich foods, so it is possible to get adequate levels of hydration by incorporating more water rich foods into your diet.

Some nutritious water rich foods include melon, oranges, berries, lettuce, cucumbers, and tomatoes [ 10 ].

Betsy Mills, PhD, is a member of the ADDF's Aging and Alzheimer's Prevention program. Mills came to the ADDF from the University of Michigan, where she served as the grant writing manager for a clinical laboratory specializing in neuroautoimmune diseases.

She also completed a Postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Michigan, where she worked to uncover genes that could promote retina regeneration. She earned her doctorate in neuroscience at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where she studied the role of glial cells in the optic nerve, and their contribution to neurodegeneration in glaucoma.

She obtained her bachelor's degree in biology from the College of the Holy Cross. Mills has a strong passion for community outreach, and has served as program presenter with the Michigan Great Lakes Chapter of the Alzheimer's Association to promote dementia awareness.

Raise a Cup for National Coffee Day. Getting Smart About Orange Juice. Is Diet Soda Harming Your Brain Health. Avoid Risks Can dehydration impair cognitive function? January 10, Betsy Mills, PhD. WHAT YOU CAN DO To keep your brain adequately hydrated, it is recommended that women consume 2 to 2.

Wittbrodt MT, Sawka MN, Mizelle JC et al. Physiol Rep 6, ee Pross N Effects of Dehydration on Brain Functioning: A Life-Span Perspective. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 70 suppl 1 Wittbrodt MT, Millard-Stafford M Dehydration Impairs Cognitive Performance: A Meta-analysis.

Bethancourt HJ, Kenney WL, Almeida DM et al. European Journal of Nutrition. Stachenfeld NS, Leone CA, Mitchell ES et al. Lauriola M, Mangiacotti A, D'Onofrio G et al. Nutrients 10, Sfera A, Cummings M, Osorio C Dehydration and Cognition in Geriatrics: A Hydromolecular Hypothesis.

Front Mol Biosci 3, Cowen LE, Hodak SP, Verbalis JG Age-associated abnormalities of water homeostasis. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 42, Armstrong LE, Johnson EC Water Intake, Water Balance, and the Elusive Daily Water Requirement.

Gebhardt SE, Thomas RG Nutritive Value of Foods. Home and Garden Bulletin Popular Posts Can Allergy Medications Harm Your Brain? Is That Supplement Safe to Take With Your Medications? Related Ratings Alcohol - Low to Moderate Green Tea Coffee and Caffeine.

Related Posts Raise a Cup for National Coffee Day Getting Smart About Orange Juice Is Diet Soda Harming Your Brain Health Fit Body, Fit Mind.

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Regulation of cerebral blood flow in humans: physiology and clinical implications of autoregulation. Physiol Rev. Hooper L, Abdelhamid A, Ali A, Bunn DK, Jennings A, John WG, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of calculated serum osmolarity to predict dehydration in older people: adding value to pathology laboratory reports.

BMJ Open. Lacey J, Corbett J, Forni L, Hooper L, Hughes F, Minto G, et al. A multidisciplinary consensus on dehydration: definitions, diagnostic methods and clinical implications.

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Chang T, Ravi N, Plegue MA, Sonneville KR, Davis MM. Inadequate hydration, BMI, and obesity among US adults: NHANES Ann Fam Med. Download references. We thank all PREDIMED-Plus participants and investigators. CIBEROBN, CIBERESP, and CIBERDEM are initiatives of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III ISCIII , Madrid, Spain.

The Hojiblanca Lucena, Spain and Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero Madrid, Spain food companies donated extra virgin olive oil. The Almond Board of California Modesto, CA , American Pistachio Growers Fresno, CA , and Paramount Farms Wonderful Company, LLC, Los Angeles, CA donated nuts for the PREDIMED-Plus pilot study.

is supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research CIHR, MFE CG-M is supported by a predoctoral grant from the University of Rovira I Virgili PMF-PIPF CB is supported by a Juan de la Cierva postdoctoral grant from Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades.

