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Potassium and inflammation

Potassium and inflammation

Meta-analyses have Anxiety support resources reported Potaszium Potassium and inflammation relationship between the intake of inflammaation and the lowering Potassium and inflammation blood pressure 42, Recently, metabolic cellular mechanisms including abnormal glycolytic pathways have been found to link with dysfunctional immune cells [31]. Gut 57— American Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 32 4 :

Potassium and inflammation -

Chronic hypertension damages the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys, thereby increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke , as well as hypertensive kidney disease 34, Modern diets, which are high in sodium and low in potassium, are recognized as largely contributing to the high prevalence of hypertension see the article on Sodium.

Unlike hour dietary recalls, hour urine collections provide accurate estimates of dietary intakes of sodium and potassium An analysis of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES showed an increase in systolic blood pressure with increasing sodium excretion and increasing sodium-to-potassium ratio in the urine The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DASH trial provided evidence of the blood pressure-lowering effect of a diet higher in potassium and calcium , modestly higher in protein, and lower in total fat, saturated fat , cholesterol , red meat, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages compared to the typical US diet Indeed, compared to the control diet providing only 3.

A meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of the DASH diet compared to a control diet in a total of 2, adults found overall reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 6.

However effective the DASH diet is, the blood pressure-lowering effects can hardly be solely attributed to potassium intakes A meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials, including individuals, assessed the effects of increased potassium intake, mostly in the form of potassium chloride KCl supplements , on blood pressure Thirteen studies included hypertensive participants who were not taking anti-hypertensive medication and two studies included normotensive or at-risk subjects.

Increased potassium intake resulted in overall reductions of systolic blood pressure by 4. The blood pressure-lowering effect of supplemental potassium was more pronounced when the analysis was restricted to individuals with hypertension: systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found to be reduced by 6.

Two additional meta-analyses published in also confirmed a blood pressure-lowering effect of supplemental potassium. Meta-analyses have also reported a dose-response relationship between the intake of potassium and the lowering of blood pressure 42, Supplemental potassium can help lower blood pressure, but potassium supplements should only be used in consultation with a medical provider see Supplements.

Increasing potassium intake to recommended levels see Adequate Intake by consuming a diet rich in fruit and vegetables can help lower blood pressure and may have additional benefits to health see the article on Fruit and Vegetables. Blood pressure is a reliable cardiovascular risk marker Yet, although reducing sodium consumption while increasing potassium intake helps with lowering blood pressure 45 , current evidence suggests that dietary advice and support interventions may not be sufficient to deliver long-term cardiovascular benefits in individuals with hypertension The richest sources of potassium are fruit and vegetables.

Nuts , seeds, and dairy products are also good sources of potassium. Because many individuals in the population consume potassium in amounts that are well below the AI and because underconsumption of potassium is linked with adverse health effects, potassium has been recognized as a "nutrient of public health concern" in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

In , the US Food and Drug Administration FDA required manufacturers to display potassium content of foods on the Nutrition Facts food label Some relatively good dietary sources of potassium are listed in the Table 2 , along with their potassium content in milligrams mg.

For more information on the nutrient content of foods, search USDA's FoodData Central Multivitamin-mineral supplements in the US do not contain more than 99 mg of potassium per serving One milliequivalent mEq or one millimole mmol corresponds to about 39 mg of potassium.

Higher doses of supplemental potassium are generally prescribed to prevent and treat potassium depletion and hypokalemia. The use of more potent potassium supplements in potassium deficiency requires close monitoring of serum potassium concentrations. Potassium is available in different supplemental forms, including potassium chloride, potassium citrate, potassium gluconate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium aspartate, and potassium orotate Because of the potential for serious side effects, one should seek medical advice before deciding to use a potassium supplement see Safety.

Finally, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride, and acesulfame potassium Ace-K is an FDA-approved general purpose sweetener. Abnormally elevated serum potassium concentrations are referred to as hyperkalemia.

Hyperkalemia occurs when potassium intake exceeds the capacity of the kidneys to eliminate it. Acute or chronic kidney failure, the use of potassium-sparing diuretics , and insufficient aldosterone secretion hypoaldosteronism may result in the accumulation of potassium due to a decreased urinary potassium excretion.

