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Gestational diabetes during pregnancy

Gestational diabetes during pregnancy

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If you have gestational diabetes, your provider tells Optimizing performance through nutrition how often to check your blood sugar, what Immune system boosters levels should be prwgnancy how to manage them during pregnancy.

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You also may need to take insulin shots or other medicines. Treatment for gestational diabetes can help reduce your risk for pregnancy complications. Your provider begins treatment with monitoring your blood sugar levels, healthy eating, and physical activity.

Insulin is the most common medicine for gestational diabetes. If you have gestational diabetes, how can you help prevent getting diabetes later in life?

For most people, gestational diabetes goes away after giving birth. But having it makes you more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Type 2 diabetes is the most common kind of diabetes. Skip to main content. Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on YouTube Share on Linkedin More Places to Share.

Gestational diabetes. Video file. Key Points Pregnant people who have gestational diabetes can and do have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. Most pregnant people get a test for gestational diabetes at 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy.

If untreated, gestational diabetes can cause problems for your baby, such as premature birth and stillbirth. Talk to your health care provider about what you can do to reduce your risk for gestational diabetes and help prevent diabetes in the future.

What is gestational diabetes? Who is at risk for gestational diabetes? Are overweight or obese and not physically active. Have had gestational diabetes or a baby with macrosomia in a past pregnancy. Have polycystic ovarian syndrome also called polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS.

This is a hormone problem that can affect reproductive and overall health. Have prediabetes. This means your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes.

Have a parent, brother or sister who has diabetes. This control means that people in the dominant group are more likely to: Have better education and job opportunities Live in safer environmental conditions Be shown in a positive light by media, such as television shows, movies, and news programs.

Can gestational diabetes increase your risk for problems during pregnancy? If not treated, gestational diabetes can increase your risk for pregnancy complications and procedures, including: Macrosomia.

This means your baby weighs more than 8 pounds, 13 ounces 4, grams at birth. Babies who weigh this much are more likely to be hurt during labor and birth, and can cause damage to his or her mother during delivery. Shoulder dystocia or other birth injuries also called birth trauma. Complications for birthing parents caused by shoulder dystocia include postpartum hemorrhage heavy bleeding.

For babies, the most common injuries are fractures to the collarbone and arm and damage to the brachial plexus nerves. These nerves go from the spinal cord in the neck down the arm.

They provide feeling and movement in the shoulder, arm and hand. High blood pressure and preeclampsia. High blood pressure also called hypertension is when the force of blood against the walls of the blood vessels is too high.

It can stress your heart and cause problems during pregnancy. Preeclampsia is when a pregnant person has high blood pressure and signs that some of their organs, such as the kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Perinatal depression. This is depression that happens during pregnancy or in the first year after having a baby also called postpartum depression.

Depression is a medical condition that causes feelings of sadness and a loss of interest in things you like to do. It can affect how you think, feel, and act and can interfere with your daily life.

Preterm birth. This is birth before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Most women who have gestational diabetes have a full-term pregnancy that lasts between 39 and 40 weeks. However, if there are complications, your health care provider may need to induce labor before your due date.

This means your provider will give you medicine or break your water amniotic sac to make your labor begin. This is the death of a baby after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Cesarean birth also called c-section. This is surgery in which your baby is born through a cut that your doctor makes in your belly and uterus.

You may need to have a c-section if you have complications during pregnancy, or if your baby is very large also known as macrosomia. Most people who have gestational diabetes can have a vaginal birth. Gestational diabetes also can cause health complications for your baby after birth, including: Breathing problems, including respiratory distress syndrome.

Surfactant is a protein that keeps the small air sacs in the lungs from collapsing. Low blood sugar also called hypoglycemia Obesity later in life Diabetes later in life How do you know if you have gestational diabetes? How is gestational diabetes treated? Here are two ways to do kick counts: Every day, time how long it takes for your baby to move 10 times.

If it takes longer than 2 hours, tell your provider. See how many movements you feel in 1 hour. Do this 3 times each week. If the number changes, tell your provider. Your provider shows you how to check your blood sugar on your own. Keep a log that includes your blood sugar level every time you check it.

Share it with your provider at each checkup. Eat healthy foods. Talk to your provider about the right kinds of foods to eat to help control your blood sugar.