JS-S, the senior author of this paper, was partially supported by ICREA under the ICREA Academia program. for being the conference attendee voted recipient of the Early Career Researcher Award. None of the funding sources took part in the design, collection, analysis, interpretation of the data; writing of the report; or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició, Reus, Spain. Stephanie K. Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición CIBEROBN , Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Nishi, Nancy Babio, Indira Paz-Graniel, Lluís Serra-Majem, Montserrat Fitó, Dolores Corella, Xavier Pintó, Josep A. Tur, J. Toronto 3D Diet, Digestive Tract and Disease Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials Unit, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Centre, St. CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP , Instituto de Salud Carlos III ISCIII , , Madrid, Spain. Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de Alicante. Universidad Miguel Hernández ISABIAL-UMH , Alicante, Spain.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge-IDIBELL, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

School of Medicine, Universitat de Barcelona, , Barcelona, Spain. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Department of Nutrition, Food Sciences, and Physiology, Center for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, IdiSNA, Pamplona, Spain.

Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria Granada, IBS-Granada, Granada, Spain. Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la Salud, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, CEU Universities, Urbanización Montepríncipe, Boadilla del Monte, , Spain.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra IdiSNA , University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

LSM, JV, MF, DC, XP, ABC, JAT, JAM, and JSS contributed to the study concept and design and data extraction from the participants from the PREDIMED-Plus study which provides the framework for the present prospective cohort analysis. SKN, NB, IPG, CGM, and JSS made substantial contributions to the conception of the present study.

SKN performed the statistical analyses and initial interpretation of the data. NB, IPG, CGM, and JSS contributed to the review of the statistical analyses and interpretation of the data. SKN drafted the manuscript. All authors substantively reviewed the manuscript for important intellectual content and approved the final version to be published.

All authors had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Correspondence to Stephanie K. Nishi or Nancy Babio. The PREDIMED-Plus study protocol and procedures were approved by the Research Ethics Committees from each of the participating centers, and the study was registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial registry ISRCTN; ISRCTN reported receiving grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III.

reported receiving grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Uriach Laboratories, and Grand-Fountain Laboratories for clinical trial and personal fees from Brewers of Europe, Fundación Cerveza y Salud; Instituto Cervantes in Albuquerque, Milano, and Tokyo; Fundación Bosch y Gimpera; non-financial support from Wine and Culinary International Forum, ERAB Belgium , and Sociedad Española de Nutrición; and fees of educational conferences from Pernaud Richart Mexico and Fundación Dieta Mediterránea Spain.

reported receiving fees of educational conferences from Fundación para la investigación del Vino y la Nutrición Spain. He is a former member of the European Fruit Juice Association Scientific Expert Panel and a former member of the Soy Nutrition Institute SNI Scientific Advisory Committee.

He serves or has served as an unpaid member of the Board of Trustees and an unpaid scientific advisor for the Carbohydrates Committee of IAFNS. He is a member of the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium ICQC , an Executive Board Member of the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group DNSG of the EASD, and a Director of the Toronto 3D Knowledge Synthesis and Clinical Trials foundation.

His spouse is an employee of AB InBev. reported receiving research support from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, the European Commission, and the USA National Institutes of Health; receiving consulting fees or travel expenses from Instituto Danone and Abbott Laboratories; receiving nonfinancial support from Patrimonio Comunal Olivarero, the Almond Board of California, and Pistachio Growers and Borges S.

A; serving on the board of and receiving grant support through his institution from the International Nut and Dried Foundation and personal fees from Instituto Danone; and serving in the Board of Danone Institute International.

The rest of the authors declared that they have no competing interests. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of the data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to publish the results.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Hydration and water intake definitions. Table S2. Associations between cognitive assessments and water and fluid intake exposures.

Table S3. Associations between cognitive assessments and EFSA fluid intake related guidelines. Table S4. Associations between cognitive assessments and hydration status.

Table S5. Sensitivity analysis in global cognitive function according to water and fluid intake related exposures Table S6. Sensitivity analysis in global cognitive function according to EFSA fluid intake related guidelines. Table S7. Sensitivity analysis in global cognitive function according to hydration status.