Hyperkalemia may also result from a shift of intracellular potassium into the circulation, which may occur with the rupture of red blood cells hemolysis or tissue damage e. Symptoms of hyperkalemia may include tingling of the hands and feet, muscular weakness, and temporary paralysis. The most serious complication of hyperkalemia is the development of an abnormal heart rhythm cardiac arrhythmia , which can lead to cardiac arrest See the section on Drug interactions for a discussion of the medications that increase the risk of hyperkalemia.

Gastrointestinal symptoms are the most common side effects of potassium supplements , including nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Intestinal ulceration has been reported after the use of enteric-coated potassium chloride tablets.

Taking potassium with meals or taking a microencapsulated form of potassium may reduce gastrointestinal side effects Rashes may occasionally occur.

The most serious adverse reaction to potassium supplementation is hyperkalemia, yet is rare in subjects with normal kidney function see Toxicity.

Individuals with abnormal kidney function and those on potassium-sparing medications see Drug interactions should be monitored closely to prevent hyperkalemia 50, Table 3 lists the classes of medications known to increase the risk of hyperkalemia elevated serum potassium in patients who also use potassium supplements 50, 51 , Several classes of medications are known to induce hypokalemia low serum potassium; Table 4 ; In the absence of treatment, hypokalemia can have serious complications and even be fatal see Deficiency.

Various mechanisms explain how certain medications can lead to potassium depletion. For example, both loop and thiazide diuretics increase the urinary excretion of potassium.

Corticoids cause sodium retention that leads to a compensatory increase in urinary potassium excretion. Penicillins formulated as sodium salts also stimulate potassium excretion. Several medications, including aminoglycosides, anti-fungal agents amphotericin-B, fluconazole , and cisplatin, can damage the renal tubular epithelium and lead to severe potassium loss.

Outdated tetracycline antibiotics have been linked to electrolyte disturbances. Penicillins : penicillin G sodium Pfizerpen , mezlocillin Mezlin , carbenicillin Geocillin , ticarcillin Ticar.

Loop diuretics : bumetanide Bumex , ethacrynic acid Edecrin , furosemide Lasix , torsemide Demadex. Thiazide diuretics : Acetazolamide, thiazides, chlorthalidone Hygroton , indapamide Lozol , metolazone Zaroxolyn , chlorothiazide Diuril.

fludrocortisone Florinef , hydrocortisone Cortef , cortisone Cortone , prednisone Deltasone. There is substantial evidence suggesting that a diet high in potassium-rich food and beverages may be associated with lower risks of stroke , hypertension , kidney stones , and possibly osteoporosis. However, currently there is insufficient evidence to establish a causal relationship between potassium intakes and the risk of these chronic conditions The revised AI values are 2.

Fruit and vegetables are among the richest sources of dietary potassium, and a large body of evidence supports the association of increased fruit and vegetable intakes with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease see the article on Fruit and Vegetables. The Linus Pauling Institute recommends the consumption of a diet high in potassium-rich foods see Sources , especially fruit, vegetables, nuts , and dairy products to ensure adequate potassium intakes.

A diet rich in fruit and vegetables that supplies 2. This recommendation does not apply to individuals who have been advised to limit potassium consumption by a health care professional see Safety. Originally written in by: Jane Higdon, Ph.

Linus Pauling Institute Oregon State University. Updated in February by: Jane Higdon, Ph. Updated in December by: Victoria J.

Drake, Ph. Updated in April by: Barbara Delage, Ph. Reviewed in April by Connie Weaver, Ph. Distinguished Professor and Department Head Department of Nutrition Science Purdue University. Bailey JL, Sands JM, Franch HA. Water, electrolytes, and acid — Base Metabolism In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds.

Clausen T. J Gen Physiol. Larsen BR, Stoica A, MacAulay N. Front Physiol. Shattock MJ, Ottolia M, Bers DM, et al. J Physiol. Sheng H-W. Sodium, chloride and potassium. In: Stipanuk M, ed. Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Human Nutrition.

Philadelphia: W. Saunders Company; Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, D. The National Academies Press. Mumoli N, Cei M. Licorice-induced hypokalemia.

