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Antioxidant supplements for immune system boost

Antioxidant supplements for immune system boost

Several Raspberry ketones and cholesterol levels trials have examined supplementts effects of zinc supplementation on gor incidence of pneumonia and as an adjunctive Foe for supplmeents. Medically reviewed Fat burners for amplified fat metabolism Farah Khan, MD. A systematic review and meta-analysis also showed that tea and tea catechins had some beneficial effects on the risk of influenza and other upper respiratory tract infections, although the evidence had some limitations [ ]. Researchers have therefore examined whether drinking tea or taking supplemental tea catechins affects the risk, duration, and severity of influenza or other respiratory tract infections.

Antioxidant supplements for immune system boost -

Wieland LS, Piechotta V, Feinberg T, et al. Elderberry for prevention and treatment of viral respiratory illnesses: a systematic review. BMC Complement Med Ther. Aucoin M, Cardozo V, McLaren MD, et al. A systematic review on the effects of Echinacea supplementation on cytokine levels: Is there a role in COVID?

Metabol Open. Wang S, Li Z, Ma Y, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of green tea polyphenols. Sah A, Naseef PP, Kuruniyan MS, Jain GK, Zakir F, Aggarwal G. A comprehensive study of therapeutic applications of chamomile. Pharmaceuticals Basel. Zhou X, Afzal S, Wohlmuth H, et al.

Synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of ginger and turmeric extracts in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide and interferon-γ-induced proinflammatory mediators. Carr AC, Maggini S. Vitamin C and immune function. Penn Medicine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Six tips to enhance immunity. Garbarino S, Lanteri P, Bragazzi NL, et al. Role of sleep deprivation in immune-related disease risk and outcomes. Commun Biol. Use limited data to select advertising. Create profiles for personalised advertising.

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List of Partners vendors. By Lindsay Curtis. Medically reviewed by Farah Khan, MD. Table of Contents View All. Table of Contents. When to Take Them. Exposure to UV light, cigarette smoke, and other environmental pollutants also increases the body's free radical burden.

The harmful activities of free radicals are associated with damage to membranes, enzymes, and DNA. The ability of antioxidants to destroy free radicals protects the structural integrity of cells and tissues. This review focuses on data indicating that the functions of the human immune system depend on the intake of micronutrients, which can act as antioxidants.

Icy fingers and toes: Poor circulation or Raynaud's phenomenon? Some vitamins and minerals — including vitamins C and E and the minerals copper, zinc, and selenium — serve as antioxidants, in addition to other vital roles.

Because free radicals lack a full complement of electrons, they steal electrons from other molecules and damage those molecules in the process. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals by giving up some of their own electrons. In making this sacrifice, they act as a natural "off" switch for the free radicals.

This helps break a chain reaction that can affect other molecules in the cell and other cells in the body. But it is important to recognize that the term "antioxidant" reflects a chemical property rather than a specific nutritional property. While free radicals are damaging by their very nature, they are an inescapable part of life.

The body generates free radicals in response to environmental insults, such as tobacco smoke, ultraviolet rays, and air pollution, but they are also a natural byproduct of normal processes in cells.

When the immune system musters to fight intruders, for example, the oxygen it uses spins off an army of free radicals that destroy viruses, bacteria, and damaged body cells in an oxidative burst. Some normal production of free radicals also occurs during exercise. This appears to be necessary in order to induce some of the beneficial effects of regular physical activity, such as sensitizing your muscle cells to insulin.

Because free radicals are so pervasive, you need an adequate supply of antioxidants to disarm them. Your body's cells naturally produce some powerful antioxidants, such as alpha lipoic acid and glutathione.

The foods you eat supply other antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E. Plants are full of compounds known as phytochemicals—literally, "plant chemicals"—many of which seem to have antioxidant properties as well.

For example, after vitamin C has "quenched" a free radical by donating electrons to it, a phytochemical called hesperetin found in oranges and other citrus fruits restores the vitamin C to its active antioxidant form. Carotenoids such as lycopene in tomatoes and lutein in kale and flavonoids such as flavanols in cocoa, anthocyanins in blueberries, quercetin in apples and onions, and catechins in green tea are also antioxidants.

News articles, advertisements, and food labels often tout antioxidant benefits such as slowing aging, fending off heart disease, improving flagging vision, and curbing cancer. And laboratory studies and many large-scale observational studies those that query people about their eating habits and supplement use and then track their disease patterns have noted antioxidant benefits from diets rich in them, particularly those coming from a broad range of colorful vegetables and fruits.

Deficiencies in sustem vitamins, including vitamin C, zinc, and others, supplsments weaken your immune system. Taking supplements of these vitamins may Organic natural home remedies support boosh system function. Currently, boowt Raspberry ketones and cholesterol levels supports the use of any supplement to Endurance nutrition for endurance races against COVID specifically. Your immune system consists of a complex collection of cells, processes, and chemicals that constantly defends your body against invading pathogens, including viruses, toxins, and bacteria 12. Making healthy lifestyle choices by consuming nutritious foods and getting enough sleep and exercise are the most important ways to bolster your immune system. In addition, research has shown that supplementing with certain vitamins, minerals, herbs, and other substances can help improve immune response and potentially protect against illness. Some may not be appropriate for people with certain health conditions.