Flow diagram of participants. Continuous sensitivity analysis by sex. Categorical sensitivity analysis by sex. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

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Reprints and permissions. Nishi, S. et al. Water intake, hydration status and 2-year changes in cognitive performance: a prospective cohort study. BMC Med 21 , 82 Download citation. Received : 02 November Accepted : 06 February Published : 08 March Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Research article Open access Published: 08 March Water intake, hydration status and 2-year changes in cognitive performance: a prospective cohort study Stephanie K.

Nishi 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , Nancy Babio 1 , 2 , 3 , Indira Paz-Graniel 1 , 2 , 3 , Lluís Serra-Majem 3 , 6 , Jesús Vioque 7 , 8 , Montserrat Fitó 3 , 9 , Dolores Corella 3 , 10 , Xavier Pintó 3 , 11 , 12 , Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas 7 , 13 , Josep A.

Tur 3 , 14 , Laura Diez-Ricote 15 , J. Alfredo Martinez 3 , 16 , 17 , Carlos Gómez-Martínez 1 , 2 , 3 , Andrés González-Botella 18 , Olga Castañer 9 , Andrea Alvarez-Sala 10 , Cristina Montesdeoca-Mendoza 6 , Marta Fanlo-Maresma 3 , 11 , Naomi Cano-Ibáñez 7 , 13 , 19 , Cristina Bouzas 3 , 14 , Lidia Daimiel 3 , 15 , 20 , María Ángeles Zulet 3 , 16 , John L.

Sievenpiper 4 , 5 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , Kelly L. Abstract Background Water intake and hydration status have been suggested to impact cognition; however, longitudinal evidence is limited and often inconsistent.

Conclusions Reduced physiological hydration status was associated with greater reductions in global cognitive function over a 2-year period in older adults with metabolic syndrome and overweight or obesity.

Trial registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Registry, ISRCTN Background Cognitive decline is an important public health concern given 55 million people have been diagnosed with dementia and almost 80 million people are projected to be affected by [ 1 ].

Methods Study design This prospective cohort study is based on data collected during the first 2 years of the PREDIMED-Plus PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea Plus study.

Ethics, consent, and permissions The PREDIMED-Plus study protocol and procedures were approved by the Research Ethics Committees from each of the participating centers, and the study was registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Registry ISRCTN; ISRCTN Study participants PREDIMED-Plus participants were recruited from 23 centers across Spain between September and December Assessment of water and fluid intake A validated, semi-quantitative item Beverage Intake Assessment Questionnaire BIAQ [ 10 ] and a item validated semi-quantitative FFQ 38 specifying usual portion sizes, were administered by trained dietitians to assess habitual fluid and dietary intakes, respectively.

Assessment of hydration status Hydration status was estimated based on calculated serum osmolarity SOSM , which is considered a more reliable biomarker of hydration status than urinary markers in older adults [ 44 ].

Results A total of participants mean age Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants according to sex, categories of water intake, and hydration status Full size table. Full size image. Discussion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multi-year prospective cohort study to assess the association between water intake from fluid and food sources and hydration status, with subsequent changes in cognitive performance in older Spanish adults with metabolic syndrome and overweight or obesity.

Conclusions Findings suggest that hydration status, specifically poorer hydration status, may be associated with a greater decline in global cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome and overweight or obesity, particularly in men.

Availability of data and materials The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is available upon request pending application and approval of the PREDIMED-Plus Steering Committee.

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Rosinger said the findings suggest older adults may want to pay close attention to their hydration status, by both consuming enough liquids to avoid dehydration as well as ensuring adequate electrolyte balance to avoid overhydration.

Larry Kenney, Marie Underhill Noll Chair in Human Performance, and David M. Almeida, professor of human development and family studies, also participated in this work.

Research Hydration may affect cognitive function in some older adults. December 16, By Katie Bohn Print. Last Updated February 11, Katie Bohn kej psu. A'ndrea Elyse Messer aem1 psu. edu Work Phone: Get the news by email Subscribe.

