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CGM sensor technology

CGM sensor technology

Each system uses a combination of Refreshing natural extracts for the rapid detection Refreshing natural extracts CM of specific molecules. Web Policies FOIA HHS Vulnerability Refreshing natural extracts. In fechnology, they pointed out technolog the OCT Kidney bean desserts may be significantly influenced by motion artifacts and the skin's temperature. The panel agreed that patients who are admitted with personal CGM devices should be allowed to continue use of such devices under the condition that they are able to self-manage the devices on their own and are followed by an endocrinologist or experienced practitioner who is specifically trained in their use.


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CGM sensor technology -

The two typical examples are GlucoWatch Cygnus Inc. and Pendra Pendragon Medical Ltd. GlucoWatch, as a well-known non-invasive technology, measures the concentration of glucose based on the reverse iontophoresis process Fig.

This device includes a sensing pad that can easily adhere to human skin, called GlucoPad, and it could offer measurement and readouts of glucose concentration electrochemically. However, daily replacement is needed for the GlucoPad with calibration by finger-prick measurement.

Moreover, the current generated by the device could result in severe skin irritation, such as reddening, burning, and even blisters. The glucose value is provided based on the indirect measuring process termed impedance spectroscopy which is related to the transportation of sodium ions over the erythrocyte membrane to indicate the change of the glucose level.

It only appears in the market for a short time. Some studies pointed out that the correlation between the Pendra obtained glucose value and the self-monitoring obtained blood glucose value was only Although current commercial CGM devices provide a relatively convenient and minimally invasive measurement for real-time continuous glucose concentration monitoring of diabetes patients, the bulk volume of the device and the implantation of the sensor probe still bring discomfort to the patients.

The electrochemical glucose sensing is based on the enzyme-catalyzed glucose oxidation reaction. GOx is an enzyme that is specific to glucose. Thus, in this method, glucose was oxidized by oxygen O 2 in the presence of GOx and water H 2 O to form gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2. Hydrogen peroxide is further oxidized at the electrode anode , producing free electrons, resulting in an electrical current proportional to the glucose concentration in the immediate area.

The first enzyme-based electrochemical glucose sensor was developed in by Clark and Lyons 28 and launched by YSI Yellow Springs Instruments company in Fig. The first commercial blood glucose analyzer YSI Glucose Analyzer directly quantifies the glucose concentration and allows a small amount of blood sample analysis.

They designed and developed the glucose oxidase-coated electrode by using a semi-permeable membrane to immobilize oxidase on the surface of the oxygen electrode.

When the hydrogen peroxide is oxidized, the oxygen consumption rate near the surface of the oxygen electrode is measured. Then, the glucose concentration in the sample can be determined by the proportional decreasing rate of oxygen consumption and the loss of electrons.

With the development of electrochemical glucose sensing, new generations of electrochemical glucose sensors appeared. Wang divided these electrochemical glucose sensors into three development stages according to different electron transfer mechanisms, as shown in Fig.

With more profound research of the electrode design, enzyme immobilization method, and polymer film, researchers have successively developed novel enzyme electrode glucose detection equipment. This electrode has higher sensitivity and anti-interference ability, which has promoted electrochemical glucose sensor development.

The inhibition of the enzyme and electron transfer in enzyme-based electrochemical sensors results in interference problems. Many non-enzyme electrochemical sensors have been reported in recent years to overcome this problem. The enzyme-based catalysts can be replaced with an alternative catalyst such as functionalized nanomaterials, metal-oxides, and composites.

The sensitivity of these sensors depends upon the electrode's surface area, which allows direct glucose oxidation. The surface modification of electrodes can be done using active nanomaterials, which serve as electrocatalysts.

Metals like platinum Pt is considered to be one of the ideal candidates for the electrode of these sensors. The Pt surface allows glucose oxidation by losing two electrons in the process. Firstly, the adsorption of Cl ions and intermediates can dramatically poison Pt-based catalysts' activity by rapidly covering the electroactive surfaces.

Secondly, due to the electrocatalytically active nature of Pt, it can oxidize many other undesired small molecules, which affects the selective detection of the desired entity. Since the sensitivity of these sensors depends upon the morphology and active surface area of electrodes, the electrode surface modification can be done by deposition of nano-structured materials.

With the smaller Pt nanostructures, the electroactive surface areas increase by two orders of magnitude. Also, the Pt nanostructures show remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards glucose oxidation.

Many other studies have also been performed to improve the selectivity, response time, and detection limit using Pt nanostructures, which makes it a potential candidate for glucose sensing.

Along with pure metals, transition metal-based oxides also received much attention because of their stable nature under ambient conditions. Metal-oxides and their complexes have been widely explored.

Also, the fabrication is cost-effective and straightforward, along with an enhanced surface area and higher crystallinity, which contributes to higher sensitivity towards glucose sensing.

A higher amperometric sensitivity was found for CuO urchins of the order of 0. Also, it was found that after amperometry testing, the chemical composition of CuO urchin remained unchanged, which makes it repeatable and reusable.

This study is one of the examples of the development of reliable and durable sensing based on metal oxide composites, tailored shape, and the possibility of integration in flexible carriers. Seven leading optical technologies will be involved in this section.

Some of them are spectroscopic approaches, including NIR, MIR, Raman, and PA sensing. They directly determine glucose concentration via the interaction between the different wavelengths of light and the glucose molecule. The other three technologies use indirect methods to indicate the concentration of glucose.

The fluorescence optical sensor utilizes fluorophores and reactants that can reversibly bind with glucose molecules to display optical signals for various glucose concentrations.

Systems using OCT measure the scattering characteristic changes in subcutaneous tissue or the skin surface that correspond to the glucose concentration. Other optical sensing technologies, such as rotating optical measurement and photothermal deflection spectroscopy, were also explored for glucose monitoring.

Instead, the following sections will introduce the technical aspects for the mentioned seven technologies and their research status and limitations.

Table 2 summarizes the research results and relevant characteristics of most of these detection systems. Transmittance and reflectance modes are the two basic measurement modes for glucose detection.

The transmitted radiation is separated into its constituent wavelengths by a diffraction grating on the other side. Then sensing and analysis of the optical information is conducted using a detector and computer, respectively. The reflectance mode Fig. Transmission spectroscopy is widely used for aqueous solutions, while for non-invasive measurement, reflectance spectroscopy is required.

Moreover, it is estimated that the optical path length for transmission mode is in the range of 0. In vitro NIR glucose measurement studies focus on transmission spectroscopy detection in biofluids, such as plasma, 93 whole blood, and urea.

proposed another approach for sensing aqueous glucose concentration. It offered a promising result with an RMSEP of The application of NIR spectroscopy technology in non-invasive glucose sensing has attracted more research groups.

For example, in the study conducted by Olesberg et al. For example, Maruo and his group provided a non-invasive NIR-based sensor for diabetic patients compared to healthy people. In , they followed up with a demonstration for establishing a non-invasive model according to Beer—Lambert's law rather than using chemometrics.

reported a minimally invasive NIR CGM system using microdialysis of ISF and tested it on six T1D patients. However, there is currently no glucose sensing device based on NIR technology in the market. Arnold and Small demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy parameters, including the path length, degrees of freedom, selectivity, spectral range, and variance, could significantly influence the comparability of non-invasive glucose monitoring studies.