Get More from your Antioxidant supplements for immune system boost supplements antioxidant fot supplements with Antioxxidant Bounty ®. Sysfem by. View All Products. Vitamin B. Vitamin C. Daily calorie counter D. Vitamin E. Gummy Endurance nutrition for endurance races.

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Health Benefit Energy Support 1 Energy Support 1 product Heart Health 1 Heart Health 1 product. Product Type Herbs 8 Herbs 8 products Minerals 8 Minerals 8 products Supplements 3 Supplements 3 products Vitamins 25 Vitamins 25 products.

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: Antioxidant supplements for immune system boost

Top 10 Anti-Viral Supplements to Boost Immunity - GilbertLab Neurosci Lett. However, it did not reduce the risk of death due to pneumonia. When taken before cold symptoms start, vitamin C may shorten the duration, but it doesn't keep you from getting sick. However, vitamin D supplementation was beneficial only in participants who took supplements daily or weekly, not in those who took one or more bolus doses. It might also reduce the effectiveness of radiation therapy and chemotherapy by protecting tumor cells from the action of these agents [ 76 , , ]. Many herbal remedies are marketed to help fight colds or shorten their duration, but check with a health care professional before taking any supplements or medications. Bibliography 1 Lobo, V, A Patil, A Phatak, and N Chandra.
Immune & Antioxidant Support – Nature's Bounty

Boost your immune system with antioxidants. By Kristi Friesen, Registered Dietitian, Project Open Hand. Categories: Nutrition. July 1, Antioxidants are powerful compounds in our foods that keep our immune systems working strong.

Here are a few: Vitamin C is found in citrus, kiwi, strawberries, bell peppers and broccoli. Vitamin E is contained in almonds, avocados and olive oil. Beta-carotene creates vitamin A, important for vision and bone health.

Good sources are carrots, sweet potatoes, kale, chard and papayas. Lycopene is found in red fruits and vegetables like tomatoes, papaya and watermelon. Lutein and zeaxanthin are found in dark green leafy veggies like spinach, kale, collard greens and broccoli and may help slow the progress of age-related macular degeneration in the eyes.

Topics in this Post. Keep the immune system strong While having a healthy immune system is a plus during the season of colds and flu, consider these tips for keeping your immune system strong throughout the year: Focus on a balanced eating plan. Crack down on spreading germs.

Increase sleep, reduce stress. Research demonstrates that lack of sleep and increased stress contribute to illness and overall poor health, so: Adults should get seven to nine hours of sleep each day, while children need eight to 14 hours, depending on age. Healthy ways to cope with stress include meditating, listening to music or journaling.

Physical activity is another strategy to manage stress and may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases that can weaken your immune system. Here are some myths and facts about immune-boosting nutrients: Fact: Chicken soup can help you feel better.

Myth: Vitamin C can prevent illness. Myth: Dairy increases mucus production. Choose immune-boosting nutrients These nutrients play a role in immune health: Beta carotene Beta carotene is found in plant foods, such as sweet potatoes, spinach, carrots, mangoes, broccoli and tomatoes.

Vitamin C Vitamin C-rich foods include citrus fruits, berries, melons, tomatoes, bell peppers and broccoli. Vitamin D Vitamin D is found in fatty fish and eggs. Zinc Zinc tends to be better absorbed from foods such as beef and seafood, but it's also found in plant-based sources, including wheat germ, beans, nuts and tofu.

Probiotics Probiotics are good bacteria that promote health. You'll find them in cultured dairy products, such as yogurt, and in fermented foods, such as kefir and kimchi. Protein Protein comes from animal and plant sources, including milk, yogurt, eggs, beef, chicken, seafood, nuts, seeds, beans and lentils.

Stay well. In the meantime, here are some recipes incorporating immune-fighting foods: Chicken noodle soup with dill Serves 6 10 cups reduced-sodium chicken broth 3 medium carrots, diced 1 large stalk celery, diced 3 tablespoons minced fresh ginger 6 cloves garlic, minced 4 ounces whole-wheat egg noodles 3 cups 4 cups shredded cooked skinless chicken breast about 1 pound 1 tablespoon chopped fresh dill 1 tablespoon lemon juice, or to taste Bring broth to a boil in a Dutch oven.

Tomato apple jam Mayo Clinic Healthy Living Center Serves 4 Serve as condiment with chicken steak, fish, fried eggs or toast. The notable ones approved for use in an emergency include hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, remdesivir, tocilizumab, etc. The plethora of existing literature provides the scientific evidence on immune-boosting, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties of several phytonutrients as summarized in Table 1.

Initial studies find that some of these have been found to possess anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects and are being fast-tracked into clinical trials Table 2. Repurposing of these nutrients in the right combination to achieve the functional synergy in the form of ready-to-eat food supplements may provide both prophylactic and adjuvant therapy against COVID Table 2.

