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Nutritional strategies for injury prevention

Nutritional strategies for injury prevention

The selected articles included literature Weight loss plateaus and clinical trials related to muscle injury in high-performance athletes, in any sports pervention or in immobilized patient healthy srtategies or women. Nurritional energy expenditure depends on the degree of inflammatory response, more than the extent of tissue injury, which is the determinant of hypermetabolism [ 17 ]. Peternelj TT, Coombes JS. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics, dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: nutrition and athletic performance. Previous Article Next Article.

Nutritional strategies for injury prevention -

Primary concerns during an injury include muscle and strength loss. While the recovery process involves several stages, inflammation plays a key role in the initial healing phase. Due to stress response, this phase typically requires a greater energy demand, which increases the need for protein.

Following this phase, minimizing excessive inflammation via dietary interventions may help accelerate the recovery process and get athletes back on the playing field more quickly.

Treating and Preventing Soft Tissue Injuries Soft tissue injuries can be acute or chronic overuse and may include damage to muscle, ligament, and tendon. However, it should be noted that these studies have limitations, given there are obvious structural differences between a muscle tear and exercise-induced muscle damage.

Changes in energy requirements and nutrients to help with muscle repair also must be considered. There are several potential nutrition strategies that may help treat—or possibly prevent—soft tissue injuries by reducing inflammation, promoting healing, or decreasing the loss of lean tissue.

However, in the absence of a dietary deficiency, some of the following nutrition interventions have limited research to support a benefit.

RDs must gain a better understanding of changes in energy demands. For example, while recovering from injury, some athletes may want to decrease energy intake, given that energy expenditure is lower.

However, adequate energy availability is needed to support healing. Increased protein may not prevent muscle injury, but higher protein intakes 1. An emphasis on equal protein distribution throughout the day will help attenuate muscle mass loss.

RDs should emphasize a diet rich in high-quality protein from whole food sources, but a protein supplement can be an easy and effective way to meet protein needs during the recovery period. For example, whey protein contains the highest amount of leucine 2.

If an athlete chooses a plant-based protein supplement, about 40 g of soy or pea protein—the highest quality of the plant-based options—is needed to match the 2. Carbohydrates provide energy for healing during injury recovery.

Omega-3 fatty acids, such as olive oil, fish, flaxseeds, nuts, and avocado, may decrease the extent of prolonged inflammation after the initial inflammatory phase , which can be counterproductive to recovery.

However, this is based on studies examining inflammation and function after exercise-induced muscle damage. Given the potential risk of mercury contamination in fish oil supplements, the quality of fish oil should be taken into consideration.

Creatine has been shown to be one of the most effective supplements for increasing lean body mass when combined with exercise. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables provide polyphenols and micronutrients, each of which can help speed the recovery process.

For example, polyphenols may help decrease muscle damage caused by inflammation. While these strategies provide more benefits for the muscle, vitamin C and gelatin have been suggested to stimulate greater collagen synthesis following a tendon or ligament injury.

Active individuals should focus on a food-first approach before supplementation. Keep in mind that for many of these findings, more research is needed to examine the benefits of the role of macro- and micronutrients in the prevention of or recovery from muscle injuries.

Bone Injury Treatment and Prevention Bone strength is determined earlier in life, yet bone loss occurs as a natural part of the aging process. Due to bone-related consequences ie, reduced calcium absorption and bone mineral density associated with a higher incidence of relative energy deficiency in sport syndrome, stress fractures are more common in active females.

Although there are many nutrients that play a role in bone health, the following nutrition factors may help support bone health and aid in the recovery and healing from bone injuries.

Many female athlete triad and relative energy deficiency in sport studies have found that reductions in energy availability, especially if chronic, have been shown to reduce hormones estrogen, testosterone that are vital to bone formation and resorption.

Protein plays a role in the production of hormones that affect bone health and provide structure for the bone matrix. In athletes, macros are vital to support your metabolism, brain health, immunity, muscle growth, hormone balance, and bone health. Micronutrients: These are vitamins and minerals: what we need in smaller amounts for proper body functioning and metabolic processes.

THE TRIANGLE OF NUTRITION For overall health and nutrition, we should start with a strong foundation of energy from calories, macronutrients, and micronutrients.

Importance of Nutrition for Athletes Performance, health, and injury prevention and rehab all rely on nutrition. Often, nutrition takes a back seat but it really is the foundation of injury prevention and rehab.