This might bring difficulties for a reader to collect data if researchers didn't consider these parameters in their experiments. Therefore an exploration of calibration models is required to detect various physiological states between patients.

Most available studies in glucose detection rely on transmission MIR spectroscopy for subcutaneous measurements or non-invasive measurements using reflectance spectroscopy. MIR sources for subcutaneous measurement are required to be robust due to the strong absorption of water in tissue which limits the MIR signal to penetrate more than 0.

The quantum cascade laser QCL is developed for such a high-energy source. It is a semiconductor laser that can be customized to a specific single wavelength or tuned within the desired wavelength range. For CGM, attenuated total reflectance ATR spectroscopy, as shown in Fig.

At the same time, the evanescent field of light extends into the sample. Light is detected when it comes out of the crystal, and the absorption spectrum is determined by the evanescent light absorbed by the sample.

MIR spectroscopy has been applied for the quantification of glucose in artificial and in vitro biofluids. In the early research stages, the Heise group confirmed that glucose concentration under physiological conditions could be predicted via ATR-MIR spectroscopy using Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectrometers based on silver halide fibers.

Another study conducted by Brandstetter et al. focused on the highly accurate glucose measurement in human serum samples by using a QCL as the infrared source.

These two studies investigated broad wavelength ranges in MIR spectroscopy and used multivariate data analysis to extract relevant information. For CGM, if the same principles are applied, the use of tunable MIR lasers is necessary, but they are too large and expensive for a point-of-care personal device.

Several research groups have explored the use of MIR spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose measurement by using a QCL or FTIR as the light source.

In the studies for CGM by using MIR spectroscopy, the QCL is usually used in a specific narrow wavelength range to provide accurate concentration prediction. In the studies from the Gmachl group, they measured the back-scattered light from the skin between the forefinger and thumb by using non-invasive MIR-based measurement, as shown in Fig.

In addition, an MIR system using a QCL at a single wavelength 9. Aside from QCLs, FTIR spectrometers also can be employed in non-invasive measurement with ATR-MIR analysis.

Kino et al. reported the FTIR ATR-MIR-based glucose measurement on human lip mucosa, which used a hollow-optical fiber for light transport. One of the challenges in using MIR sensing devices is the limited depth that these wavelengths penetrate the skin. Since waves are absorbed by water in tissues, the light transmission rate is highly dependent on the individual's skin water content.

Specific calibrations may be required for each measurement with different skin properties. On the other hand, the existing high energy emitting source is relatively large and expensive for personal non-invasive measurement, which leads to little attention to MIR-based glucose monitoring.

Raman spectroscopy has attracted great attention in non-invasive CGM development in the last few decades. Both in vitro and in vivo were explored. In the study conducted by the Pelletier group, 76 Raman-based glucose measurement of in vitro human aqueous humor was reported, and the results were correlated.

Compared with blood, the composition of human aqueous humor is relatively simple, which means that there are fewer absorption peaks that can lead to interference in the Raman spectrum.

This provides advantages for glucose detection. In addition, Raman spectroscopy also can be used to measure glucose levels through the skin. Kong et al. developed a novel portable Raman spectroscopy system in transmission mode with non-imaging optics designed to enhance the light collection. As represented in Fig.

The system was applied on the hand's thenar skin fold, and 18 human subjects were involved in this clinical experiment. Results presented a good correlation with the Raman spectra predicted glucose level and that of finger-prick measurement. All collected data were in the zone A and B of the CEG analysis Fig.

Afterward, Shih et al. Raman spectroscopy was also used to support the research in minimally invasive glucose measurement. For example, Ma et al. reported a minimally invasive glucose measurement sensor detected by a surface-enhanced Raman scattering SERS chip subcutaneously implanted in rats.

The main limitation for Raman spectroscopy is the small scattering cross-section, which may interfere with the Raman scattering signal. In addition, long acquisition times are required for good signal detection.

Problems of biocompatibility and potential toxicity of the Raman enhanced chip substrate need to be considered in the actual clinical application of this technology. Glucose monitoring devices using PA spectroscopy were developed for non-invasive measurement by several research groups. Pleitez et al.

The representation of the setup is shown in Fig. Measurements were performed on three diabetic volunteers during an OGTT. Results for PA spectra of non-invasive ISF glucose levels are presented in Fig. Another research performed by the Kottmann group used a similar PA spectroscopy system.

However, from experimental data, the best performance of this PA cell was observed under N 2 condition, which could stabilize the humidity conditions of sample cells, and this is not feasible for portable personal CGM devices.

There is currently no commercialized PA imaging-based glucose sensor. The main challenge for PA glucose monitoring is the weak signals for targeted glucose absorption bands which were either NIR absorption bands or MIR absorption bands.

Fluorescence sensing has been studied for glucose monitoring in both biofluids and subcutaneous measurements. Several research groups have worked on optical sensors based on fluorescence detection, and it was confirmed to be highly sensitive for glucose determination in human serum.

Significant results have been achieved in using fluorescence-labeled ConA as an indicator fluorophore for glucose concentration quantification. In , Schultz et al. firstly introduced a fluorescence-based subcutaneous glucose sensor that used ConA as the carbohydrate receptor.

The FAS utilized fluorescence-labeled ConA as the fluorophore, placed in a hollow dialysis fiber connected to an optical fiber. The detection principle is based on the competitive binding between glucose with ConA and dextran with ConA. When glucose binds with ConA, it displaces dextran, resulting in a fluorescent signal proportional to the glucose concentration.

Dutt-Ballerstadt et al. In the clinical study, the FiberSense CGM sensor was implanted in both arm and abdomen sites to monitor glucose levels for 3 hours on six human subjects. Few data in the hypoglycaemic range were collected, and the sensor needed a finger-prick calibration once per day.

Moreover, in , the Eversense CGM system was released by Senseonics an American company in the European market. Eversense is the only commercialized available wearable CGM device based on optical measurement and this system used a boronic-acid derivative as the fluorescent indicator.

The mean ARD of the Eversense CGM system is Although fluorescence sensing has been well developed for measuring glucose concentration, some limitations still exist in current research.

For example, for non-invasive measurement, light scattering of fluorescence may be influenced by different skin properties, such as the amount of pigmentation. Besides, for minimally invasive measurement, calibration is still required in fluorescence-based CGM systems by finger-prick measurement to solve signal drift and loss of fluorophores via the photobleaching process in long-term use.

Moreover, sugars such as galactose and fructose can bind with many fluorophores that can bind with glucose, which brings interference in measurements and significantly limits the number of useful fluorophores.

Due to the high signal-to-noise ratio and the deep penetration length, OCT technology has great promise in non-invasive glucose monitoring. Larin et al. reported a pilot study on non-invasive BGL monitoring with the OCT technology in animals. In addition, they pointed out that the OCT signals may be significantly influenced by motion artifacts and the skin's temperature.