Registered clinical trials of food supplements Source: ClinicalTrials. MM, VP, RN, and PJ: drafted the article. PH and PVR: edited the article. All authors: contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

of India. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We are thankful to the Director and to CSIR-CFTRI for providing facilities to carry out this study.

Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KKW, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster.

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Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, Li P, Mi D, Ren L, et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARSCoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARSCoV. Nat Commun. Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology.

Semin Immunopathol. Kindler E, Thiel V, Weber F. Interaction of SARS and MERS coronaviruses with the antiviral interferon response.

Adv Virus Res. Li X, Geng M, Peng Y, Meng L, Lu S. Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID J Pharm Anal. Olagnier D, Farahani E, Thyrsted J, Cadanet JB, Herengt A, Idorn M, et al. Identification of SARSCoV2-mediated suppression of NRF2 signaling reveals a potent antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of 4-octyl-itaconate and dimethyl fumarate.

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FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. Wu YH, Tseng CP, Cheng ML, Ho HY, Shih SR, Chiu DTY. Glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency enhances human coronavirus E infection. J Infect Dis. Bell TJ, Brand OJ, Morgan DJ, Salek-Ardakani S, Jagger C, Fujimori T, et al.

Defective lung function following influenza virus is due to prolonged, reversible hyaluronan synthesis. Matrix Biol J Int Soc Matrix Biol. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with novel coronavirus—infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China.

Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al. Pathological findings of COVID associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. Hällgren R, Samuelsson T, Laurent TC, Modig J. Accumulation of hyaluronan hyaluronic acid in the lung in adult respiratory distress syndrome.

Am Rev Respir Dis. Read SA, Obeid S, Ahlenstiel C, Ahlenstiel G. The role of zinc in antiviral immunity. Adv Nutr. Biaggio VS, Pérez Chaca MV, Valdéz SR, Gómez NN, Gimenez MS. Alteration in the expression of inflammatory parameters as a result of oxidative stress produced by moderate zinc deficiency in rat lung.

Exp Lung Res. Bao S, Knoell DL. Zinc modulates cytokine-induced lung epithelial cell barrier permeability. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol.

Liu MJ, Bao S, Napolitano JR, Burris DL, Yu L, Tridandapani S, et al. Zinc regulates the acute phase response and serum amyloid a production in response to sepsis through JAKSTAT3 signaling. PLoS ONE. Ishida T. Am J Biomed Sci Res. Speth R, Carrera E, Jean-Baptiste M, Joachim A, Linares A.

Concentration-dependent effects of zinc on angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 activity FASEB J. te Velthuis AJW, van den Worm SHE, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van Hemert MJ. PLoS Pathog. Hemilä H, Fitzgerald JT, Petrus EJ, Prasad A.

Zinc acetate lozenges may improve the recovery rate of common cold patients: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

Open Forum Infect Dis. Roth DE, Richard SA, Black RE. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of acute lower respiratory infection in children in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials. Int J Epidemiol. Zhang L, Liu Y. Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: a systematic review.

J Med Virol. Prietl B, Treiber G, Pieber TR, Amrein K. Vitamin D and immune function. Wimalawansa SJ. Vitamin D deficiency: effects on oxidative stress, epigenetics, gene regulation, and aging.

Chen Y, Zhang J, Ge X, Du J, Deb DK, Li YC. Vitamin D receptor inhibits nuclear factor κB activation by interacting with IκB kinase β protein. J Biol Chem. Lemire JM, Archer DC, Beck L, Spiegelberg HL. Immunosuppressive actions of 1,dihydroxyvitamin D3: preferential inhibition of Th1 functions.

J Nutr. Jeffery LE, Burke F, Mura M, Zheng Y, Qureshi OS, Hewison M, et al. J Immunol Baltim Md Monlezun DJ, Bittner EA, Christopher KB, Camargo CA, Quraishi SA.

Vitamin D status and acute respiratory infection: cross sectional results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Zdrenghea MT, Makrinioti H, Bagacean C, Bush A, Johnston SL, Stanciu LA. Vitamin D modulation of innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections.

Rev Med Virol. Abu-Mouch S, Fireman Z, Jarchovsky J, Zeina AR, Assy N. Vitamin D supplementation improves sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 -naïve patients. World J Gastroenterol. Ginde AA, Blatchford P, Breese K, Zarrabi L, Linnebur SA, Wallace JI, et al.

High-dose monthly vitamin D for prevention of acute respiratory infection in older long-term care residents: a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. Behera MK, Shukla SK, Dixit VK, Nath P, Abhilash VB, Asati PK, et al. Indian J Med Res. Nimer A, Mouch A.

Vitamin D improves viral response in hepatitis C genotype naïve patients. World J Gastroenterol WJG. Charan J, Goyal JP, Saxena D, Yadav P. Vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pharmacol Pharmacother.

Goncalves-Mendes N, Talvas J, Dualé C, Guttmann A, Corbin V, Marceau G, et al. Impact of vitamin D supplementation on influenza vaccine response and immune functions in deficient elderly persons: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Front Immunol. Carr AC, Maggini S. Vitamin C and immune function.

van Driel ML, Beller EM, Thielemans E, Deckx L, Price-Haywood E, Clark J, et al. Oral vitamin C supplements to prevent and treat acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Vázquez-Fresno R, Rosana ARR, Sajed T, Onookome-Okome T, Wishart NA, Wishart DS.