Injury Prevention: Injury rehab: Incremental training load - introduce more training overtime and build up from there.

Stretching - both before and after a workout Sleep - important for recovery and repair Rest days - also important for recovery and repair See a physical therapist or other specialist Slow reintroduction to training Plenty of sleep Ample rest days Nutritional Strategies to Prevent Injuries 1.

add variety It is important to mix up your diet so you can ensure you're getting all of your necessary micronutrients. make a plan This doesn't necessarily mean meal planning as that can cause food fatigue, but a good idea is to make a master list of meals and then pull from that list for groceries each week.

Nutrient timing Time your meals to boost performance and increase calories to decrease energy deficiencies. Nutrition as a Rehab Tool Sometimes injuries are just unavoidable - here's how to aid the recovery process: Take in enough energy from calories Avoid calorie restriction and energy deficits - DO NOT RESTRICT CALORIES.

When injured nutrition plays a vital role since you actually need more nutrients and calories coming in because your body is scrambling to heal. This requires increased energy metabolism and output. When you reduce calorie intake during an injury, your rate of muscle loss is accelerated because your body is pulling energy from protein.

So lack of exercise and reduction in nutrients coming in will increase muscle loss. Increase protein to 2g per kg of body weight to maintain muscle mass During an injury, your immune system is activated and that causes rapid turnover of those immune cells - many of those are proteins themselves.

To offset that cell turnover and nitrogen loss, you should consume more protein, specifically high-quality protein high in leucine. Leucine is an amino acid which is a top stimulator of muscle protein synthesis Foods containing leucine are: eggs, dairy products, soy products, meat.

Protein supplements can also help, such as Gnarly Whey or Gnarly Vegan. Continue eating consistent, well-balanced meals, and consume your colors! Both of these will ensure you get your micros and macros. Stay hydrated Fueling with water is necessary so your body can deliver those necessary nutrients and immune system components to the site of the injury to decrease inflammation and start to heal and repair.

Staying hydrated will also help flush out lactic acid, and hydrate our tissues so they can function properly. Gnarly Hydrate is a great supplement to add to your diet to help stay hydrated as well.

Dangers of Energy Deficits Energy deficits come from restricting calories. It can easily lead to: Increased risk of injury Slowed recovery process Malnutrition This is because the body will typically choose to pull protein from muscles for energy first, because we need fat for organ and cell protection.

Short term goals: Eat consistently, simply, and with a plan Time your nutrients Specifically carbs and proteins Avoid dehydration Gnarly Hydrate Support recovery Gnarly Collagen Pro Avoid energy deficits Support performance with ergogenic aids if appropriate Gnarly BCAAS Gnarly Pump Gnarly Pre Workout Get adequate sleep and take rest days as needed There isn't any " one size fits all " plan when it comes to nutrition, but when looking for a plan, take into consideration your health, your history, your background, your eating arrangements i.

from a cafeteria, only can access a microwave, etc. For athletes, this is generally not recommended. It narrows down window of consumption, minimizing your chance to get all of the nutrients you need. It also limits when you can train as you won't want to train on an empty stomach.

It can also easily trigger past disordered eating. There is also not a ton of research showing that it helps with performance or recovery.

Complex carbs vs. simple carbs: Typically, it is recommended to fuel with carbs within a hour time frame before a race or competition. Powers SK, Morton AB, Ahn B, Smuder AJ. Free radical biology and medicine redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

Powers SK, DeRuisseau KC, Quindry J, Hamilton KL. Dietary antioxidants and exercise. J Sports Sci. Meydani M, Evans WJ, Handelman G, et al.

Protective effect of vitamin E on exercise-induced oxidative damage in young and older adults. Ame J Physiol. CAS Google Scholar. Davis JM, Carlstedt CJ, Chen S, Carmichael MD, Murphy EA.

The dietary flavonoid quercetin increases VO[2 max] and endurance capacity. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Jówko E, Sacharuk J, Balasińska B, Ostaszewski P, Charmas M, Charmas R. Green tea extract supplementation gives protection against exercise-induced oxidative damage in healthy men.

Nutr Res. Taghiyar M, et al. The effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress in female athletes: a clinical trial.

Int J Prev Med. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Pingitore A, Lima GPP, Mastorci F, Quinones A, Iervasi G, Vassalle C. Exercise and oxidative stress: potential effects of antioxidant dietary strategies in sports.

