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Oral cancer

Oral cancer

Globally, it newly occurred in Oral cancercancet and resulted canerdeaths in People canver Oral cancer stem Oral cancer transplantation HSCT are at a higher risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Read more to learn whether your bleeding tongue is worthy of a doctor's visit. This makes timely diagnosis and treatment all the more important. Skip to main content.


7 Ways to Prevent Oral Cancer Hello, I'm Dr. Katharine Price, Oral cancer cancr at Mayo Clinic. In Ogal video, we'll cover Cancerr basics of oral cancer: What is it? Who gets it? The symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Whether you're looking for answers for yourself or someone you love, we're here to give you the best information available.

Oral cancer -

Treatment for early stages usually involves surgery to remove the tumor and cancerous lymph nodes. In addition, other tissue around the mouth and neck may be taken out.

Radiation therapy is another option. This involves a doctor aiming radiation beams at the tumor once or twice a day, five days a week, for two to eight weeks. Treatment for advanced stages will usually involve a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Chemotherapy is a treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells. The medicine is given to you either orally or through an intravenous IV line.

Most people get chemotherapy on an outpatient basis, although some require hospitalization. Targeted therapy is another form of treatment. It can be effective in both early and advanced stages of cancer.

Targeted therapy drugs will bind to specific proteins on cancer cells and interfere with their growth.

Nutrition is also an important part of your oral cancer treatment. Many treatments make it difficult or painful to eat and swallow, and poor appetite and weight loss are common. Make sure you discuss your diet with your doctor.

Getting the advice of a nutritionist can help you plan a food menu that will be gentle on your mouth and throat, and will provide your body with the calories, vitamins, and minerals it needs to heal.

Finally, keeping your mouth healthy during cancer treatments is a crucial part of treatment. Make sure to keep your mouth moist and your teeth and gums clean.

The recovery from each type of treatment will vary. Postsurgery symptoms can include pain and swelling, but removing small tumors usually has no associated long-term problems.

The removal of larger tumors could possibly affect your ability to chew, swallow, or talk as well as you did before the surgery. You might also need reconstructive surgery to rebuild the bones and tissues in your face removed during surgery. Radiation therapy can have a negative effect on the body.

Some of the side effects of radiation include:. Chemotherapy drugs can be toxic to rapidly growing noncancerous cells. This can cause side effects such as:. Recovering from targeted therapies is usually minimal. The side effects of this treatment can include:.

Your doctor will discuss the side effects and help you weigh the pros and cons of your treatment options. People who are diagnosed with advanced oral cancer will likely need reconstructive surgery and some rehabilitation to assist with eating and speaking during recovery.

Reconstruction can involve dental implants or grafts to repair the missing bones and tissues in the mouth or face. Artificial palates are used to replace any missing tissue or teeth.

Rehabilitation is also necessary for cases of advanced cancer. Speech therapy can be provided from the time you get out of surgery until you reach the maximum level of improvement. The outlook for oral cancers depends on the specific type and stage of cancer at diagnosis.

It also depends on your general health, your age, and your tolerance and response to treatment. Early diagnosis is critical because treating stage 1 and stage 2 cancers may be less involved and have a higher chance of successful treatment.

Your checkups will usually consist of physical exams, blood tests, X-rays, and CT scans. Make sure to follow up with your dentist or oncologist if you notice anything out of the ordinary. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

Early detection and treatment for oral cancer is extremely important. Doing an oral self-exam once a month can save your life. Learn how. Learn about the types of oral cancer, where they tend to occur in the mouth, and which types affect which sites. Oral cancer in kids is extremely rare.

Talk with a pediatrician or dentist if a child has a sore or other change inside the mouth lasting more than 3…. We review what you need to know about immunotherapy for oral cancer including procedure, benefits, and risks.

Dietary and lifestyle changes, as well as the HPV vaccine, can help reduce your risk of oral mouth cancer.

Learn how doctors stage oral cancer and what you can expect for symptoms, treatment, and outlook. Learn how quickly oral cancer can spread, where it might spread, and what it might mean for your outlook.

Radiation therapy is commonly a part of treatment plans for tongue cancer. We'll cover deferent types, side effects, costs, and more:. Can a blood test help doctors diagnose oral cancer? Can home test kits do the same? Learn more. But oral sex may expose you to infections that can increase your risk of developing cancer down the….

A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. It can be seen when your mouth is wide open. It includes the base of the tongue the back third of the tongue , the soft palate the back part of the roof of the mouth , the tonsils, and the side and back walls of the throat.

The oral cavity and oropharynx help you breathe, talk, eat, chew, and swallow. Minor salivary glands all over the oral cavity and oropharynx make saliva spit that keeps your mouth and throat moist and helps you digest food. Ask your doctor to explain or show you where your cancer is.

Explore the 3D interactive model here to learn more. The different parts of the oral cavity and oropharynx are made up of many types of cells. Different cancers can start in each type of cell.