Do something active every day. Try to get 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity at least 5 days each week.

Talk to your provider about activities that are safe during pregnancy, like walking.

: Gestational diabetes during pregnancy

What Causes Gestational Diabetes?

With your health care provider's OK, aim for 30 minutes of moderate exercise on most days of the week. If you haven't been active for a while, start slowly and build up gradually. Walking, cycling and swimming are good choices during pregnancy.

Everyday activities such as housework and gardening also count. While you're pregnant, your health care team may ask you to check your blood sugar four or more times a day — first thing in the morning and after meals — to make sure your level stays within a healthy range.

If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar levels, you may need insulin injections to lower your blood sugar. A small number of women with gestational diabetes need insulin to reach their blood sugar goals.

Some health care providers prescribe an oral medication to manage blood sugar levels. Other health care providers believe more research is needed to confirm that oral medications are as safe and as effective as injectable insulin to manage gestational diabetes.

An important part of your treatment plan is close observation of your baby. Your health care provider may check your baby's growth and development with repeated ultrasounds or other tests. If you don't go into labor by your due date — or sometimes earlier — your health care provider may induce labor.

Delivering after your due date may increase the risk of complications for you and your baby. Your health care provider will check your blood sugar level after delivery and again in 6 to 12 weeks to make sure that your level has returned to within the standard range.

If your tests are back in this range — and most are — you'll need to have your diabetes risk assessed at least every three years. If future tests indicate type 2 diabetes or prediabetes, talk with your health care provider about increasing your prevention efforts or starting a diabetes management plan.

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition. It's stressful to know you have a condition that can affect your unborn baby's health. But the steps that will help control your blood sugar level — such as eating healthy foods and exercising regularly — can help relieve stress, nourish your baby and help prevent type 2 diabetes in the future.

You may feel better if you learn as much as you can about gestational diabetes. Talk to your health care team, or read books and articles about gestational diabetes. You may find a support group for people with gestational diabetes helpful. Ask your health care team for suggestions.

You'll likely find out you have gestational diabetes from routine screening during your pregnancy. Your health care provider may refer you to additional health professionals who specialize in diabetes, such as an endocrinologist, a certified diabetes care and education specialist, or a registered dietitian.

One or more of these care providers can help you learn to manage your blood sugar level during your pregnancy. You may want to take a family member or friend along to your appointment, if possible.

Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your health care provider.

Your health care provider is also likely to have questions for you, especially if it's your first visit. Questions may include:. On this page. Coping and support. Preparing for your appointment. Routine screening for gestational diabetes Screening tests may vary slightly depending on your health care provider, but generally include: Initial glucose challenge test.

Follow-up glucose tolerance testing. This test is similar to the initial test — except the sweet solution will have even more sugar and your blood sugar will be checked every hour for three hours. If at least two of the blood sugar readings are higher than expected, you'll be diagnosed with gestational diabetes.

More Information. Glucose challenge test. Glucose tolerance test. Treatment for gestational diabetes includes: Lifestyle changes Blood sugar monitoring Medication, if necessary Managing your blood sugar levels helps keep you and your baby healthy.

Lifestyle changes Your lifestyle — how you eat and move — is an important part of keeping your blood sugar levels in a healthy range. Lifestyle changes include: Healthy diet. A healthy diet focuses on fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean protein — foods that are high in nutrition and fiber and low in fat and calories — and limits highly refined carbohydrates, including sweets.

A registered dietitian or a certified diabetes care and education specialist can help you create a meal plan based on your current weight, pregnancy weight gain goals, blood sugar level, exercise habits, food preferences and budget. Staying active. Regular physical activity plays a key role in every wellness plan before, during and after pregnancy.

Exercise lowers your blood sugar. As an added bonus, regular exercise can help relieve some common discomforts of pregnancy, including back pain, muscle cramps, swelling, constipation and trouble sleeping.

Blood sugar monitoring While you're pregnant, your health care team may ask you to check your blood sugar four or more times a day — first thing in the morning and after meals — to make sure your level stays within a healthy range. Medication If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar levels, you may need insulin injections to lower your blood sugar.

Close monitoring of your baby An important part of your treatment plan is close observation of your baby. Follow-up after delivery Your health care provider will check your blood sugar level after delivery and again in 6 to 12 weeks to make sure that your level has returned to within the standard range.