Nutrition [internet]. Elsevier Inc. Zimmermann MB. Vitamin and mineral supplementation and exercise performance. Schweiz Z Med Traumatol. Peternelj TT, Coombes JS. Antioxidant supplementation during exercise training: beneficial or detrimental?

Teixeira VH, Valente HF, Casal SI, Marques AF, Moreira PA. Antioxidants do not prevent postexercise peroxidation and may delay muscle recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Petiz LL, Girardi CS, Bortolin RC, et al.

Vitamin a oral supplementation induces oxidative stress and suppresses IL and HSP70 in skeletal muscle of trained rats. Dawson B, Henry GJ, Goodman C, Gillam I, Beilby JR, Ching S, et al.

Effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on biochemical and ultrastructural indices of muscle damage after a 21 km run.

Int J Sports Med. Mastaloudis A, Traber MG, Carstensen K, et al. Antioxidants did not prevent muscle damage in response to an ultramarathon run. Braakhuis AJ, Hopkins WG, Lowe TE. Effects of dietary antioxidants on training and performance in female runners.

Eur J Sport Sci. Stepanyan V, Crowe M, Haleagrahara N, Bowden B. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress: a meta-analysis. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Nieman DC, Henson DA, Davis JM, Dumke CL, Gross SJ, Jenkins DP, Murphy EA, Carmichael MD, Quindry JC, McAnulty SR, McAnulty LS, Utter AC, Mayer EP.

Quercetin ingestion does not alter cytokine changes in athletes competing in the western states endurance run. J Interf Cytokine Res. Evans WJ. Vitamin E, vitamin C, and exercise. Laursen PB. Free radicals and antioxidant vitamins: optimizing the health of the athlete.

Strength Cond J. Andersson H, Karlsen A, Blomhoff R, Raastad T, Kadi F. Active recovery training does not affect the antioxidant response to soccer games in elite female players.

Br J Nutr. Myburgh KH. Polyphenol supplementation: benefits for exercise performance or oxidative stress? Delecroix B, Abaïdia AE, Leduc C, Dawson B, Dupont G. Curcumin and Piperine supplementation and recovery following exercise induced muscle damage: a randomized controlled trial.

J Sports Sci Med. Gravina L, et al. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players. Gonçalves MC, Bezerra FF, Eleutherio ECA, Bouskela E, Koury J.

Organic grape juice intake improves functional capillary density and postocclusive reactive hyperemia in triathletes. Leighton F, Cuevas A, Guasch V, Perez DD, Strobel P, San Martın A, et al. Plasma polyphenols and antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage and endotelial function in a diet and wine intervention study in humans.

Drugs Exp Clin Res. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Fitó M, Guxens M, Corella D, Saez G, Estruch R, de la Torre R, PREDIMED Study Investigators, et al. Effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet on lipoprotein oxidation: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med. Vidmar MF, et al. Suplementação com ômega-3 pós-reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior.

Rev Bras Med Esporte. Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DN, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinaemia-hyperaminoacidaemia in healthy young and middle-aged men and women. Clin Sci.

McGlory C, Galloway SD, Hamilton DL, et al. Temporal changes in human skeletal muscle and blood lipid composition with fish oil supplementation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. You J-S, Park M-N, Lee Y-S. Dietary fish oil inhibits the early stage of recovery of atrophied soleus muscle in rats via Akt—p70s6k signaling and PGF2a.

J Nutr Biochem. Calder PC, Albers R, Antoine JM, et al. Inflammatory disease processes and interactions with nutrition. Díaz-Castro J, Guisado R, Kajarabille N, García C, Guisado IM, de Teresa C, Ochoa JJ.

Coenzyme Q 10 supplementation ameliorates inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress associated with strenuous exercise. Eur J Nutr. Albina JE, Gladden P, Walsh WR. Detrimental effects of an omega-3 fatty acid-enriched diet on wound healing.

J Parenter Enter Nutr. Cazzola R, Russo-Volpe S, Cervato G, Cestaro B. Biochemical assessments of oxidative stress, erythrocyte membrane fluidity and antioxidant status in professional soccer players and sedentary controls. Eur J Clin Investig. Metin G, Gumustas MK, Uslu E, Belce A, Kayserilioglu A.