Moreover, OCT technology was also explored for in vivo non-invasive glucose measurement on human subjects. An OCT-based glucose monitoring device was developed by the GlucoLight Company Bethlehem, PA. In , they conducted a small pilot study on this device and successfully conducted experiments on 27 diabetic patients, including 15 subjects with T2D and 12 subjects with T1D.

However, no concentration in the hypoglycaemic range was measured in the study, and there is no further research on this device published. The major challenges for the OCT technique in glucose sensing are that the measured signal for the change of the scattering coefficient is relatively weak, and OCT is sensitive to many factors.

Affecting factors include motion artifacts, skin properties, and the skin's environment, such as pH, temperature, and humidity. Therefore, personalized calibration is necessary for non-invasive glucose measurement based on OCT technology.

Thus, the guided color could be controlled by changing d , which is a coefficient in the Bragg equation. If the glucose concentration increases, more glucose molecules will bind to PBA derivatives, which causes swelling of the flexible hydrogel, increasing d , and vice versa.

The swelling or shrinking of the hydrogel-based sensor under different glucose concentrations results in the change of diffraction and further produces a visual color change. Holographic sensing technology is considered a promising biomedical optical sensing platform due to its high selectivity, stability, and low preparation cost.

It has been applied to detect and quantify glucose concentration in both artificial and in vitro human biofluids. Early studies conducted by the Kabilan group reported that holographic sensors containing boronic-acid derivatives presented the sensing ability for glucose molecules.

However, 3-APB has a severe problem: it could bind with other carbohydrates containing the structure of cis -diols in bio-fluids, such as fructose and lactate. It may lead to overestimated glucose readout. Another study focused on the development of holographic sensors for urine glucose analysis.

Yetisen et al. Moreover, it was also stated that the pH values could significantly influence the Bragg peak shifts.

The interferences of lactate and fructose in urine were not eliminated, which are 1. For continuous glucose measurements CGM , an optical glucose sensor uses 2. Several research groups have contributed to ophthalmic glucose sensors fabricated by holographic technology to measure the glucose concentration in tears.

Although holographic sensing is considered a promising technology for low-cost and high-precision measurement of glucose monitoring, commercial holographic-based glucose sensors have not yet been developed.

One of the challenges is that in bio-fluid measurements, other glucose-similar molecules such as fructose and lactate may also bind to the glucose-sensitive chelating agent and interfere with the shifting of the Bragg peak, resulting in an overestimation of glucose concentration.

This greatly increases the difficulty for the improvements of formulations of the hydrogel-based holographic film. What is Continuous Glucose Monitoring CGM? CGM vs. Blood Glucose Monitoring. Is CGM for you? Patient Stories. What is CGM What is Continuous Glucose Monitoring CGM?

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Learn how CGM readings differ from BGM readings. Explore more about CGM vs BGM. How continuous glucose monitoring works with the FreeStyle Libre CGM systems. Sensor collects data The FreeStyle Libre CGM sensors are small, unobtrusive, and easily applied §5,13 to the back of your upper arm.

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This generates heat waves that are detected using its patented IRE-PTD method. BOYDsense, based in Toulouse , France, is developing a sensor that measures glucose in the breath through the detection of volatile organic compounds VOCs , a large group of carbon-based molecules that are gaseous at room temperature.

The BioXensor developed by British company BioRX uses patented radio frequency technology, alongside a multiple sensor also capturing blood oxygen levels, ECG , respiration rate, heart rate and body temperature approach.

BioXensor had not received regulatory approval as of June [update]. Haifa , Israel-based company HAGAR completed a study of its GWave non-invasive CGM, reporting high accuracy.

This sensor uses radiofrequency waves to measure glucose levels in the blood. One of the criticisms of radiofrequency technology as a way of measuring glucose is that studies in found that glucose can only be detected in the far infrared nanometer wavelengths , rather than radiofrequencies even in the centimeter and millimeter wavelength range, putting into question the viability of radio frequencies for measuring glucose.

Glucomodicum is based in Helsinki , Finland. Their attempted solution uses interstitial fluid to non-invasively measure glucose levels continuously. It does not have regulatory approval. KnowLabs is a U. S company building a CGM called the Bio-RFID sensor, which works by sending radio waves through the skin to measure molecular signatures in the blood, which Know Labs' machine learning algorithms use to compute the user's blood sugar levels.

The company reported that it had built a prototype, but had not attained regulatory approval as of August Spiden is a Swiss startup building a multi-biomarker and drug level monitoring noninvasive smartwatch wearable with continuous glucose monitoring capability as its first application.

Occuity, a Reading , UK-based startup is taking a different approach to noninvasive glucose monitoring, by using the eye. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item.

Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons. Blood glucose monitoring device. Abbott Laboratories' FreeStyle CGM.

The sensor and transmitter are fixed to the upper arm and the receiver shows current blood glucose level and a graph of recent blood glucose levels. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. doi : PMID November Hormone Health Network. Endocrine Society. Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 12 December Cochrane Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Group January The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

PMC Systematic Reviews. Retrieved 17 May Cleveland Clinic. Diabetes UK. FreeStyle Libre 3 System. Retrieved 12 January Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology. Food and Drug Administration.

Retrieved 15 December MD Magazine. Retrieved 25 February Apple App Store. Helmed Bulgaria. Ascensia Diabetes Care". Retrieved 23 July

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Typically, most people who use a CGM will have type 1 diabetes. Some individuals with type 2 diabetes may also benefit from CGMs. A doctor may prescribe a CGM if people meet certain criteria and requirements. Usually, this may include :. For these individuals, a CGM can help them closely monitor blood sugar levels and may prevent them from experiencing a serious hypoglycemic event.

A commentary notes that a CGM can help:. There are many benefits a CGM may offer over other devices. Namely, it can help people better manage diabetes and improve health outcomes.

A study highlights that CGMs can improve glycemic control in individuals with inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes. Compared with conventional treatment options, people using CGMs had lower HbA1C levels.

Elsewhere, a extension study investigated the potential long-term effects of using a CGM. The results suggest that CGMs have a beneficial effect on HbA1C, hypoglycemia prevention, hypoglycemic confidence, treatment satisfaction, and well-being.

A study notes that a CGM device can improve health outcomes for both parent and baby during pregnancy. A commentary also highlights CGMs as a reliable, safe, and effective tool, particularly during the COVID pandemic. Having a CGM may be particularly useful for a person with a recent diagnosis of diabetes as it can help them identify what triggers blood sugar changes and how to minimize these fluctuations.

Other advantages of a CGM may include :. This indicates that CGMs may show promise for individuals with diabetes across different ages and health considerations. As such, people with diabetes and their doctors can use a CGM to improve diabetes management strategies.

Although a CGM can offer many benefits for people with diabetes, it may come with certain limitations. While it does reduce the number of finger-prick tests needed, it does not eliminate them entirely. People may still require finger pricks to calibrate a CGM and confirm readings. The cost of CGM devices can also be prohibitive for many users and some insurance plans may not cover them.

This could result in the price of a CGM running higher than other testing devices. While the sensors are generally robust, people may also want to avoid certain activities to prevent the risk of knocking or damaging the device, as they will need to replace it if it stops functioning.