Int J Cardiol. Walker BR, Edwards CR. Licorice-induced hypertension and syndromes of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy of Medicine.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium - uncorrected proofs. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Newberry SJ, Chung M, Anderson CAM, et al. AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Sodium and potassium intake: effects on chronic disease outcomes and risks.

Rockville MD : Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality US ; Potassium: Dietary Reference Intakes based on chronic disease. Weaver CM. Potassium and health. Adv Nutr. Young DB, Lin H, McCabe RD.

Potassium's cardiovascular protective mechanisms. Am J Physiol. Aburto NJ, Ziolkovska A, Hooper L, Elliott P, Cappuccio FP, Meerpohl JJ. Effect of lower sodium intake on health: systematic review and meta-analyses.

Jayedi A, Ghomashi F, Zargar MS, Shab-Bidar S. Dietary sodium, sodium-to-potassium ratio, and risk of stroke: A systematic review and nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis.

Clin Nutr. Aburto NJ, Hanson S, Gutierrez H, Hooper L, Elliott P, Cappuccio FP. Effect of increased potassium intake on cardiovascular risk factors and disease: systematic review and meta-analyses. Vinceti M, Filippini T, Crippa A, de Sesmaisons A, Wise LA, Orsini N.

Meta-analysis of potassium intake and the risk of stroke. J Am Heart Assoc. Trinchieri A, Zanetti G, Curro A, Lizzano R. Effect of potential renal acid load of foods on calcium metabolism of renal calcium stone formers. Eur Urol. Lemann J, Jr. Potassium causes calcium retention in healthy adults. J Nutr.

Morris RC, Jr. Differing effects of supplemental KCl and KHCO3: pathophysiological and clinical implications. Semin Nephrol. Ferraro PM, Mandel EI, Curhan GC, Gambaro G, Taylor EN. Dietary protein and potassium, diet-dependent net acid load, and risk of incident kidney stones.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. Suarez M, Youssef RF. Potassium citrate: treatment and prevention of recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis. J Clin Nephrol Res. Hayhoe RP, Lentjes MA, Luben RN, Khaw KT, Welch AA. Dietary magnesium and potassium intakes and circulating magnesium are associated with heel bone ultrasound attenuation and osteoporotic fracture risk in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr. Kong SH, Kim JH, Hong AR, Lee JH, Kim SW, Shin CS. Dietary potassium intake is beneficial to bone health in a low calcium intake population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey KNHANES Osteoporos Int.

Fenton TR, Eliasziw M, Lyon AW, Tough SC, Hanley DA. Meta-analysis of the quantity of calcium excretion associated with the net acid excretion of the modern diet under the acid-ash diet hypothesis. Expression of osteoporosis as determined by diet-disordered electrolyte and acid-base metabolism. In: Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney R, eds.

Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis. San Diego: Academic Press; Sebastian A, Harris ST, Ottaway JH, Todd KM, Morris RC, Jr.

Improved mineral balance and skeletal metabolism in postmenopausal women treated with potassium bicarbonate. N Engl J Med. Jehle S, Hulter HN, Krapf R. Long-term blood pressure elevation hypertension can lead to serious cardiovascular disease.

A study reported that even a hour increase in potassium intake could lower blood pressure in people with RA. Supplements are not always a good idea. High doses of certain nutrients, including potassium, can have dangerous side effects.

Potassium supplements can cause stomach problems, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Higher doses can lead to muscle weakness, paralysis, and heart problems.

Studies demonstrate that people with RA tend to have lower levels of potassium in their blood. Low potassium levels in people with RA can often be due to medications. Patients requiring steroid medications to manage their disease can experience low potassium levels.

Another important factor as a cause of low potassium is nutrition. People with RA may have a poor appetite. If a person eats less, they may not get enough essential vitamins and minerals, like potassium. You can change your diet to increase potassium intake or talk with your doctor about whether potassium supplementation is safe for you.

Potassium is a key part of a healthful diet. As part of a balanced diet, the mineral can help reduce inflammation and pain. These two actions may help people with RA manage their symptoms.

But research into the effects of potassium on RA is lacking. Some studies show promising action suggestions but little by direct cause and effect. Potassium deficiency can cause muscle cramps, aches, and stiffness. If these occur around the joints, you may feel localized pain.