Effect of regular training on plasma thiols, malondialdehyde and carnitine concentrations in young soccer players. Chin J Physiol. Bloomer RJ, Falvo MJ, Schilling BK, Smith WA. Prior exercise and antioxidant supplementation: effect on oxidative stress and muscle injury.

Barker T, Leonard SW, Hansen J, et al. Vitamin E and C supplementation does not ameliorate muscle dysfunction after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Neubauer O, Yfanti C. In: Lamprecht M, editor. Antioxidants in sport nutrition.

Chapter 3. World Gastroenterology Organisation. Probiotics and prebiotics. Maughan RJ, Burke LM, Dvorak J, Larson-Meyer DE, Peeling P, Phillips SM, Rawson ES, Walsh NP, Garthe I, Geyer H, Meeusen R, van Loon LJC, Shirreffs SM, Spriet LL, Stuart M, Vernec A, Currell K, Ali VM, Budgett RG, Ljungqvist A, Mountjoy M, Pitsiladis YP, Soligard T, Erdener U, Engebretsen L.

IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete. Bermon S, Castell LM, Calder PC, Bishop NC, Blomstrand E, Mooren FC, Krüger K, Kavazis AN, Quindry JC, Senchina DS, Nieman DC, Gleeson M, Pyne DB, Kitic CM, Close GL, Larson-Meyer DE, Marcos A, Meydani SN, Wu D, Walsh NP, Nagatomi R.

Consensus statement immunonutrition and exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev. Coqueiro AY, de Oliveira Garcia AB, Rogero MM, Tirapegui J. Probiotic supplementation in sports and physical exercise: does it present any ergogenic effect?

Nutr Health. Walsh NP. Recommendations to maintain immune health in athletes. Download references. The first author wishes to thank the University of Sao Paulo, to the Laboratory of Applied Nutrition and Metabolism for its contribution and support for this manuscript.

Faculty of Medicine, National University of Colombia, Carrera 45 N°, , Bogotá D. Laboratory of Applied Nutrition and Metabolism, School of Physical Education and Sports, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. All the authors contributed to the construction of this manuscript, mainly with respect to the idea, writing, and revision of the same one.

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Quintero, K. et al. An overview of nutritional strategies for recovery process in sports-related muscle injuries.

Nutrire 43 , 27 Download citation. Received : 28 July Accepted : 28 October Published : 20 November Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Download PDF. Abstract Introduction Muscle injuries are common among elite athletes and compromise competitions and training schedules.

Objective Present an overview of the nutritional strategies and recommendations after a muscular sports injury, emphasizing the use of main nutrients and elements for the muscle recovery, such as proteins, antioxidants, omega 3 fatty acids, and probiotics. Methodology The search of information was made in the PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, Embase, and Google Scholar databases under specific DeCS and MeSh terms.

Results The stages of a muscle injury are classified as destruction-inflammation, repair, and remodeling phase. Conclusion According to the literature, it is necessary to carry out clinical studies with injured athletes and determine how the consumption of nutrients and elements such as probiotics can influence the recovery processes of injured athletes.

The Efficacy of Acute Nutritional Interventions on Soccer Skill Performance Article 12 April International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine Article Open access 13 June Return to sport after muscle injury Article 06 March Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

Background The prevalence of sports injuries is latent in any sport event, from amateur to large events such as World Championships and Olympic Games summer and winter seasons.

Methodology of the selection and inclusion of articles. Full size image. Results Physiology and healing process of muscular sports injury A sport injury requires a particular nutritional intake, according to the degree of immobilization, the decrease in physical activity, and the degree of muscle mass loss, its strength and function [ 14 ].

References Engebretsen L, Soligard T, Steffen K, Alonso JM, Aubry M, Budgett R, et al. Article Google Scholar Soligard T, Steffen K, Palmer D, Alonso JM, Bahr R, Lopes AD, et al. Article Google Scholar Bengtsson H, Ekstrand J, Hägglund M.

Article Google Scholar Delos D, Maak TG, Rodeo SA. Article Google Scholar Ekstrand J, Askling C, Magnusson H, Mithoefer K. Article Google Scholar Mueller-Wohlfahrt HW, Haensel L, Mithoefer K, Ekstrand J, English B, McNally S, et al.

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The remodeling or maturation phase usually begins 1 week after the injury and can continue for 1 year or more. In that case, fibronectin is the initial component in the extracellular matrix that forms a preliminary fibrous scar during this phase of wound healing.