Some people may also find the amount of data a CGM provides overwhelming. Understanding the information and making decisions from it may cause anxiety in some individuals. Also known as an automated insulin delivery system or artificial pancreas, these systems can help mimic the function of a healthy pancreas.

A CGM device is an important piece of a hybrid closed-loop system. These systems typically consist of three different components:. In this system, the CGM keeps track of the blood sugar at regular intervals. It sends information about blood sugar levels to the control algorithm.

The control algorithm analyzes this information and then sends instructions to the insulin pump. This way, the pump can deliver an appropriate dose of insulin when necessary. Many systems may only be compatible with basal, or slow-acting, insulin.

In these cases, people will still need to calculate and manually administer bolus, or rapid-acting, insulin at certain times, such as with meals.

However, other systems, such as the Omnipodcan calculate and suggest a bolus dose using an algorithm and the CGM reading. These systems can take the guesswork out of insulin injections during the day.

Many users find them helpful for simplifying the process of blood sugar regulation. Management of diabetes involves strict control of blood sugar levels. A CGM can help facilitate this by providing users with a quick and convenient way to monitor blood glucose.

Evidence notes that these devices can aid glycemic control, prevent hypos, and improve overall health and well-being. Individuals interested in using a CGM can consult with a medical professional about their suitability and how it may help with their health.

Experts say more adults who develop type 1 diabetes are being misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes. That, they say, can lead to ineffective…. Ketonemia is a term that describes an unusually high amount of ketone bodies in the blood.

Learn more about ketonemia here. What is nocturnal hypoglycemia and how can people avoid it? Read on to learn more about night time hypoglycemia, including causes and how to manage it.

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Medical News Today. Health Conditions Health Products Discover Tools Connect. What to know about continuous glucose monitors. Medically reviewed by Deborah Weatherspoon, Ph. Definition How they work Who can use them? Benefits Considerations Hybrid closed-loop systems Summary A continuous glucose monitor CGM is a medical device that monitors blood glucose throughout the day.

Continuous glucose monitoring definition. How continuous glucose monitoring works. Who can use a continuous glucose monitor?

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: CGM sensor technology

Continuous Glucose Monitoring - NIDDK Another major obstacle is due to strict Medicaid coverage policies they are not accessible for people who need them. Diabetes related hospital admissions were reduced following the initiation of sensor augmented pump therapy and fear of hypoglycemia improved. Related Coverage. Shares data. Multiple invasive CGM solutions have been under development since the early s. Mit Hilfe von LibreView 12 Glukosewerte mit den behandelnden Praxen teilen 4.
How does a continuous glucose monitor work?

Individuals who meet the coverage criteria listed in the FAQs below for a CGM and want to learn more about them should talk to their health care provider to ensure it is the right tool for the management of their diabetes. The American Diabetes Association ® ADA released a new study looking at pharmacy and medical benefit claims for CGMs across commercial insurance plans, Medicare and Medicaid and data on age, race, geography, and diabetes prevalence.

The findings show people of lower income and older people of color who live in states with the highest rates of diabetes prevalence and mortality are the least likely to get access to a CGM.

ADA is quite concerned about these findings, given the effect of the COVID pandemic on this population and the importance of tools like CGMs in diabetes management. Learn more by viewing the study PDF. We are partnering with people with diabetes, health care professionals, advocacy groups, and policy makers to address CGM access for those who use Medicaid.

We need your help in eliminating these systemic barriers to CGMs! Soon, there will be an opportunity to get involved depending on your state with CGM Medicaid regulations and increased access to this technology.

If you are interested in providing comments and having your voice heard on behalf of people with diabetes, please provide your contact information below. Breadcrumb Home Advocacy Overview Continuous Glucose Monitors. Everything you need to know about continuous glucose monitors CGMs.

What is a CGM? CGM Resources Learn More. Learn More. Understand the connection between CGM usage and time in range. How CGMs are Shaping the Future of Diabetes Care Watch the videos below to hear patient and practitioner perspectives on how CGMs are shaping the future of diabetes care.

Continuous Glucose Monitors CGMs and Me; The Beauty of Technology. CGMs — The benefits of this life changing diabetes technology. The Nightscout Project is a crowd sourced application that provides a free mobile technology platform for patients who want to access their devices in real time on any mobile device Recent data suggest that retrospective weekly review of data is associated with improved TIR , as well as patient reported outcomes including confidence in avoiding hypoglycemia, overall well-being and diabetes distress Direct connectivity of blood glucose or CGM levels to cell phones or other devices not only improves data integrity but may also simplify the assimilation of glucose levels with other data such as insulin use, carbohydrate intake, and activity levels for the purpose of facilitating insulin dose adjustments in real time or retrospectively.

Cell phone connectivity may also improve communication with providers. A few meters with direct cellular capability are available. Devices with direct cellular or Bluetooth connections may be paired with apps that facilitate collection, communication, and analysis of a variety of data and provide tools for education such as nutrition information at the point of care.

A regulatory pathway has been developed for alternate controller enabled ACE infusion pumps which can be operated in conjunction with interchangeable components, particularly CGMs In , the FDA approved the first such devices Tandem t:Slim X2 and Omnipod DASH system.

A variety of stand-alone smart phone applications that support glucose monitoring are also available. Most provide information and track data usually manually entered , some allow insulin or carbohydrate documentation, facilitate carbohydrate or calorie counting, promote weight loss, track or promote physical activity, enhance medication adherence, and use motivational or self-efficacy approaches, and a few provide an insulin dosing calculator.

Apps have shown limited magnitude and sustainability of effect due to a variety of factors, including user fatigue, require continuous data entry e. Moreover, most apps have not been evaluated by the FDA or other regulatory agencies.

Data privacy is also a concern, as no federal regulations currently prevent app developers from disclosing data to third parties. Expert groups have developed policy or guidance statements to improve standardization and functionality , , While the data are still evolving with respect to mobile diabetes applications, several systematic reviews and meta-analyses demonstrate modest ~0.

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality published a systematic review of comparative effectiveness studies assessing apps or programs available through a mobile device for the purpose of diabetes self-management For type 1 diabetes, 6 apps were identified, 3 of which were associated with improvement in A1c, 2 of which were associated with improvement in hypoglycemia.

Five apps for patients with type 2 diabetes were identified, 3 of which were associated with improvement in A1c. Efficacy is variable, in part because app features vary but also because apps are often studied as part of a multi-component intervention, making it difficult to assess individual elements, particularly the effect of additional health care provider support.

Other researchers have focused on identifying standard evidence-based features that should be included in diabetes apps, such as education, glucose monitoring, and reminders , The most common usability problems were multi-step tasks, limited functionality, and poor system navigation.

While many apps are rated high quality for performing a single task, most do not address diabetes self-management tasks comprehensively or otherwise do not function properly , The use of pattern management software improves health care provider efficiency and accuracy in identifying needed therapeutic adjustments , Software programs provide graphs or charts and may in some cases provide dosing advice, either for the healthcare provider or directly to the patient.

Insulin dosing calculators have been used for years as a means of incorporating glucose measures into routine practice, largely in concert with continuous insulin infusion pumps.