Latest news Table 5 shows the characteristics of the respondents socio-demographic, physical activity level, dietary supplementation, health status, daily water intake, urine specific gravity in dependence of the results of MMSE. In adults, EFSA considers 2. Multivariable linear regression models were adjusted for several potential confounders. Nishi, Nancy Babio, … Jordi Salas-Salvadó. These two questionnaires have been validated within populations of older, Spanish individuals, which are analogous to the current study population, and both have been found to be reproducible with relative validity [ 10 , 38 ]. Briefly, a Spanish-validated version of the MMSE questionnaire, a commonly used cognitive screening test, was used in the present analysis [ 47 ]. The diuretic action of weak and strong alcoholic beverages in elderly men: a randomized diet-controlled crossover trial.
Inadequate hydration can lead to impaired cognitive, emotional function — Harvard Gazette Uncompensated Functiin losses can thus lead to decreased cognitive functions. Avoid Risks Hudration dehydration impair cognitive Beta-alanine and athletic performance enhancement Larry Hydration and cognitive function, Marie Hydrtaion Noll Chair in Human Performance, and David M. Study participants PREDIMED-Plus participants were recruited from 23 centers across Spain between September and December This study was approved by a local ethical committee and was performed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments.
Related Ratings Moreover, polypharmacy is a factor, which can increase fluid loss among the elderly, especially when medicines such as diuretics and laxatives are taken [ 3 , 4 ]. Article PubMed Google Scholar. These adequate intakes vary according to age and sex and are presented in Table 1 EFSA These cross-sectional findings differ from the present observations where global cognitive function, but not individual tests related to attention and processing, was associated with hydration status. Article PubMed Google Scholar Iadecola C, Gottesman RF. Conclusions are still unclear regarding cognitive performance for which results vary depending on the methods used, the parameters studied and for which there appears to be a gender effect Lieberman ; Masento et al.

Hydration and cognitive function -

While mild dehydration appears to affect mainly cognitive performance in men, in this study, women demonstrated little impact on cognitive functions and greater effects on mood.

In most studies carried out on adults, mood appears to be affected by exercise-induced mild dehydration, while evidence regarding the impacts on cognitive performance is not consistent and varies between studies. This may be due to the fact that exercise in itself has cognitive impacts, and thus may confound or mask any effect of hydration.

More carefully-controlled studies would be required to tease out the differential effects of mild dehydration from exercise on cognitive function. Little has been done to evaluate the mechanisms by which dehydration may impact cognition, and this topic is addressed in part V.

A study performed on adolescents provides some insight into potential physical changes in the brain as a result of mild dehydration. Kempton et al. Using brain imaging techniques, they measured neuronal activity while the subjects performed a cognitive task.

While they observed no differences in task performance, they did observe increased brain activity in areas mediating executive functions Kempton et al. The authors speculated that in the dehydrated condition, subjects may have had to increase the cognitive resources needed to complete the task, thereby suggesting that tasks may become more demanding when mildly dehydrated.

Over the past few years, to avoid the possible confounding effect of exercise, water deprivation alone has been used to induce mild dehydration on healthy young subjects.

As it is a new area of interest, only a few studies are available to date. Results vary between studies, probably due to differences in methods used to assess cognitive functions. In a study carried out by Pross et al.

on young women, authors found that a 24h fluid deprivation resulted in impaired mood, with several parameters affected, including fatigue and vigor, alertness, confusion, calmness and contentedness, tension and emotional state Pross et al.

In a study by Shirreffs et al. Subjects self-reported even greater difficulty to concentrate and to stay alert after 24 and 37 hours Shirreffs et al. However, on 10 young men mean age 25 , Petri et al.

found no effects of a 24h fluid deprivation on mood parameters Petri et al. A plausible explanation to these differences in results could be the sex of subjects involved. Indeed, it appears that men and women may not be affected the same way by mild dehydration Armstrong et al. This hypothesis is supported by a study from Szinnai et al.

who found a significant gender effect on several cognitive tasks Szinnai et al. Without any induced dehydration, some biomarkers can underline a suboptimal hydration. High urine osmolality can for instance occur when fluid intake is insufficient to adequately compensate water losses, leading to the conservation of body water through antidiuresis.

This phenomenon is commonly called voluntary dehydration and has mostly been reported in children and elderly. In children this is mainly explained by the lack of available water in schools, while in elderly it may be due to decreased thirst sensation, and to incontinence Bar-David et al.