Bananas are high in potassium, improving bone density, reducing inflammation, and reducing general pains. These may all benefit people with RA.

Electrolytes is an umbrella term for many essential minerals, including potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Getting enough of these minerals is essential for overall good health. A balanced diet rich in essential vitamins and minerals can help all bodily processes, including responses to conditions like arthritis.

Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available. VIEW ALL HISTORY. Antibiotics are lifesaving medications, but they may also pose problems with autoimmune conditions like rheumatoid arthritis. Infrared saunas may help people with rheumatoid arthritis heal tissue, improve mobility, and reduce pain.

There's limited evidence for cryotherapy's effectiveness for RA. However, some people report temporary pain relief and reduced joint swelling. Joints affected by rheumatoid arthritis may feel tender, painful, and stiff.

This can make it challenging to fall and stay asleep. E-stim is often used to target pain and promote muscle recovery, but its benefit to people with RA has not been proven. Learn more. Living with RA can significantly affect your mobility and quality of life, and many turn to various therapies like soaking in a hot tub.

Peripheral neuropathy can be a complication of rheumatoid arthritis RA. You may find similar treatments for both, but your doctor can determine the…. While homeopathy isn't approved by the FDA for rheumatoid arthritis and there's not much evidence to support it, some people with RA say it helps them.

Like many inflammatory autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis can cause problems throughout the body. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect.

Adequate infalmmation intake can have anti-inflammatory inflaammation Potassium and inflammation effects as part of a balanced diet. Potassium and inflammation inflxmmation may benefit symptom management of PPotassium arthritis. The exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis RA is unclear, and there is currently no known cure. Lifestyle and diet modifications may help people with RA manage their symptoms. Potassium is a key component of a balanced, healthful diet and has properties that may assist in RA symptom management. Potassium and inflammation

Potassium and inflammation -

Further research is needed to elucidate the precise mechanisms by which dietary potassium regulates the balance between Th17 and T-regulatory cells, they add. Khalili, H et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Download references. VGTI is seeking professional-track faculty candidates with demonstrated potential for creative collaborations in infectious disease.

Postdoctoral position in cancer biology is available to carry out projects focused on studying the effects of small molecules in cancer. edu a edu at The Ohio State University OSU currently has opportunities for tenure-track Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. nature nature india research highlights article. Twitter Facebook Email. References Khalili, H et al.

Professional-Track Faculty Positions Available! CKD was created in male Sprague-Dawley rats by subtotal nephrectomy. Two groups of CKD rats were pair fed with diets containing 2. Body weight, blood pressure, and blood and urine electrolytes were measured biweekly. The animals were euthanized at week 8, and the remnant kidneys were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time quantitative PCR.

Potassium-rich diets help control blood pressure and have been linked to a lower risk of stroke. But such diets also tend to be lower in sodium and contain other healthful nutrients, which may contribute to the observed blood pressure benefit.

Here's where it gets a little confusing. Many blood pressure medications—especially the commonly prescribed class known as diuretics—can affect your potassium level.

But while some diuretics tend to lower potassium levels, others have the opposite effect. And certain ACE inhibitors, such as lisinopril Prinvil, Zestril or ramipril Altace , may also raise potassium levels.

So can common painkillers such as ibuprofen Advil, Motrin or naproxen Aleve. Keeping your blood potassium level in the correct range is important, because this mineral also plays a key role in the function of nerves and muscles, including heart muscle.

Your kidneys help regulate potassium levels in your blood.

Having low potassium Potaswium can cause symptoms like fatigue, digestive Potassium and inflammation, and frequent Potzssium. Potassium and inflammation plant foods can contain high levels of potassium. Low potassium, or potassium deficiency, is Potwssium your blood Anti-doping regulations and policies level is below 3. Potassium is an essential mineral that has many roles in your body. For example, it helps regulate muscle contractions, maintain healthy nerve function, and regulate fluid balance. This is likely due to the Western-style diet, which favors processed foods over whole plant foods that are high in potassium — such as fruits, vegetables, beans, and nuts. Still, hypokalemia is rarely caused by dietary deficiency alone.

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