While numerous apps have become available for bolus insulin calculation and basal insulin titration, it is important to note that only a few have been formally evaluated and approved by regulatory agencies.

In addition, many still require manual data entry, few integrate within existing electronic medical records, and published evidence for efficacy is limited All approved insulin calculators or dose titration apps require a prescription or need to be set up by a healthcare provider.

Many such apps operate in conjunction with connected meters and insulin pens, which are subject to regulatory oversight and long-term support Such support ensures safety and that software is updated to address any problems with operation and device compatibility.

The functionality of connected pens ranges from insulin tracking functions, including insulin on board calculations and reminders to smart insulin pens which feature bolus dose calculators and more advanced decision support such as dose titration and coaching features A full review of insulin dosing apps is beyond the scope of this chapter.

Bolus calculators are known to substantially improve dosing accuracy and glycemic control in outpatients with type 1 diabetes , , Bolus calculators might be particularly helpful for patients with poor numeracy.

A number of stand-alone smart-phone apps for bolus insulin calculation have been developed but safety and efficacy remain a concern , Though algorithms typically incorporate the current glucose level, active insulin time, and carbohydrate intake, some do not account for activity or illness.

Applications that improve the accuracy of carbohydrate counting, which is a major source of error regardless of educational level , are desirable Reports from connected pens provide insight into missed or altered insulin doses and when integrated with CGM data can also facilitate the evaluation of timing of boluses.

Likewise, basal insulin calculators have been developed to recommend ongoing adjustments in therapy, either for titration or for mealtime insulin calculations. Unfortunately, efficacy and safety studies are not currently available for most apps.

Most basal insulin titration apps account only for fasting glucose measures and not overnight trends. Although there are a plethora of apps available, the ultimate choice should be individualized to the needs of the patient. Those patients only needing a resource that assists with carbohydrate counting can be referred to common apps like MyFitnessPal or Calorie King.

For glucose monitoring, apps that require manual entry of data should be minimized as they are not likely to be utilized long-term. Universal platforms that can download multiple devices can increase clinic efficiency. Where possible, patients should be invited to directly link with their clinic.

This is particularly useful for telehealth visits. Smart insulin pens provide assistance with insulin dosing and can also be downloaded using some universal platforms. The major limitation of patient generated data is that it does not integrate within the EHR in a meaningful way.

Some opportunities exist with the integration of Apple Health Kit and Samsung S-Health which can transmit data from a variety of apps but this process requires multiple steps and can be cumbersome , Recently, a consensus report from the Integration of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data into the Electronic Health Record iCoDE project was published, setting standards for integration of CGM data within the EHR Under these standards, data would be accessed by placing an order in the EHR.

This would generate a notice to the patient via email or electronic message to obtain consent for sharing data. Once approved, standardized report is uploaded to the EHR.

Importantly, none of these mobile health tools replace frequent patient contact and feedback A1C is the best biomarker indicator of glycemic control over the past months due to strong data predicting complications 1 , 2.

In addition, the American Diabetes Association has recommended its use for the diagnosis of diabetes 1. Hemoglobin A1c refers to the nonenzymatic addition of glucose to the N-terminal valine of the hemoglobin beta chain.

Assays are based upon charge and structural differences between hemoglobin molecules , Therefore, variants in hemoglobin molecules may lead to analytic interferences. It should be noted that some homozygous hemoglobin variants HbC or HbD, or sickle cell disease also alter erythrocyte life span and therefore, even if the assay does not show analytic interference, other methods of monitoring glycemia should be utilized, as A1C will be falsely low.

Individual assay interferences are available at the National Glycohemohemoglobin Standardization Program website: www. org Several commercial home monitoring kits are also available The two reference methods used to standardize A1c levels are 1 HPLC and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry or 2 a two- dimensional approach using HPLC and capillary electrophoresis with UV-detection A brief summary of assay methods is described below.

The trend in industry is for monitors to become increasingly more accurate and the trend in regulatory organizations is to require increasing accuracy for ongoing certification. A1C is an analyte found within red blood cells, comprised of glycated Hemoglobin.

The glycation gap formerly known as the glycosylation gap GG , based on fructosamine measurement, and the Hemoglobin Glycation Index HGI , based on mean blood glucose, are two indices of between-individual differences in glycated hemoglobin adjusted for glycemia. GG is the difference between the measured A1C test and the A1C test result predicted from serum fructosamine testing based on a population regression equation of A1C on fructosamine and HGI is the difference between the measured A1C test and A1C results predicted from the mean blood glucose level calculated from self-monitored blood glucose tests based on a population regression equation of A1C tests on mean blood glucose levels Patients with high GG and HGI indices might have falsely high A1C test results and might also be at increased risk of basement membrane glycosylation and development of microvascular complications.

Whether between-individual biological variation in Hemoglobin A1c is an independent risk factor, distinct from that attributable to mean blood glucose or fructosamine levels, for diabetic microvascular complications is controversial Because the A1C test is supposed to reflect the mean level of glycemia, attempts have been made to correlate this widely-accepted measure with empirically measured mean blood glucose levels.

Several lines of evidence support this disconnect from a tight correlation between mean glycemia and A1C levels. First, improvements in mean glycemia may not necessarily be reflected by improvements in A1C in intensively treated patients A1C does not reflect short-term changes in glucose control, and therefore can be misleading where there have been recent changes in the clinical condition.

In addition, glucose fluctuations, compared to chronic sustained hyperglycemia, have been shown to exhibit a more specific triggering effect on oxidative stress and endothelial function , Glycemic variability cannot be assessed by a global measure of mean glycemia, such as A1C, but requires multiple individual glucose values, such as what can be obtained from continuous glucose monitoring or from seven-point- per-day or greater self-glucose testing.

Third, A1C does not permit specific adjustments in therapy, particularly among patients requiring insulin titration. Finally, A1C reliability may be affected by several conditions that alter red blood cell lifespan and its use in these circumstances can be misleading. A comparison of the features and limitations in glucose markers is presented in Table 7 , , Ethnic differences in A1C have also been reported For example, recent data from the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange demonstrates a 0.

However, NHANES data do not demonstrate an effect of ethnicity on the association between A1C and retinopathy Data from the ARIC study demonstrated that A1C, fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-AG were consistent with residual hyperglycemia among blacks compared to whites, and the prognostic value for incident cardiovascular disease, end stage renal disease and retinopathy were similar by race It should be noted that the range of available A1C was relatively narrow in NHANES and ARIC, and further data across an expansive range is needed.

In relation to CGMs, utility of A1C is further enhanced when used as a complement to glycemic data measured by CGM Other biomarkers are becoming more widely used, however, A1C remains the most common biomarker. Other measures of average glycemia such as fructosamine and 1,5-anhydroglucitol are available, but their translation into average glucose levels and prognostic significance are not as clear as for A1C 1.

A short to medium-term marker reflecting the average glucose control over the past few weeks may be useful for determining control over a period of days to weeks since A1C does not reflect recent changes in glucose control.

Alternate markers may also be useful in patients with discrepant A1C and self-monitored blood glucose readings as well as patients with other hematologic conditions known to affect A1C. Fructosamine is a term that refers to a family of glycated serum proteins and this family is comprised primarily of albumin and to a lesser extent, globulins, and to an even lesser extent, other circulating serum proteins.