Almost all of the cancers in the oral cavity and oropharynx are squamous cell carcinomas, also called squamous cell cancers.

These cancers start in squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the lining of the mouth and throat. The earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called carcinoma in situ. This means that the cancer cells are only in the layer of cells called the epithelium the top layer of cells lining the oral cavity and oropharynx.

This is different from invasive squamous cell cancer, where the cancer cells have grown past the epithelium, into the deeper layers of the oral cavity or oropharynx. HPV-related cancers: Infection with certain high-risk types of the human papillomavirus HPV causes most of the squamous cell cancers of the oropharynx called HPV - positive cancer.

HPV is rarely associated with oral cavity cancer. HPV-positive cancers are seen more often in young people with no history of tobacco or alcohol use. These cancers tend to have a better outcome prognosis than squamous cell cancers not related to an HPV infection HPV - negative cancer. This is most likely because HPV-positive cancers shrink when treated with chemotherapy and radiation.

See Risk Factors for Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers. Verrucous carcinoma is a rare type of squamous cell cancer that is most often found in the gums and cheeks.

It's a low-grade slow growing cancer that hardly ever spreads to other parts of the body. Minor salivary gland cancers: These cancers can start in the glands in the lining of the mouth and throat.

There are many types of minor salivary gland cancers, including adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma. To learn more about these cancers, as well as benign salivary gland tumors, see Salivary Gland Cancer.

Lymphomas : The tonsils and base of the tongue contain immune system lymphoid tissue, where cancers called lymphomas can start. For more information about these cancers, see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children.

Leukoplakia and erythroplakia are terms used to describe certain types of tissue changes that can be seen in the mouth or throat:. Your dentist or dental hygienist may be the first person to find these white or red patches.

They might be cancer, they might be a pre-cancer condition called dysplasia , or they could be a harmless change. The most common causes of leukoplakia and erythroplakia are smoking and chewing tobacco.

Poorly fitting dentures that rub against the tongue or the inside of the cheeks can also cause these changes. But sometimes, there's no clear cause. Most cases of leukoplakia do not turn into cancer. But some leukoplakias are either cancer when first found or have pre-cancer changes that can turn into cancer if not properly treated.

Erythroplakia and erythroleukoplakia are less common, but are usually more serious. More of these red lesions compared to white lesions or leukoplakia turn out to be cancer when they are biopsied or will develop into cancer later.

Dysplasia is a term that might be used to describe leukoplakia or erythroplakia. Dysplasia can be called mild, moderate, or severe, based on how abnormal the cells look in the lab. Knowing the degree of dysplasia helps predict how likely a lesion is to turn into cancer or go away on its own.

For example, severe dysplasia is more likely than mild dysplasia to become cancer. Dysplasia may sometimes go away if the cause such as poorly fitting dentures is removed.

A biopsy is the only way to know for certain if an area of leukoplakia or erythroplakia has dysplastic pre-cancer cells or cancer cells. See Tests for Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers. But other tests might be used first to help determine if a biopsy is needed or to choose the best area to sample for a biopsy.

These tests are described in Can Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers Be Found Early? Still, it's important to note that most oral cancers do not develop from pre-existing lesions either leukoplakia or erythroplakia.

Many types of benign tumors and tumor-like changes can start in the mouth or throat, such as these:. These non-cancer tumors start from different kinds of cells and have many causes.

Some of them may cause problems, but they're not likely to be life-threatening. The usual treatment for these types of tumors is surgery to remove them completely since they are unlikely to recur come back. The American Cancer Society medical and editorial content team.

Our team is made up of doctors and oncology certified nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing. American Joint Committee on Cancer. Lip and Oral Cavity.

In: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. New York, NY: Springer; Oropharynx p and Hypopharynx. Leeman JE, Katabi N, Wong RJ, Lee NY, Romesser PB. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds.

Philadelphia, Pa. Elsevier; Maymone MBC, Greer RO, Burdine LK, Dao-Cheng A, Venkatesh S, Sahitya PC, Maymone AC, Kesecker J, Vashi NA. Benign oral mucosal lesions: Clinical and pathological findings.

J Am Acad Dermatol. doi: Epub Nov PMID: Mendenhall WM, Dziegielewski PT, Pfister DG. Chapter Cancer of the Head and Neck. In: DeVita VT, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA, eds. National Cancer Institute.

Physician Data Query PDQ. Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment. September 05, Tian S, Switchenko JM, Jhaveri J, et al. Survival outcomes by high-risk human papillomavirus status in nonoropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: A propensity-scored analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.

Woo SB. Oral epithelial dysplasia and premalignancy. Head Neck Pathol.

Official websites use. gov A. gov cancr belongs Oral cancer an Oral cancer government Psychological training adaptations in the United States. gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and the back of the throat. Oral cancer

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