This formed scar has two key functions: as a template for collagen deposition and as a platform for cell migration and cell growth [ 17 ]. In the muscle, the maturation of the regenerating myofibers includes formation of a mature contractile apparatus and attachment of the ends of the regenerated myofibers to the intervening scar by newly formed myotendinous junction [ 7 ].

According to all physiological stages of the recovery process, the proliferative stage is important in the increase of collagen matrix and fibroblast synthesis; moreover, in the remodeling stage the increase in the production of collagen type II [ 14 ], both could determine the energy consumption that must be considered to avoid caloric restrictions which are frequent in this type of situation.

The energy expenditure depends on the degree of inflammatory response, more than the extent of tissue injury, which is the determinant of hypermetabolism [ 17 ]. In a study made in nine healthy volunteers, it was assessed the changes in the lean body mass LBM and the Leucine rate of appearance protein synthesis in 14 days under different physical activity levels, ambulatory and bed rest conditions, subjects received an eucaloric diet and a hypocaloric diet [ 18 ].

In the results, it was found than resting energy expenditure REE relative to LBM did not differ significantly between the ambulatory and bed rest conditions during the eucaloric and hypocaloric diet [ 18 ]. Hypocaloric nutrition led to the greatest wasting of LBM in bed rest conditions; however, in the ambulatory group the same nutrition allowed a significantly higher leucine deposition rates within the total body protein protein synthesis.

The negative energy balance conditions can lead to a rapid loss of LBM and that such catabolic effects can be prevented, at least in the short term, through a moderate level of physical activity [ 18 ]. Another research from Biolo G et al.

in made in 19 healthy men, different physical inactivity conditions and energy intake were evaluated: at first ambulatory adaptation condition all subjects with the same energy intake and after 5 weeks of bed rest, under high energy balance HEB and lower energy balance LEB.

As a result of this, the HEB and muscle atrophy were associated with the activation of systemic inflammatory response and antioxidant defenses in stress conditions; for example, in the increase of glutathione synthesis, myeloperoxidase concentrations, significant changes glutamate-cysteine ligase enzyme and the rate of glutathione turnover [ 19 ].

In relation to body composition, most of the subjects who gained more body fat mass especially in the HEB group suffered the greatest loss of skeletal muscle and body free mass. Exceeding caloric intake above the calorie recommendations that athletes normally consume may have negative effects on body composition increase in fat mass due to reduced physical activity without any benefit in physiological responses to a sports injury.

Main nutritional recommendations related to energy consumption, protein, antioxidants, and probiotics in sports muscle injuries. The periods of immobilization following a muscle injury, especially at week one and two, the rate of muscle protein synthesis decreases if the 10 days of disuse are exceeded with a small or no contribution in muscle catabolism [ 20 ].

However, some research also suggests that reduced mobility decreases the sensitivity of skeletal muscle to anabolic properties of amino acids [ 20 ]. Within the anabolic resistance, there is a cascade of metabolic reactions, including an interaction between the reactive oxygen species produced by the immobilization and the signaling pathways of IGF-1, the latter pathway is inhibited by the high reactive oxygen species ROS production to insulin resistance [ 21 ].

A positive balance in protein consumption is necessary for the repair of muscle damage produced by exercise [ 22 ]. The same happens when there is an injury that implies a reduction of physical activity of the athlete, but in this opportunity the protein consumption must be according to the reduction of the fasting synthesis rate [ 9 ] and the reduction of muscle protein synthesis in response to protein intake [ 20 ], due to the reduction of the ability of myofibrillar proteins to respond to amino acids in immobilization [ 23 ].

In that sense, in 12 healthy young men in 14 days of knee immobilization were measured the protein synthesis after protein intake before and after a period of disuse the immobilization period led a significant decrease to an 8.

Beyond these results, in the context of sports performance, it should be kept in mind that the level of physical activity is important to maintain a normal response in postprandial protein synthesis at muscle level and that it will also change according to age [ 24 ], in the case of high-performance athletes, although there is no evidence of anabolic resistance in lesions, it is clear that the adaptations induced by physical activity play a major role in delaying or reducing the effects of anabolic resistance to the consumption of protein.