No product exists for home use that measures serum fructosamine. No subsequent home fructosamine test has been available since then. Randomized controlled trials have reported inconsistent effects of frequent monitoring on A1C lowering, possibly due to differences in execution of therapeutic interventions , Serial monitoring of short-term markers may also facilitate timely elective surgery in patients whose procedure is delayed due to an elevated A1C.

In a recent study, fructosamine was a better predictor of post-operative complications in patients undergoing primary total joint arthroplasty The largest constituent of fructosamine is glycated albumin.

Several investigators and companies are developing portable assays for glycated albumin to assess overall control during periods of rapidly changing glucose levels. In these situations, an A1C test may change too slowly to capture a sudden increase or decrease in mean glycemia.

The components of the necessary technology appear to be in place to build a commercial instrument for home testing of glycated albumin. However, there is no randomized controlled trial showing that the measurement of glycated albumin improves outcomes. In the ARIC study, fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-AG were associated with incident diabetes, even after adjustment for baseline A1C and fasting glucose.

In the ARIC study, both fructosamine and glycated albumin predicted incident retinopathy and nephropathy, even after adjusting for A1C However, in adults with severe chronic kidney disease, none of the markers, including A1C, fructosamine, or glycated albumin were very highly correlated with fasting glucose, and there did not appear to be an advantage of one marker over another In addition, baseline glycated albumin and fructosamine were associated with cardiovascular outcomes over a year follow-up period after adjusting for other risk factors, but the overall magnitude of associations was similar to A1C In the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial DCCT , glycated albumin had a similar association with retinopathy and nephropathy as A1C, but the combination of both markers provided even better prediction Short-term markers are also of interest for use in pregnancy, where glucose levels are changing more quickly than can be reflected by A1C.

Unfortunately, glycated albumin does not predict gestational diabetes more effectively than A1C or fasting glucose However, other preliminary data suggests that glycated albumin may be a better predictor of pregnancy complications than A1C The aforementioned biomarkers for measuring glycemic control, A1C, fructosamine, and glycated albumin only reflect mean levels of glycemia.

These measures can fail to portray hyperglycemic excursions if they are balanced by hypoglycemic excursions. Plasma 1,5- anhydroglucitol 1,5-AG is a naturally occurring dietary monosaccharide, with a structure similar to that of glucose Figure 5.

This analyte has been proposed as a marker for postprandial hyperglycemia An automated laboratory grade assay named Glycomark is approved in the U. for measuring 1,5-AG as a short-term marker for glycemic control.

A similar laboratory assay has been used in Japan. During normoglycemia, 1,5-AG is maintained at constant steady-state levels because of a large body pool compared with the amount of intake and because this substance is metabolically inert.

Normally, 1,5-AG is filtered and completely reabsorbed by the renal tubules. This fall occurs due to competitive inhibition of renal tubular reabsorption by filtered glucose. The greater the amount of glucose in renal filtrate due to hyperglycemia , the less 1, 5-AG is reabsorbed by the kidneys.

The 1,5-AG levels respond sensitively and rapidly to rises in serum glucose and a fall in the serum level of this analyte can indicate transient elevations of serum glucose occurring over as short a period as a few days.

Measurement of 1,5-AG can be useful in assessing the prior weeks for: 1 the degree of postprandial hyperglycemia; and 2 the mean short-term level of glycemia.

This assay might prove useful in assessing the extent of glycemic variability that is present in an individual with a close-to-normal A1C level, but who is suspected to be alternating between frequent periods of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

In such a patient, the 1,5-AG level would be low, which would indicate frequent periods of hyperglycemia, whereas in a patient with little glycemic variability, the 1,5-AG levels would not be particularly depressed because of a lack of frequent hyperglycemic periods.

In the ARIC study, 1,5-AG was associated with severe hypoglycemia after adjustment for other variables, an observation which is consistent with the role of 1,5-AG in reflecting glycemic variability, a known risk factor for hypoglycemia Longitudinal data from the ARIC study showed that 1,5-AG was associated with ESRD over a year follow-up period, but the relationship was no longer significant after adjusting for glucose control with other markers There was also an association of 1,5-AG and cardiovascular outcomes in ARIC, which persisted, though were attenuated after adjusting for A1C Therefore, it is not yet clear whether 1,5-AG, as a measure of glucose excursions, provides incremental value beyond A1C for predicting long-term complications.

Many new types of technology are increasingly being developed and applied to fight diabetes and its complications. New technologies will improve the lives of people with diabetes by measuring glucose and other biomarkers of glycemic control and linking glucose levels with insulin delivery to improve the lives of people with diabetes.

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Show details Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Blackman MR, et al. Contents www. Search term. Monitoring Technologies- Continuous Glucose Monitoring, Mobile Technology, Biomarkers of Glycemic Control Nihaal Reddy , BS, Neha Verma , MD, and Kathleen Dungan , MD, MPH.

Author Information and Affiliations Nihaal Reddy , BS College of Medicine, The Ohio State University. cmuso nagnuD.

ABSTRACT It is recognized that traditional measures of glucose control such as hemoglobin A1c [A1C] provide little information regarding the need for day-to-day changes in therapies.

Several trends are emerging in glucose monitoring and will be reviewed in more detail in this chapter: CGM : This practice is becoming more widely established as evidence supporting its use has accumulated.

The data available through CGM can permit significantly more fine-tuned adjustments in insulin dosing and other therapies than spot testing from self-monitoring of blood glucose SMBG can provide.

CGM technologies for automatic collection of data have spurred interest in noninvasive glucose monitoring as an additional tool for obtaining information about glucose levels.

The first steps toward CLC are now in use. Mobile Technology and Decision Support : In recent years, increasing connectivity between glucose monitoring technologies and mobile devices has facilitated ongoing improvements in self-care and communication of data.

Alternate Markers of Glucose Control: Finally, the use of additional analytes besides glucose is still being established. FreeStyle Libre Pro The FreeStyle Libre Pro utilizes the same sensor as the Libre personal CGM.

Dexcom Professional The Dexcom G6 Pro was approved by the FDA in March and is available in blinded or unblinded mode depending upon whether the goal is to observe glucose patterns without intervention, to provide immediate feedback to educate and inform patients about their medications and behaviors, or to facilitate decisions about pursuing personal CGM.

Analysis of Retrospective Data Data from all CGM devices can be studied retrospectively after downloading 8. These are: Overnight : Out-of-target overnight glucose levels can be modified by adjusting the basal insulin dose. Pre-prandial Period : Out-of-target pre-prandial glucose levels can be modified by adjusting the previous meal bolus, meal, or exercise pattern.

Post-prandial period : Out-of-target postprandial glucose levels can be modified by adjusting the immediate meal bolus, meal, or exercise pattern. Table 1. Elements of Professional Continuous Glucose Monitoring Analysis.

Overall Control Mean Glucose Glucose Variability Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation Daily Detail Diurnal Patterns: dawn phenomenon, overnight Meal effects Correction Exercise effects Other patterns work days vs. weekend, menstrual cycles Hypoglycemia Precipitating factors Corresponding meter glucose recognition.