Consequences of voluntary dehydration on cognition have not been thoroughly investigated. In children, Bar-David et al. found that voluntary dehydration affects immediate memory: children who had a morning urine osmolality above mOsm dehydrated group had lower scores at auditory number span test than hydrated children, defined as children whose urine osmolality in the morning was bellow mOsm Bar-David et al.

Some interest has been given to voluntary dehydration in the elderly, but in these studies the topic of cognition has been largely overlooked. Suhr et al. found correlations between hydration status and a psychomotor processing speed, attention and memory performance in healthy older aldults, b declarative and working memory in postmenopausal women Suhr et al.

In adults, Kenefick et al. reported an increased rate of industrial accidents during summer months, suggesting that voluntary dehydration concurrent with high temperatures could affect cognitive performance and decision-making Kenefick and Sawka There also is growing evidence that cognitive functions might be impaired.

Figure 3. Commonly reported impacts of dehydration on mood state and cognitive function. Disparities in methods make it complex to compare results between studies and to conclude on the global effects of mild dehydration on cognition. Recommendations for future research include controls for exercise, for water intake and for other fluids consumed, as well as accurate measurement of hydration status using hydration biomarkers More research is required to make further recommendations regarding cognitive tests sensitive to hydration and nutritional interventions Lieberman Overall, most of these studies found that mild dehydration altered several mood parameters.

Conclusions are still unclear regarding cognitive performance for which results vary depending on the methods used, the parameters studied and for which there appears to be a gender effect Lieberman ; Masento et al.

As subjects often report increased difficulty to concentrate and to complete the cognitive tasks, a common hypothesis is that cognitive compensating mechanisms are involved see V Szinnai et al. Dehydration has deleterious impacts on cognition. Uncompensated water losses can thus lead to decreased cognitive functions.

Cognitive implications of water supplementation and immediate effects of water intake were mostly studied in children because they are known to be at particular risk of water deficit, and because it is ethically difficult to restrict water intake in children Masento et al.

In children, water intakes of to mL have been shown to immediately reduce thirst and to increase subjective happiness, memory, motor skills, visual attention and visual search Benton and Burgess ; Booth et al. Over the course of one class day, Fadda et al. asked children to increase their fluid intake with 1.

As compared to children who did not drink additional water, children who drank reported higher vigor and performed better at short-term memory tasks Fadda et al. More recently, in their cohort study led on undergraduates, Pawson et al.

found that students who brought water to the exam performed better although they did not actually measure the water volumes consumed Pawson et al.

When water intake occurs without previous fluid deprivation, water still appears to enhance alertness and visual attention Edmonds et al.

However, several studies found that the beneficial effect of water intake on state of arousal depends on whether or not subjects were thirsty before they drank water Edmonds et al.

Headaches have been reported in subjects under induced dehydration Armstrong et al. On recurrent migraine patients, Spigt et al. found that an increase in water intake of at least 0.

Immediate effects of water intake were repeatedly found on state of arousal, improving perceptions of vigor, as well as performance on task requiring attention and alertness. In children, water also appears to enhance short-term memory. Figure 4. Commonly reported benefits of water intake on mood state and cognitive function.

To our knowledge, only one study has looked at the effect of a change in water intake on mood. In this study carried out by Pross et al. Groups were formed based on the average intakes of the French population: one third of subjects drinking less than 1.

The 22 high drinkers subjects started from 2. No differences in mood were observed at baseline between the two groups. After only three days of intervention, results showed increased thirst and decreased contentedness, calmness and positive emotions in high drinkers subjects who decreased their water intake.

In the low drinkers group, increasing water intake resulted in decrease in thirst and confusion Pross et al. Figure 5. Reported effects of a change in daily water intake on mood state Pross et al.

Scientific evidence is scarce regarding the effects of a change in daily water intake on cognition. Existing data suggest a change in mood after only 3 days: a decrease in water intake would alter mood, while an increase could decrease confusion thus enhancing state of arousal.

It has been hypothesized that positive effects of water on cognition could be due to a psychological effect of expectancy. This hypothesis was however recently rejected when Edmonds et al. enrolled 47 adults among which some received water without knowing it was part of the experiment subjects were given a drink during a conversation without notice.