Due to the above several studies document the different degrees of muscular atrophy by disuse depending many times on the duration of the injury or the immobilization phase, it has been shown that in 1 week of immobilization in 10 healthy young males in energy balance, there is a reduction of muscle mass in 3.

A significant increase in angiogenic markets like HIF-1α protein expression was observed strategeis bed rest but without changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, measured by immunohistochemistry [ 25 ].

Based on the concepts above, nutritional strategies that could be used during immobilization and recovery to overcome this anabolic resistance, should be given from two main approaches: the first is to provide more anabolic factors and improve amino acid availability, i.

Regarding the recommendation of protein consumption during the period of muscle disuse, it should be taken into consideration that in healthy adults the muscle tissue responds to a dose of protein of 20 to 25 g, which maximizes the response of muscle protein synthesis MPS in both fasting and exercised muscle [ 16 ].

When there is a sports injury situation with immobilization or reduced physical activity, it is likely that the amount of protein in each dose needed to stimulate MPS increases. About this, the currently International Society of Sport Nutrition ISSN position stand establish, according to reviews about protein intake and timing in exercise that an ingestion of a protein dose of 20—40 g 0.

In a research made in 19 middle age healthy adults to response to leucine LEU and placebo supplementation CONall subjects passed over two process, at first an ambulatory phase 1—4 days both groups with the same diet and without supplementation and then the bed rest 14 days.

Although these are short-term effects, because the leucine effects on lean mass are only during the first 7 days of the 14 days protocol, in the final 7 days the rate of loss of lean mass in the LEU group was similar to that in the CON group [ 29 ].

Participants in the whey protein group had significantly greater improvements in knee extension strength in the operated limb and non-operated limb compared with the control group and improvement in functional activities of daily life [ 30 ]. Whey protein supplementation can be essential for the maintenance of muscle strength during a period of postoperative immobilization along with an active rehabilitation process, it can also mitigate the increase of physiological markers of muscle damage such as creatine kinase CK and lactate dehydrogenase LDH [ 31 ], and contribute to the recovery of the skeletal muscle after exercise and injury.

According to the intake recommendations in injured athletes, it should mitigate muscle loss during a period of negative protein balance [ 16 ], so the recommendation should be 1. The recommendations of protein intake from the International Society of Sport Nutrition ISSN position stand, 1.

In agreement with the last Position in Nutrition and Athletic Performance from Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine, in cases of energy restriction or reduction of physical activity as it happens as a result of an injury, the increased protein intake of up to 2.

This recommendation could be used in the nutritional approach of the injured athlete without the need to provide less or more protein than this recovery process implies, still there is no evidence or clinical trial related to athletes male or female in any sports disciplines or according the type of injury and the physiological specificities of the recovery process.

Sport-related damages and injuries favor free radicals and ROS production and other inflammatory molecules [ 35 ]. Under normal physiological conditions, the endogenous antioxidant defense can remove or neutralize these detrimental molecules.

Oxidative stress, produced when there is an imbalance between free radicals and the endogenous antioxidant defense, can cause lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and activation of stress-sensitive signaling pathways, which contribute to inflammation maintenance, symptoms of injury e.

In the case of athletes who were immobilized or with reduced physical activity of a specific limb due to sport-related injuries, oxidative stress contributes to muscle atrophy by increasing the expression of components of the proteasome proteolytic system.

For instance, ROS can activate a group of proteases, known as caspases, that degrade proteins and it may trigger apoptosis [ 3839 ].

In order to attenuate oxidative stress and their consequences abovementioned, the intake of antioxidant nutrients has been considered as a concern by athletes [ 16 ]. Some micronutrients, such as vitamins A β-caroteneC ascorbic acidand E α-tocopheroltrace minerals as zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and plant-derived polyphenols are known as antioxidant nutrients that play an important role on redox balance along with the endogenous antioxidant defense [ 37 ].

They act by preventing ROS and free radicals formation, and behave as scavengers or proton donors in order to regenerate or repair oxidative damages Powers et al.

Besides that, vitamin C is important for recycling the α-tocopherol from oxidative reactions. Vitamin E, as well as polyphenols and β-carotene, has an important role in the conversion of ROS and free radicals to less reactive forms, at cellular membrane, contributing to restrain lipid peroxidation.

In addition, the minerals act as co-factors of the superoxide dismutase SOD and glutathione peroxidase GPXtwo important enzymes from the endogenous antioxidant defense [ 37 ].