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Guide to Antioxidants and Immune Support | Schiff Vitamins

This correlates with increased activity of HAS2 and the subsequent lung pathology induced by the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Therefore, the above clinical and research findings suggest that COVID pathogenesis involves two phases: Phase 1, suppression of innate immune response, increases in oxidative stress and phase 2 acute inflammation-driven damaging phase Figure 1. Figure 1.

Schematic representation of pathogenesis of COVID SARS-CoV-2 infection involves two phases: 1 Asymptomatic carrier phase. The black stars indicate the stage at which food supplements can counteract the pathogenesis of COVID Arrow on the left indicate the progress of the infection.

From the point of prevention, phase 1 is crucial as individuals in this stage are carriers, they can spread the infection unknowingly. Management of individuals in phase 1, along with mounting specific adaptive immune response, and use of antivirals is critical to prevent the virus entry, replication as well as the disease progression to phase 2.

Therefore, global strategies may include administration of external antiviral, and or immune-boosting food supplements. During the phase 2 of the infection, in addition to maintaining the general health condition of affected patients, the line of treatment may be focused on adapting the strategies including the use of nutritional supplements that can suppress the ongoing oxidative stress, acute-inflammation and cytokine storm so that destruction and damage caused to affected tissues is prevented.

In summary, in addition to symptomatic treatment, strategies to counteract the SARS-CoV-2 infection is to boost the immune response in phase 1 while suppressing it in the second phase could be effective.

Currently, there is one vaccine; Sputnik V, approved by the Ministry of Health, Russian Federation. It was fast-tracked for use as a corona vaccine, but experts have expressed concern about the vaccine's efficacy and safety since it has not yet been evaluated in phase 3 clinical trials.

Currently, most countries around the world are into developing corona vaccines, a few of them have entered into human trials while most of them are in various stages of research and development. Further, there no specific drug for use against COVID as well as substantial data both at the national or international level on the effects of nutritional supplements on risk or severity of COVID The development of new antivirals for COVID is a great challenge and needs a considerable length of time and effort for designing and validation.

Several shreds of evidence indicate that many nutritional supplements from various spices, herbs, fruits, roots, and vegetables can reduce the risk or severity of a wide range of viral infections by boosting the immune response, particularly among people with inadequate dietary sources and also by their anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, and viricidal functions.

These nutrients can be repurposed in mitigating the pathological effects induced by the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Therefore, the use of natural compounds may provide alternative prophylactic and therapeutic support along with the therapy for COVID In the following section, the beneficial effects of some of the nutrients are described.

Zinc is an essential metal involved in a variety of biological processes due to its function as a cofactor, signaling molecule, and a structural element.

It regulates inflammatory activity and has antiviral and antioxidant functions Studies in the rat model show that deficiency of Zn increases oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory TNF-α and vascular cell adhesion molecule VCAM -1 expression and causes lung tissue remodeling which was partially reversed by the Zn supplementation Zn deficiency shows up-regulation of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and FasR signaling and induction of apoptosis in lung epithelial cells 21 and also up-regulates the Janus kinase JAK -STAT signaling in lungs under septic conditions Zinc can also modulate the viral entry, fusion, replication, viral protein translation and virus budding of respiratory viruses 19 , Speth et al.

Zn also shortens the duration of flu-like symptoms by 2 days as well as improves the rate of recovery Zinc is considered as the potential supportive treatment against COVID infection due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant as well as direct antiviral effects VD a fat-soluble vitamin, plays a vital role in both in immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antiviral responses 29 , The human airway epithelium constitutively expresses the vitamin D receptor thereby enabling the protective effects of VD against respiratory infections.

VD blocks NF-κB p65 activation via up-regulation of NF-κB inhibitory protein I-kappa-B-alpha I K B-α VD also decreases the expression levels of pro-inflammatory type 1 cytokines such as IL, IL, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ while increasing type 2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL, and regulatory T cells 32 , VD increases the levels of antioxidant NRF-2 and facilitates balanced mitochondrial functions, prevents oxidative stress-related protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage Epidemiological data relates VD deficiency to increases in the susceptibility to acute viral respiratory infections 34 while its supplementation potentiates the innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections including those caused by Influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1 and 2, respiratory syncytial virus RSV , and chronic hepatitis C 35 , Though there are no reports that VD directly affects the virus replication or viral load, studies reveal that VD could contribute to antiviral activity through suppression of virus-induced inflammation.

Perhaps this function of VD could help in suppression of the cytokine storm in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, evidence also suggests that VD can supplement the effectiveness of drug treatment as observed in the case of ribavirin therapy for treatment-naïve patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus HCV genotype 1 and HCV genotype 2e3 infections 33 , 34 , 38 , The beneficial effect of supplementation was seen in patients across all ages groups and in individuals with pre-existing chronic illness Older people are most often deficient in these important micronutrients.