Some groups of subjects were informed that water could have an impact on their cognitive functions, and others were not. The authors found positive effects of acute water intake whether or not they were in the expectancy group Edmonds et al.

Several physiological mechanisms might be involved in the cognitive consequences of dehydration. The main mechanism known to follow dehydration involves the hormone vasopressin or arginine vasopressin, AVP, also known as the Antidiuretic Hormone, or ADH.

Dehydration causes a slight raise in blood osmolality, which is detected by specialized receptors that signal AVP release. The increase in circulating AVP may increase the synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal cortex of the kidneys.

Hypotheses regarding how this could affect cognitive performance include animal studies that have shown an association between cortisol and reduced memory, poor processing speed and altered active learning Masento et al. In parallel, AVP also induces thirst sensation.

This is hypothesized to enter in competition with other cognitive tasks for resources, and might thereby decrease attention Masento et al. These hypotheses are summarized in Figure 2. Figure 7. Physiological consequences of dehydration and hypothesized mechanisms involved in the cognitive consequences.

Dietary reference values for total water intake water coming from food and from fluids have been established by several organizations EFSA ; IOM Contrarily to many other nutrients, there is insufficient research regarding the amount of water required to prevent diseases or improve health.

In , the European Food Safety Authority established reference values for total water intake in the general population. These adequate intakes vary according to age and sex and are presented in Table 1 EFSA Table 1. Adequate intakes are thus equivalent to drinking 1. Later on, EFSA stated that water contributes to the maintenance of normal physical and cognitive performance.

Along with this statement, and based on their previous scientific opinion on water intake, they approved the claim on water for a total water intake of 2.

According to the European Food Safety Authority, water contributes to the maintenance of normal physical and cognitive performance. In adults, EFSA considers 2. Home Hydration Science Hydration Lab Hydration, mood state and cognitive function. Summary Introduction Cognition Dehydration Effect of cognition Impact on mood Hypothesized Dietary reference Conclusion References.

Download the pdf. Introduction Cognition I. Defining and measuring cognition I. What is cognition? How is cognition measured? Nutritional interventions in the field of cognition Dehydration II. Dehydration and cognition II. Exercise-induced dehydration II. Mild dehydration achieved through water deprivation II.

Voluntary dehydration II. Recommendations for future research Effect of cognition III. Effect of water intake on cognition Impact on mood IV. Can a change in water intake impact mood?

Hypothesized V. Hypothesized mechanisms linking water and cognition Dietary reference VI. Dietary reference values for water Conclusion References. Cognitive function refers to abilities such as attention, memory short-term, long-term, and working memory , learning, language, executive functions reasoning, planning, decision making , visual and psychomotor functions de Jager et al.

Mood state includes feelings and emotions like happiness, tension, vigor or calmness. It can also include perceptions like overall mood, sensation of fatigue or headaches, perceived difficulty to concentrate or to perform a task IOM ; Masento et al.

When studying nutrition and cognition, two types of tests are commonly used: Objective performance tests: these measure a specific cognitive function such as memory, learning or attention.

In these tests, subjects are asked to execute a series of tasks. The assessment of performance is usually measured through speed and accuracy of response de Jager et al. The lack of consistency in the evidence published to date is largely due to the different methodology applied, and an attempt should be made to standardize methods for future studies.

These differences relate to the assessment of cognitive performance, the method used to cause dehydration, and the characteristics of the participants. Abstract No matter how mild, dehydration is not a desirable condition because there is an imbalance in the homeostatic function of the internal environment.

Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Gov't Review.

Hydration is actually essential to human Natural remedies for allergies and asthma and survival. As part of its body Hydratuon, water contributes to functiln Hydration and cognitive function of normal brain dognitive EFSA ; Weight management strategies Cognition is involved in functuon we do, including perceiving, thinking, remembering, as well as feeling emotions and exerting control over our environment. One can thus wonder how brain functions related to cognition can be influenced by hydration status. Several studies have investigated the effects of dehydration and of increased water intake on cognition. This document aims at defining cognition and giving an overview of validated methods that allow the assessment of cognitive functions. Hydration and cognitive function


How Dehydration Affects Brain Function

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