Ambulatory Glucose Profile The ambulatory glucose profile AGP, Figure 2 is a standardized reporting format for glucose data that was developed by an expert panel of diabetes specialists and sponsored by the Helmsley Charitable Trust and is customized for insulin pumps or injection therapy 9.

The AGP is currently employed by many reporting systems and consists of 3 components: 1. Daily View, which facilitates review of within day events. Composite Metrics As a measure of the quality of glycemia, the time in range TIR , similar to the A1C is limited in its assessment of hypoglycemia.

Ambulatory Glucose Profile for Insulin Pumps. Orange: median middle dot. Insulin Profile Graph: Shows basal insulin pump settings over a hour period. Orange: median middle glucose line. Evidence- Type 1 Diabetes Studies may be divided according to background therapies insulin pump or injection therapy.

RT-CGM was associated with a 0. Hypoglycemia was infrequent and was not different between groups. In the IMPACT trial, adults with type 1 diabetes with an A1C less than or equal to 7. It must be noted that this technology does not provide real-time alerts for impending hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia and data are accessed via a hand-held device on demand.

In a small study of patients with hypoglycemia unawareness or recent severe hypoglycemia, RT-CGM more effectively reduced the time spent in hypoglycemia compared to flash glucose monitoring The CITY study was a randomized study among adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

CGM resulted in a However, this is more than twice that reported in the pivotal JDRF study of Moreover, this study utilized an earlier generation CGM which required twice daily calibration; thus, it is possible that newer technologies may support greater persistence with use.

Sensor-augmented pump therapy resulted in better A1C reduction with between-group difference of 0. Hypoglycemia did not differ between groups, but only short-term CGM data were available for comparison and patients with a history of severe hypoglycemia were excluded. This study did not address hypoglycemia frequency in the two groups The GOLD trial studied patients with type 1 diabetes receiving multiple daily injections with either RT-CGM Dexcom G4 or standard care in a random order cross-over trial.

The mean difference in A1C was 0. One subject in the CGM group compared to 5 subjects in the standard care group experienced a severe hypoglycemic event. The percentage of time spent in hypoglycemia numerically favored the CGM group but statistical analyses were not presented. There was a significant reduction in standard deviation and MAGE measures of glucose variability.

Overall well-being, diabetes treatment satisfaction, and fear of hypoglycemia improved In the FLASH-UK study, participants with type 1 diabetes were randomized to intermittently scanned glucose monitoring or usual care The intervention group had a significantly greater reduction in HbA1 adjusted treatment difference A randomized controlled trial among adults with type 1 diabetes found that intermittently scanned glucose monitoring improved A1c estimated treatment difference 0.

META-ANALYSES A Cochrane review and another meta-analysis found modest A1c reductions, particularly among patients who were not using insulin pumps, patients under age 18, and among patients with lower adherence In the HypoCOMPaSS trial, 96 patients with a history of hypoglycemia unawareness determined by the GOLD Score of at least 4 or more were randomly assigned in a 2x2 factorial design to insulin pump or injection therapy, both with access to a bolus insulin calculator, and either RT-CGM Medtronic Continuous Glucose Monitoring System or SMBG.

All patients had diabetes education with a goal toward hypoglycemia avoidance The results demonstrated a similar reduction in severe hypoglycemia and improvement in hypoglycemia unawareness and fear of hypoglycemia without a significant treatment interaction between insulin or glucose monitoring interventions.

Treatment satisfaction was higher with insulin pump compared to injection therapy but similar between RT-CGM and SMBG. The IN CONTROL trial evaluated patients with Type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemia unawareness receiving either injection or insulin pump therapy in a crossover study comparing RT-CTM Medtronic Paradigm Veo system with a MiniLink transmitter and an Enlite glucose sensor or SMBG Hypoglycemia was significantly reduced with RT-CGM compared to SMBG including a 9.

Severe hypoglycemic events were significantly reduced but hypoglycemia unawareness was unchanged. CGM also lead to greater reduction in A1c treatment difference PATIENT REPORTED OUTCOMES Generic Quality of life scores generally do not improve with RT-CGM but treatment-specific measures, such as diabetes distress, hypoglycemic confidence, fear of hypoglycemia and to a lesser extent, measures of convenience, efficacy and performance, may be improved 28 , 41 , Evidence- Type 2 Diabetes In patients with type 2 diabetes, even in patients not on insulin, RT-CGM may act as a motivator and positive influence for patients to improve lifestyle.

In , Vigersky et al. randomized patients with type 2 diabetes on basal insulin and anti-hyperglycemic agents into either a group that used real-time RT-CGM intermittently 2 weeks on, 1 week off or a group that recorded SMBG four times per day for 12 weeks.

At 12 weeks, they found a statistically significantly greater reduction in A1c by 1. The effect persisted up to the week follow-up, 0. In , Beck et al conducted a randomized study to evaluate benefit of RT-CGM use in patients with type 2 diabetes with mean A1C of 8.

Over a week period the A1C decreased to 7. RT-CGM derived hypoglycemia and quality of life did not differ. The Dexcom MOBILE study assessed patients with type 2 diabetes on basal insulin randomly assigned to the Dexcom G6 or usual care for 8 months and reported a significant reduction in A1C, improved TIR and hypoglycemia This was accomplished without an appreciable change in insulin or other medication use, indicating that CGM improves glucose levels by facilitating behavioral changes.

Moreover, subsequent discontinuation of CGM for 6 months resulted in loss of about half of the improvement in TIR younger adults In a week study of patients with type 2 diabetes on multiple daily injections of insulin, patients randomized flash glucose monitoring Freestyle Libre had greater A1C reduction In a randomized trial of adults with type 2 diabetes using non-insulin therapies, intermittently scanned glucose monitoring in combination with diabetes self-management education demonstrated superior A1c reduction at 16 weeks treatment difference 0.

In a study of UK hospitals incorporating 16, participants, with repeated TIR data, improvements in TIR were associated with improvement in hypoglycemia unawareness and diabetes related distress.

In the Swedish National Diabetes Registry that included 14, adults with type 1 diabetes, intermittently scanned glucose monitoring was associated with a small 0. Moreover, the reduction in hospitalizations persisted after 2 years In Belgium, a study of adults with type 1 diabetes were studied before and after nationwide reimbursement of intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring Following the policy change, treatment satisfaction improved, there was a significant reduction in admissions for acute complications severe hypoglycemia or ketoacidosis , and there were fewer absences from work.

Among 41, patients with insulin requiring diabetes in an integrated health care delivery system, patients initiated CGM, which was associated with a greater reduction in A1C adjusted treatment difference 0. However, there was no difference in hospitalizations for hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis.

Recommendations Patients should be adequately informed of the benefits and limitations of this technology, particularly with respect to the role for SMBG. In , the Endocrine Society, co-sponsored by The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the European Society of Endocrinology, published guidelines for use of insulin pumps and CGM.

The guidelines recommended RT-CGM in adults with type 1 diabetes and any A1C who are willing and able to use the devices nearly daily. The American Diabetes Association ADA Standards of Care recommend CGM in adults with type 1 diabetes and those with hypoglycemia unawareness or frequent hypoglycemia Table 2a.