Thus they can derive the most significant benefit from the VD supplementation Vitamin C can potentially protect against infection due to its essential role on immune health This vitamin supports the function of various immune cells and enhances their ability to protect against infection.

Supplementing with VC has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of upper respiratory infections most of which are assumed to be due to viral infections , including the common cold The total recommended daily allowance RDA for VC is 60 mg. Various spices, herbs, fruits, and vegetables have found to be excellent sources of VC VC is also a potent antioxidant.

As an antioxidant, it scavenges ROS, prevents lipid peroxidation, and protein alkylation and thus protects cells from oxidative stress induced cellular damage Studies also have revealed that administration of VC in combination with quercetin provides synergistic antiviral, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects Therefore, having the food supplement incorporated with sources of VC can help in alleviating and providing immune boosting as well as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection Curcumin has a broad spectrum of biological actions, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities It inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF- α in lipopolysaccharide LPS -stimulated BV2 microglial cells 50 and IL- 1β and IL-6 in TNF-α treated HaCaT cells via inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways The curcumin also inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 COX-2 , as well as STAT signaling pathways It exerts antiviral effect by various mechanisms ranging from inhibiting the virus entry into cells, inhibiting encapsulation of the virus and viral protease, inhibiting the virus replication, as well as modulating several signaling pathways Recent study has shown that curcumin potentially inhibits ACE2, modulates characteristics of lipid bilayer, as well as viral S protein inhibiting entry of virus into cells 54 , 55 , inhibits the viral protease 56 , stimulates host interferon production to activate the host innate immunity 55 , etc.

Furthermore, curcumin is a potent antioxidant. It exerts its antioxidant effects both by neutralizing free radicals and enhancing the production of antioxidant enzymes 57 — These studies reveal potential immune-boosting, antioxidant and anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects of curcumin.

Therefore, curcumin could be a potential supplement in combating the COVID pathogenesis. Cinnamaldehyde is a naturally present organic compound abundantly found in essential oils in cinnamon.

It predominantly exists in the trans-isomer form, which gives cinnamon its flavor and odor Cinnamaldehyde is a well-known dietary phytonutrient, known to possess anti-inflammatory properties.

In a study by Liao et al. Studies have also found that it can suppress endotoxin-mediated hyperexpression of TLR4 and NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathways Cinnamaldehyde is also known to downregulate the production of prostaglandins PGEs by downregulating IL-1β-induced COX-2 activity thus lowering the chances of hyper inflammation in a dose-dependent manner All the above evidences show cases that cinnamaldehyde is a potential anti-inflammatory bioactive compound and could be useful in mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 induced hyper inflammation in the lung.

The predominant thiosulfinate in fresh garlic extract identified as allicin, has shown a number of health benefits due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral properties. Allicin suppresses the inflammation via inhibiting the TNF-α induced expression levels of IL-1β, IL-8, IP, and IFN-γ and also through suppression of degradation of NF-κB inhibitory protein IκB in intestinal epithelial cells It inhibits inducible NO nitric oxide synthase expression in activated macrophages 66 , Several garlic associated compounds have found to possess a strong viricidal activity against a wide range of viruses including parainfluenza virus type 3, human rhinovirus, herpes simplex virus HSV -1, HSV-2, and vesicular stomatitis virus VSV.

Some of the garlic compounds that show viricidal activity are ajoene, allicin, allyl, methyl thiosulfinate and methyl allyl thiosulfinate 68 , Studies also have found that only fresh samples with no processing such as heat induction or drying were successful to induce most of the biological activities of garlic Therefore, fresh garlic extract may be useful as a prophylactic against COVID Black pepper has long been used in many cuisines and it holds a very valuable space among medicinal plants.

Piperine that is obtained from ethanolic extract of black pepper and is a major alkaloid in the group of cinnamamides Piperine possesses a strong anti-inflammatory function and therefore can be repurposed for suppression of hyper inflammation induced during COVID It downregulates PGEs by inhibiting the expression levels of IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinases MMP Piperine promotes innate immunity by promoting the phagocytic activity of phagocytes and is known to inhibit LPS-induced expression of IRF-1 and IRF-7 mRNA, phosphorylation of IRF-3, type 1IFN mRNA, and down-regulation of STAT-1 activity Few studies conducted on microglial cells have shown that piperine inhibits LPS-Induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and PGE2 production in BV2 cells Also, it found to inhibit the production of IL-2, and IFN-γ in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs Furthermore, piperine treatment found to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, nitric oxide synthase-2, and NF-κB in the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced inflammation rat model These findings indicate the strong anti-inflammatory activity of the piperine.

Further, piperine is a potent antioxidant and protects against oxidative damage by neutralizing free radicals, ROS, and hydroxyl radicals. It scavenges superoxide radicals with IC 50 of 1.

These results indicate that piperine possesses a direct antioxidant effect against various free radicals Because of these properties, piperine can be tried as a prophylactic or therapeutic compound to protect from the oxidative stress and hyper inflammation induced during the COVID Selenium is abundantly found in common foods such as corn, garlic, onion, cabbage, broccoli.