Studies that demonstrated positive outcomes after antioxidants supplementation were mostly performed in sedentary, physically active individuals or elderly people after acute exercise [ 41424344 ]. Thus, if athletes do not present nutritional deficiencies, antioxidant supplementation may favor oxidative reactions and blunt important pathways for positive exercise adaptations, recovery, and wound healing [ 454647 ].

For instance, a mixture of antioxidants supplementation mg of vitamin C, mg of α-tocopherol, 30 mg of β-carotene, 2 mg of lutein, mμg of selenium, 30 mg of zinc, and mg of magnesium did not offer protection against exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation, which may hinder muscle recovery in athletes [ 48 ].

Also, vitamin A supplementation decreased anti-inflammatory interleukin IL and heat shock protein 70 expression [ 49 ]. A meta-analysis did not find a significant protection against either exercise-induced lipid peroxidation or muscle damage after vitamin E supplementation [ 53 ].

Likewise, polyphenol-rich plant supplements have small effects in increasing antioxidant capacity, but countermeasure effects on exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation [ 54 ].

A majority of studies have supported that antioxidant supplementation does not enhance antioxidant capacity in non-nutritional deficient athletes [ 455556575859 ]; however, a critical approach is necessary for athletes who have undergone sport-related injuries.

On the other hand, athletes that have received nutritional intervention via food intake have shown higher levels of total antioxidant capacity and endogenous antioxidant activity SOD and GPX compared to the ones who do not follow this intervention [ 60 ].

Also, the Mediterranean diet, characterized by high consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids from olives, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, low consumption of red meat and moderate use of red wine can enhance antioxidant defenses and improves the lipid oxidation [ 6263 ].

Pingitore et al. Omega 3 fatty acid n-3FA has also been considered in the context of nutritional support for sport-related injuries due to its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties [ 10 ]. For instance, omega 3 fatty acid supplementation has also shown capable of attenuate oxidative biomarkers in athletes who had undergone knee surgery [ 64 ].

: Nutritional strategies for injury prevention

Sports Injury Prevention Diet for Athlete | Webber Nutrition Figure 1 —Effect of serum isolated from an athlete before open bars or 1 hr after gray bars consuming 15 g of either gelatin or hydrolyzed collagen and vitamin C on both a modulus stiffness and b percent collagen. Anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids should be prioritised to promote immune function, protein synthesis, brain function and recovery from exercise. Article CAS Google Scholar Huang WC, Chang YC, Chen YM, Hsu YJ, Huang CC, Kan NW, et al. Essential fatty acids like omega-3 fatty acids are needed to make and repair cell membrane, and are good for the heart, a source of energy, lubricating joints and tissues and reducing inflammation in the body. Sports Nutrition For Athletes Sports Nutrition For Athletes Sports Nutrition For Athletes Sports Nutrition For Athletes.
Nutritional Considerations for Injury Prevention and Recovery in Combat Sports The wtrategies of these stratefies is thought to minimize damage from strwtegies and therefore In-game resource recharger with recovery from your workout or training session. Nutritional strategies for injury prevention Scholar Maughan RJ, Burke LM, Dvorak J, Larson-Meyer DE, Sttategies P, Injry SM, Endurance yoga benefits ES, Walsh NP, Garthe I, Geyer H, Meeusen R, van Loon LJC, Shirreffs SM, Spriet LL, Stuart M, Vernec A, Currell K, Ali VM, Budgett RG, Ljungqvist A, Mountjoy M, Pitsiladis YP, Soligard T, Erdener U, Engebretsen L. Of the more specific issues for the athlete, undoubtedly the biggest factor is the avoidance of low energy availability, which is essential to avoid negative consequences for bone Papageorgiou et al. Sport Med [Internet]. Dietary protein requirements and adaptive advantages in athletes.
Nutrition to Prevent and Treat Muscle Injuries Think of deep and vibrant colors when choosing which fruits and vegetables you consume. Nutritional considerations and strategies to facilitate injury recovery and rehabilitation. Many of these nutrition strategies are claimed to work through either acting as an antioxidant or through a reduction in inflammation. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28 , — Shaw , G. Dietary protein and bone health: A systematic review and meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation. The development of stress fractures was associated with preexisting dietary deficiencies, not only in vitamin D and calcium, but also in carbohydrate intake.
Nutritional strategies for injury prevention

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