Request an appointment. Labor induction. Clinical trials. What you can do Before your appointment: Be aware of pre-appointment restrictions. When you make your appointment, ask if you need to fast for lab tests or do anything else to prepare for diagnostic tests.

Make a list of symptoms you're having, including those that may seem unrelated to gestational diabetes. You may not have noticeable symptoms, but it's good to keep a log of anything unusual you notice. Make a list of key personal information, including major stresses or recent life changes.

Make a list of all medications, including over-the-counter drugs and vitamins or supplements you're taking. Make a list of questions to help make the most of your time with your health care provider. Some basic questions to ask your health care provider include: What can I do to help control my condition?

Can you recommend a registered dietitian or certified diabetes care and education specialist who can help me plan meals, an exercise program and coping strategies? Will I need medication to control my blood sugar? What symptoms should prompt me to seek medical attention? Are there brochures or other printed materials I can take?

What websites do you recommend? What to expect from your doctor Your health care provider is also likely to have questions for you, especially if it's your first visit.

Questions may include: Have you experienced increased thirst or excessive urination? If so, when did these symptoms start? How often do you have them? Have you noticed other unusual symptoms? Do you have a parent or sibling who's ever been diagnosed with diabetes?

Have you been pregnant before? Always remember that this is treatable—and working with your health care team can help ensure a healthy pregnancy.

As with all forms of diabetes, diet and exercise can help you gain the upper hand. With gestational diabetes, maintaining a balanced diet is integral to your success. Your doctor can help you develop a meal plan that makes sense for you, helping you identify the best foods and quick meal ideas that can help you stay healthy and strong.

Exercise is critical as well. Use our resources as well to stay in touch with ideas for daily activity. The important thing to remember is to take action as quickly as you can, to stay with it, and to stay on top of your condition. Women with a history of gestational diabetes have an increased risk for recurrent diabetes in subsequent pregnancies and a fold risk of developing type 2 diabetes as they age compared to women without gestational diabetes.

Learn More. Breadcrumb Home About Diabetes Gestational Diabetes. Gestational Diabetes. Up to 10 percent of pregnancies in the U. are affected by gestational diabetes every year. How You Can Treat It The key is to act quickly. Diabetes in Pregnancy Professional Resources Women with a history of gestational diabetes have an increased risk for recurrent diabetes in subsequent pregnancies and a fold risk of developing type 2 diabetes as they age compared to women without gestational diabetes.

Gestational diabetes - NHS

Genes and extra weight may also play a role. Your doctor will test you for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy.

Tests include the glucose challenge test and the oral glucose tolerance test OGTT. If the results of the glucose challenge test show high blood glucose, you will return for an OGTT test to confirm the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Managing gestational diabetes includes following a healthy eating plan and being physically active.

You can lower your chance of getting gestational diabetes by losing extra weight before you get pregnant if you are overweight. Being physically active before and during pregnancy also may help prevent gestational diabetes. If you had gestational diabetes, you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

Your child is more likely to have obesity or develop type 2 diabetes. The NIDDK and other components of the National Institutes of Health NIH support and conduct research into many diseases and conditions. View clinical trials that are currently recruiting volunteers.

This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIDDK , part of the National Institutes of Health. NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public.

Content produced by NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts. Controlling blood sugar can keep you and your baby healthy and prevent a difficult delivery.

If you have gestational diabetes during pregnancy, generally your blood sugar returns to its usual level soon after delivery. But if you've had gestational diabetes, you have a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. You'll need to be tested for changes in blood sugar more often. Most of the time, gestational diabetes doesn't cause noticeable signs or symptoms.

Increased thirst and more-frequent urination are possible symptoms. If possible, seek health care early — when you first think about trying to get pregnant — so your health care provider can check your risk of gestational diabetes along with your overall wellness.

Once you're pregnant, your health care provider will check you for gestational diabetes as part of your prenatal care. If you develop gestational diabetes, you may need checkups more often.

These are most likely to occur during the last three months of pregnancy, when your health care provider will monitor your blood sugar level and your baby's health.

Researchers don't yet know why some women get gestational diabetes and others don't. Excess weight before pregnancy often plays a role.

Usually, various hormones work to keep blood sugar levels in check. But during pregnancy, hormone levels change, making it harder for the body to process blood sugar efficiently.