It's an essential micronutrient that plays a vital role in various physiological processes and on the immune system. Selenium exerts its biological effect through incorporation into selenoproteins in the body. Optimum selenium status μg per day promotes enhanced T cell proliferation, NK cell activity and innate cell functions.

Further supports stronger vaccine response and robust immunity to pathogens. Also, suppresses severe inflammation in tissues such as lungs and intestine Studies have shown that selenium supplementation modulates the inflammatory response in respiratory distress syndrome patients by restoring the antioxidant status of the lungs and suppressing the IL-1β and IL-6 levels Selenium supplementation suppresses pathogen induced activation of NF-κB and its downstream pro-inflammatory cytokine release The antiviral properties of selenium have found to be mediated through its antioxidant effects.

Overall, selenium improves the immunity through its non-enzymatic role acting as cofactor for enzymes involved in critical post-translational modifications of proteins. Because of its substantial role in suppressing the inflammation and augmentation of antioxidant status and innate immunity, selenium supplementation may be useful in fight against COVID Propolis produced by honeybees and known to have a broad spectrum of biological properties, including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, dermatoprotective, laxative, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, and immunomodulatory activity The immunomodulatory activity is attributed to flavonoids and some phenolic acids mainly caffeic acid phenethyl esters and artepillin C 3,5-diprenylhydroxycinnamic acid.

Propolis exhibits immunomodulatory effects on a broad spectrum of immune cells mediated by the modulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and MAPK signaling pathways. Further, it also modulates nuclear factor of activated T cells NFAT and NF κB signaling pathways 82 , Propolis also stimulates greater antibody production, suggesting that it could be used as an adjuvant in vaccines.

Propolis at higher concentration inhibits lymphoproliferation while at low concentrations the effect is reversed, causing lymphoproliferation Further, compounds in honey propolis inhibits various viruses such as dengue virus type 2, herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, influenza virus A1 Together, with immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, propolis can be tried as a prophylactic support against COVID The commonly used probiotics are Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species, followed by the Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Bacillus, and Escherichia coli.

Probiotics not only support the health of the gut but also improves system functioning and regulation Though it is not clear how gut microbiome provides benefit over respiratory tract infections via gut-lung axis.

In general, it is observed that the gut microbiome impacts systemic immune responses as well as local immune responses at distal mucosal sites, including lungs Consumption of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus have found to help in clearing the influenza virus in the respiratory tract Levels of interferons, mucosal antibodies of lung and activity of NK cells, antigen presenting cells APCs are improved by probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 strain has shown to have suppressing effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, enhances anti-inflammatory cytokines IL, IL-4 and also known to reduce plasma peroxidation levels as well as modulate immune system It is reported that Lactobacillus acidophilus CMCC administration in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa decreased the damage in the lungs by reducing the bacterial load and reducing the inflammation A clinical study has reported that administration of Leuconostoc mesenteroides , Lactobacillus plantarum 2,, L.

paracasei ssp. paracasei 19, Pediococcus pentosaceus along with resistant starch, inulin prebiotics etc. reduced systemic inflammatory response syndrome and other infections Bifidobacterium longum BB strain prevents infection from influenza and improves innate immunity Though mechanism of their immunomodulating and anti-inflammatory effects in the lung are not clearly understood.

In general, probiotics exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects via modulation of the NF-κB, MAPK and pattern recognition receptors PRR pathways that decreases Th2 mediated responses and upregulates Th1 responses. Further, they have an ability to inhibit the attachment of bacterial LPS to CD14 receptor, hence decrease in the overall activation of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines production 94 , Considering the role of probiotics in improving the host innate immune response as well as anti-inflammatory effects 87 , and considering the fact that gut involvement and enterocytes 96 can be reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 infection, probiotics can be repurposed as prophylactics as well as adjuvants to combat the pathogenesis of COVID Lactoferrin Lf is a naturally occurring and non-toxic glycoprotein that has been studied against a broad range of viruses, including SARS-CoV, which is closely related to SARS-CoV Lf inhibits viral entry via binding to cell surface molecules or viral particles or both.

It was also known to suppress virus replication as in the case of HIV. Therefore, it plays a crucial role in preventing the virus entry and replication Studies have shown that it exerts immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects by inducing the T-cell activation, suppressing the levels of interleukins including IL-6, TNF-α, and downregulating the ferritin Also it suppresses H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells Furthermore, zinc saturated Lf exerts a more potent antiviral effect It is mainly used as a nutritional additive in infant formulas and clinical studies, with doses ranging from mg to 4.

and can be tried as a potential preventive and therapeutics against COVID Quercetin is a well-known antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and antiviral bioactive. It inhibits TNF-α production in LPS-induced macrophages , IL-8 production in lung A cells , and mRNA levels of TNF-α and IL-1α in glial cells It also limits the production of cyclooxygenase COX and lipoxygenase LOX enzymes in rat liver epithelial cells Studies have also shown that quercetin has antiviral effects on both RNA and DNA viruses.