Among pediatric patients, the ADA notes that CGM may reduce missed school days with regular usage 1. Table 2 a. ADA Recommendations for CGM. Group Recommendation Level of Evidence Real-time CGM Intermittently Scanned CGM Adults Youth Adults Youth MDI or CSII insulin use Should be offered A Should be offered B-T1D, E-T2D Should be offered B Should be offered E- T1D Should be used as close to daily as possible A Should be scanned frequently, at least every 8 hours A Basal insulin use A NA C NA All Devices are recommended for individuals or caregivers who can use the devices safely The choice of device should be individualized based on patient centered factors.

People should have uninterrupted access to supplies to minimize gaps in monitoring A Periodic RT-CGM, intermittently scanned CGM, or professional CGM can be helpful where continuous use is not possible C Diabetes and pregnancy CGM can help to achieve A1C targets in pregnancy when used as an adjunct to pre- and postprandial SMBG B.

Table 2b. AACE Recommendations for CGM by Methodology. Intermediate 1 C. Table 2c. AACE Recommendations for CGM—Patient Characteristics. Table 3. CGM-Based Targets for Different Diabetes Populations. Table 4.

Summary of ATTD Recommendations for CGM. Limitations of A1C CGM should be utilized when there is a discrepancy in A1C and other measures of glucose control. CGM should be utilized to assess hypoglycemia and glucose variability. Guiding management and assessing outcomes CGM should be considered for patients with type 1 diabetes and insulin treated type 2 diabetes who are not achieving targets or those with hypoglycemia.

All patients should receive training education regarding how to interpret and respond to their data, utilizing standardized programs with follow-up.

Performance No accepted standard exists for CGM system performance. with recovery defined as persistent readings over the threshold for at least 15 min. CGM Metrics Standardized reporting using the AGP and integration into electronic health records is recommended.

Hospital Use CGM is not currently approved for use in the hospital setting. The panel made the specific recommendations for clinical care including: Consider use of CGM to reduce exposures such as for point of care glucose and need for personal protective equipment in persons with highly contagious diseases.

Barring use in the setting of highly contagious disease, CGM values should be confirmed with point of care POC glucose prior to making treatment decisions. Clinical trials—and other types of clinical studies —are part of medical research and involve people like you.

When you volunteer to take part in a clinical study, you help doctors and researchers learn more about disease and improve health care for people in the future. Researchers are studying many aspects of CGMs, such as how CGMs could be made more sensitive, reliable, and comfortable to wear.

Researchers are also studying how they might be used to manage different types of diabetes or other medical conditions. Find out if clinical studies are right for you. Watch a video of NIDDK Director Dr. Griffin P. Rodgers explaining the importance of participating in clinical trials.

You can view a filtered list of clinical studies that use CGMs and are federally funded, open, and recruiting at www.

You can expand or narrow the list to include clinical studies from industry, universities, and individuals; however, the National Institutes of Health does not review these studies and cannot ensure they are safe.

Always talk with your health care provider before you participate in a clinical study. This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIDDK , part of the National Institutes of Health.

NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public.

Content produced by NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts. NIDDK would like to thank: Jenise C. Wong, M. Home Health Information Diabetes Diabetes Overview Managing Diabetes Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

How does a continuous glucose monitor work? Who can use a continuous glucose monitor? What are the different types of continuous glucose monitors? What are some features of continuous glucose monitors?

What are the benefits of a continuous glucose monitor? What issues could you have while using a continuous glucose monitor? What is an artificial pancreas?

How does NIDDK support research on continuous glucose monitors? Clinical Trials on Continuous Glucose Monitors What is continuous glucose monitoring? Most CGMs send information without using wires to an app on a smartphone. Other differences between CGM models include whether the sensor is placed on the skin or is implanted how often the sensor has to be replaced how long it takes the CGM to warm up how you adjust the program settings For some CGM models, you may need to do a finger-stick test with a standard blood glucose monitor to calibrate the system and make sure the CGM readings are correct.

Many CGMs work with apps that have special features, such as ways to track the food and beverages you consume, your physical activity level, and the medicines you take the ability to download data onto a computer or smart device so you can easily see trends in your glucose levels an alarm that goes off when your glucose level is too low or too high, helping you prevent emergencies For safety, it is important to act quickly if a CGM alarm sounds when your glucose level is too low or too high.

Choosing a CGM The system requires a functioning mobile electronic device with correct settings. A thin tube, or cannula, pierces the top layer of skin and measures glucose in the interstitial fluid. Nocturnal hypoglycemia: Causes, symptoms, and management Medically reviewed by Kelly Wood, MD. Recent randomized trials support the use of CGM on the hospital wards, where it has been shown to be safe, and may reduce the frequency of hypoglycemia 65 , The FreeStyle Libre 2 system offers real-time alerts for high or low glucose values and improved accuracy, approved for ages 4 years and older
Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGM) | ADA Sports nutrition guidelines, a rechnology study investigated the CGM sensor technology long-term effects CGM sensor technology using a CGM. Seeing your blood glucose xensor in real Community seed exchanges can help you make more informed technologgy about CM food and Refreshing natural extracts you consume, the physical activity you do, and the medicines you take. However, the introduction of SERS may shorten the sensor lifetime and bring the risk of biotoxicity through SERS substrate degradation. There was an improvement in treatment satisfaction, fear of hypoglycemia, and similar diabetes quality of life. DeSalvo DJ, Miller KM, Hermann JM, Maahs DM, Hofer SE, Clements MA, Lilienthal E, Sherr JL, Tauschmann M, Holl RW.
How Does a Glucose Sensor Work? The volumetric expansion resulting from the heat sensot generate an tehcnology wave detected in a photoacoustic Snacks for sustained energy before a game by a piezoelectric transducer microphone that CGM sensor technology sense acoustics or techonlogy. in Merger with SPAC NorthView Acquisition Corp". Customer Care Line You CGM sensor technology call sfnsor Monday to Friday between Refreshing natural extracts and 7pm CGM sensor technology excluding Public Holidays. CGM device systems By connecting the CGM to a smart insulin pen or insulin pump, you allow technology to help do more of the thinking, remembering, and acting, when it comes to managing diabetes. Individuals interested in using a CGM can consult with a medical professional about their suitability and how it may help with their health. in Electrical Engineering at the University of Cambridge infollowed by a PhD in Nanophotonics in Serial monitoring of short-term markers may also facilitate timely elective surgery in patients whose procedure is delayed due to an elevated A1C.
Wichtige Informationen zur iOS Version. Tcehnology wird in der kommenden iOS CGM sensor technology den Standby-Modus tecbnology den Assistive Access-Modus einführen. Refreshing natural extracts neuen Modi können sich auf Ihre Erfahrung mit Ihrer FreeStyle Libre 3 App 11 auswirken. Erfahren Sie hierwie Sie potenzielle Probleme vermeiden können. Entdecken Sie das von Menschen mit Diabetes weltweit meistgenutzte Glukose-Sensor-Messsystem. FreeStyle Libre 3 unterstützt Sie täglich bei Ihrem Diabetes­management.

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