This makes blood sugar rise. Gestational diabetes that's not carefully managed can lead to high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar can cause problems for you and your baby, including an increased likelihood of needing a surgery to deliver C-section.

There are no guarantees when it comes to preventing gestational diabetes — but the more healthy habits you can adopt before pregnancy, the better. If you've had gestational diabetes, these healthy choices may also reduce your risk of having it again in future pregnancies or developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

On this page. When to see a doctor. Risk factors. A Book: Mayo Clinic Guide to a Healthy Pregnancy. Request an appointment. From Mayo Clinic to your inbox. Sign up for free and stay up to date on research advancements, health tips, current health topics, and expertise on managing health.

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You may opt-out of email communications at any time by clicking on the unsubscribe link in the e-mail. Risk factors for gestational diabetes include: Being overweight or obese Not being physically active Having prediabetes Having had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy Having polycystic ovary syndrome Having an immediate family member with diabetes Having previously delivered a baby weighing more than 9 pounds 4.

Complications that may affect your baby If you have gestational diabetes, your baby may be at increased risk of: Excessive birth weight.

If your blood sugar level is higher than the standard range, it can cause your baby to grow too large. Very large babies — those who weigh 9 pounds or more — are more likely to become wedged in the birth canal, have birth injuries or need a C-section birth. Early preterm birth. High blood sugar may increase the risk of early labor and delivery before the due date.

Or early delivery may be recommended because the baby is large. Serious breathing difficulties. Babies born early may experience respiratory distress syndrome — a condition that makes breathing difficult.

Low blood sugar hypoglycemia. Sometimes babies have low blood sugar hypoglycemia shortly after birth. Severe episodes of hypoglycemia may cause seizures in the baby. Prompt feedings and sometimes an intravenous glucose solution can return the baby's blood sugar level to normal. Obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.

Babies have a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life. Untreated gestational diabetes can result in a baby's death either before or shortly after birth.

Complications that may affect you Gestational diabetes may also increase your risk of: High blood pressure and preeclampsia. Gestational diabetes raises your risk of high blood pressure, as well as preeclampsia — a serious complication of pregnancy that causes high blood pressure and other symptoms that can threaten both your life and your baby's life.

Having a surgical delivery C-section. You're more likely to have a C-section if you have gestational diabetes. Future diabetes. If you have gestational diabetes, you're more likely to get it again during a future pregnancy. You also have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes as you get older.

Eat healthy foods. Choose foods high in fiber and low in fat and calories. Focus on fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Strive for variety to help you achieve your goals without compromising taste or nutrition. Watch portion sizes. Keep active. Exercising before and during pregnancy can help protect you from developing gestational diabetes.

Aim for 30 minutes of moderate activity on most days of the week. Take a brisk daily walk. Ride your bike. Swim laps. Short bursts of activity — such as parking further away from the store when you run errands or taking a short walk break — all add up.

Start pregnancy at a healthy weight. If you're planning to get pregnant, losing extra weight beforehand may help you have a healthier pregnancy. Focus on making lasting changes to your eating habits that can help you through pregnancy, such as eating more vegetables and fruits.

Don't gain more weight than recommended. Gaining some weight during pregnancy is typical and healthy.

Find support Gestational diabetes mellitus: Screening, diagnosis, and prevention. Gestational diabetes — Diagnosis, classification, and clinical care. If managing your diet and exercising don't control your blood sugar, you may be prescribed diabetes medicine or insulin therapy. Risk of developing type 2 diabetes — Individuals with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life, especially if they have other risk factors eg, family history of type 2 diabetes. Get the Mayo Clinic app. Healthy food choices and exercise can also help prevent Type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes and a healthy baby? Yes.

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that occurs only during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can cause health problems in both mother and baby.

Managing your diabetes can help protect you and your baby. Gestational diabetes often has no symptoms, or they may be mild, such as being thirstier than normal or having to urinate more often. Gestational diabetes is sometimes related to the hormonal changes of pregnancy that make your body less able to use insulin.

Genes and extra weight may also play a role. Your doctor will test you for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. Tests include the glucose challenge test and the oral glucose tolerance test OGTT. If the results of the glucose challenge test show high blood glucose, you will return for an OGTT test to confirm the diagnosis of gestational diabetes.