It inhibits the virus entry and viral-cell fusion and reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lung inflammation induced by rhinovirus in mice Further, quercetin metabolite 4',5-diacetyloxy-3,3',7-trimethoxyflavone has been shown to inhibit the picornavirus replication by inhibiting the RNA replicase complex Studies have also found that quercetin-3β-galactoside due to the presence of hydroxyl group, it binds to viral protease 3CL pro and inhibits its proteolytic activity Further, increased ability of estradiol in affecting human genes encoding SARS-CoV-2 targets compared to testosterone suggests a plausible explanation of the apparently higher male mortality in this corona pandemic Furthermore, as observed in prediction models that quercetin binds SARS-CoV-2 S-protein at its host receptor region or to the S-protein-human ACE2 interface interfering the virus entry into cells indicating its therapeutic potential This prediction is consistent with the reports that both quercetin and a structurally similar luteolin inhibits the SARS-CoV virus infection Additionally, other studies have also found that quercetin in combination with VC induces synergistic antiviral and immunomodulatory effects against COVID Taken together, various studies suggest that quercetin possesses potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects and can be repurposed as a preventive and therapeutic candidate to combat COVID Currently, there is one corona vaccine, Sputnik V, developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute, Moscow has been approved by the Ministry of Health, Russian Federation.

Presently, there are over vaccines around the world in various stages of research and development. A few of them are in human clinical trials and are being tested rigorously for their safety, efficacy, and dosage standardization. Similarly, there are several drug candidates that have been identified and most are in various stages of research and development, whilst some of them have been repurposed and approved for emergency use in this pandemic.

The notable ones approved for use in an emergency include hydroxychloroquine, favipiravir, remdesivir, tocilizumab, etc. The plethora of existing literature provides the scientific evidence on immune-boosting, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral properties of several phytonutrients as summarized in Table 1.

Initial studies find that some of these have been found to possess anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects and are being fast-tracked into clinical trials Table 2. Repurposing of these nutrients in the right combination to achieve the functional synergy in the form of ready-to-eat food supplements may provide both prophylactic and adjuvant therapy against COVID Table 2.

Registered clinical trials of food supplements Source: ClinicalTrials. MM, VP, RN, and PJ: drafted the article. PH and PVR: edited the article. All authors: contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

of India. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We are thankful to the Director and to CSIR-CFTRI for providing facilities to carry out this study. Chan JFW, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KKW, Chu H, Yang J, et al.

A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease in China. N Engl J Med. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus—infected pneumonia.

Shi Y, Wang Y, Shao C, Huang J, Gan J, Huang X, et al. COVID infection: the perspectives on immune responses. Cell Death Differ. Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Schroeder S, Krüger N, Herrler T, Erichsen S, et al. SARSCoV-2 cell entry depends on ace2 and tmprss2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor.

Ou X, Liu Y, Lei X, Li P, Mi D, Ren L, et al. Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARSCoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARSCoV.

Nat Commun. Channappanavar R, Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology.

Semin Immunopathol. Kindler E, Thiel V, Weber F. Interaction of SARS and MERS coronaviruses with the antiviral interferon response. Adv Virus Res.

Li X, Geng M, Peng Y, Meng L, Lu S. Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID J Pharm Anal. Olagnier D, Farahani E, Thyrsted J, Cadanet JB, Herengt A, Idorn M, et al.

Identification of SARSCoV2-mediated suppression of NRF2 signaling reveals a potent antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of 4-octyl-itaconate and dimethyl fumarate. Delgado-Roche L, Mesta F. Oxidative stress as key player in severe acute respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus SARSCoV infection.

Arch Med Res. Ntyonga-Pono MP. COVID infection and oxidative stress: an under-explored approach for prevention and treatment? Pan Afr Med J.

Lin CW, Lin KH, Hsieh TH, Shiu SY, Li JY. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3C-like protease-induced apoptosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol.

Wu YH, Tseng CP, Cheng ML, Ho HY, Shih SR, Chiu DTY. Glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency enhances human coronavirus E infection. J Infect Dis. Bell TJ, Brand OJ, Morgan DJ, Salek-Ardakani S, Jagger C, Fujimori T, et al. Defective lung function following influenza virus is due to prolonged, reversible hyaluronan synthesis.

Matrix Biol J Int Soc Matrix Biol. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with novel coronavirus—infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Xu Z, Shi L, Wang Y, Zhang J, Huang L, Zhang C, et al.

Pathological findings of COVID associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet Respir Med. Hällgren R, Samuelsson T, Laurent TC, Modig J. Accumulation of hyaluronan hyaluronic acid in the lung in adult respiratory distress syndrome.

Am Rev Respir Dis. Read SA, Obeid S, Ahlenstiel C, Ahlenstiel G. The role of zinc in antiviral immunity. Adv Nutr. Biaggio VS, Pérez Chaca MV, Valdéz SR, Gómez NN, Gimenez MS. Alteration in the expression of inflammatory parameters as a result of oxidative stress produced by moderate zinc deficiency in rat lung.

Exp Lung Res. Bao S, Knoell DL. Zinc modulates cytokine-induced lung epithelial cell barrier permeability. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. Liu MJ, Bao S, Napolitano JR, Burris DL, Yu L, Tridandapani S, et al. Zinc regulates the acute phase response and serum amyloid a production in response to sepsis through JAKSTAT3 signaling.

PLoS ONE. Ishida T. Am J Biomed Sci Res. Speth R, Carrera E, Jean-Baptiste M, Joachim A, Linares A. Concentration-dependent effects of zinc on angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 activity FASEB J.

te Velthuis AJW, van den Worm SHE, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van Hemert MJ. PLoS Pathog. Hemilä H, Fitzgerald JT, Petrus EJ, Prasad A. Zinc acetate lozenges may improve the recovery rate of common cold patients: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

Open Forum Infect Dis. Roth DE, Richard SA, Black RE. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of acute lower respiratory infection in children in developing countries: meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized trials.

Int J Epidemiol. Zhang L, Liu Y. Potential interventions for novel coronavirus in China: a systematic review. J Med Virol. Prietl B, Treiber G, Pieber TR, Amrein K.

Vitamin D and immune function. Wimalawansa SJ. Vitamin D deficiency: effects on oxidative stress, epigenetics, gene regulation, and aging. Chen Y, Zhang J, Ge X, Du J, Deb DK, Li YC. Vitamin D receptor inhibits nuclear factor κB activation by interacting with IκB kinase β protein.

J Biol Chem. Lemire JM, Archer DC, Beck L, Spiegelberg HL. Immunosuppressive actions of 1,dihydroxyvitamin D3: preferential inhibition of Th1 functions. J Nutr. Jeffery LE, Burke F, Mura M, Zheng Y, Qureshi OS, Hewison M, et al. J Immunol Baltim Md Monlezun DJ, Bittner EA, Christopher KB, Camargo CA, Quraishi SA.

Vitamin D status and acute respiratory infection: cross sectional results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Zdrenghea MT, Makrinioti H, Bagacean C, Bush A, Johnston SL, Stanciu LA.

Vitamin D modulation of innate immune responses to respiratory viral infections. Rev Med Virol. Abu-Mouch S, Fireman Z, Jarchovsky J, Zeina AR, Assy N. Vitamin D supplementation improves sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 -naïve patients. World J Gastroenterol. Ginde AA, Blatchford P, Breese K, Zarrabi L, Linnebur SA, Wallace JI, et al.

High-dose monthly vitamin D for prevention of acute respiratory infection in older long-term care residents: a randomized clinical trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. Behera MK, Shukla SK, Dixit VK, Nath P, Abhilash VB, Asati PK, et al. Indian J Med Res.

Nimer A, Mouch A. Vitamin D improves viral response in hepatitis C genotype naïve patients. World J Gastroenterol WJG. Charan J, Goyal JP, Saxena D, Yadav P.

Vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pharmacol Pharmacother. Goncalves-Mendes N, Talvas J, Dualé C, Guttmann A, Corbin V, Marceau G, et al. Impact of vitamin D supplementation on influenza vaccine response and immune functions in deficient elderly persons: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Front Immunol. Carr AC, Maggini S. Vitamin C and immune function. van Driel ML, Beller EM, Thielemans E, Deckx L, Price-Haywood E, Clark J, et al. Oral vitamin C supplements to prevent and treat acute upper respiratory tract infections.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. View all Supplements. View all Minerals. Aloe Vera Gel. Tea Tree Oil. Garcinia Cambogia. Green Tea. Horny Goat Weed. Milk Thistle. Red Yeast Rice.

View all Herbs. Amino Acids. View all Specialty. What vitamin should I take? Discover what your body really needs and get your personalized recommendation.

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Every Immune System Booster: From Food to Sleep In their guidelines on nutrition support therapy for adults who are critically ill, the Society of Critical Care Medicine and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition state that they cannot recommend routine use of enteral formulas that contain omega-3s or other anti-inflammatory lipids in patients with ARDS because the data are conflicting [ ]. CM contributed to the work with update of data on effects of antioxidants. Figure 1. The RDA for vitamin C is 15 to mg for infants and children, depending on age, and 75 to mg for nonsmoking adults, including those who are pregnant or lactating; people who smoke need 35 mg more per day [ 56 ]. There are several immune boosters, and each offers benefits for strengthening your body's natural defense mechanisms. BMC Complement Med Ther.
Main Content More information on vitamin E is available in the ODS health professional fact sheet on vitamin E. It also has a proprietary herbal combination that includes echinacea and ginger. Curr Med Chem. Results from a more recent meta-analysis also support the use of probiotics for respiratory tract infections. In addition, low levels of vitamin D in pregnant people with HIV are associated with poor fetal and infant growth [ ].
Antioxidant supplements for immune system boost It's immue season again, supplementts most people get a flu shot and strive to stay healthy. But Endurance nutrition for endurance races certain foods or Endurance nutrition for endurance races boost the immune system and help with that "staying healthy" goal? Don't skip meals, so your body stays well-fueled. Aim for five to nine servings of vegetables and fruits daily to provide those immune-boosting vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. Getting these nutrients from foods versus vitamin or mineral supplements is always best.

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