Managing gestational diabetes includes following a healthy eating plan and being physically active. You can lower your chance of getting gestational diabetes by losing extra weight before you get pregnant if you are overweight. Being physically active before and during pregnancy also may help prevent gestational diabetes.

If you had gestational diabetes, you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Your child is more likely to have obesity or develop type 2 diabetes.

If you have gestational diabetes, the chances of having problems with your pregnancy can be reduced by controlling your blood sugar levels. You'll be given a blood sugar testing kit so you can monitor the effects of treatment.

Blood sugar levels may be reduced by changing your diet and being more active if you can. Gentle activities such as walking, swimming and prenatal yoga can help reduce blood sugar.

However, if these changes don't lower your blood sugar levels enough, you will need to take medicine as well. This may be tablets or insulin injections. You'll also be more closely monitored during your pregnancy and birth to check for any potential problems.

If you have gestational diabetes, it's best to give birth before 41 weeks. Induction of labour or a caesarean section may be recommended if labour does not start naturally by this time. Earlier delivery may be recommended if there are concerns about your or your baby's health or if your blood sugar levels have not been well controlled.

Find out more about how gestational diabetes is treated. Gestational diabetes normally goes away after birth. But women who've had it are more likely to develop:.

You should have a blood test to check for diabetes 6 to 13 weeks after giving birth, and once every year after that if the result is normal. See your GP if you develop symptoms of high blood sugar, such as increased thirst, needing to pee more often than usual, and a dry mouth — do not wait until your next test.

You should have the tests even if you feel well, as many people with diabetes do not have any symptoms. You'll also be advised about things you can do to reduce your risk of getting diabetes, such as maintaining a healthy weight, eating a balanced diet and exercising regularly.

Some research has suggested that babies of mothers who had gestational diabetes may be more likely to develop diabetes or become obese later in life.

If you've had gestational diabetes before and you're planning to get pregnant, make sure you get checked for diabetes. Your GP can arrange this. If you do have diabetes, you should be referred to a diabetes pre-conception clinic for support to ensure your condition is well controlled before you get pregnant.

Read more about diabetes in pregnancy. If you have an unplanned pregnancy, talk to your GP and tell them you had gestational diabetes in your previous pregnancy. If tests show you do not have diabetes, you'll be offered screening earlier in pregnancy soon after your first midwife appointment and another test at 24 to 28 weeks if the first test is normal.

Alternatively, your midwife or doctor may suggest you test your blood sugar levels yourself using a finger-pricking device in the same way as you did during your previous gestational diabetes.

Page last reviewed: 08 December Next review due: 08 December Home Health A to Z Back to Health A to Z. Overview - Gestational diabetes Contents Overview Treatment.

Who's at risk of gestational diabetes Any woman can develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy, but you're at an increased risk if: you are over 40 your body mass index BMI is above 30 — use the BMI healthy weight calculator to work out your BMI you previously had a baby who weighed 4.

Symptoms of gestational diabetes Gestational diabetes does not usually cause any symptoms. Some women may develop symptoms if their blood sugar levels gets too high hyperglycaemia , such as: increased thirst needing to pee more often than usual a dry mouth tiredness blurred eyesight genital itching or thrush But some of these symptoms are common during pregnancy and are not necessarily a sign of gestational diabetes.

Symptoms and Risk Factors Media last Gestatinoal 1 March Media duabetes due: 1 March Financial Assistance Documents Gestational diabetes during pregnancy Arizona. Product Ginseng root extract Subscription Options Subscribe Sign in. This information does not endorse any treatments or medications as safe, effective, or approved for treating a specific patient. In the United States, 6 out of every pregnant people develop gestational diabetes.

Gestational diabetes during pregnancy -

The NIDDK and other components of the National Institutes of Health NIH support and conduct research into many diseases and conditions. View clinical trials that are currently recruiting volunteers. This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIDDK , part of the National Institutes of Health.

NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

Home Health Information Diabetes Diabetes Overview What Is Diabetes? Gestational Diabetes. English English Español. What Is Diabetes? Prevention You can lower your chance of getting gestational diabetes by losing extra weight before you get pregnant if you are overweight.

After Your Baby is Born If you had gestational diabetes, you are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes. Clinical Trials The NIDDK and other components of the National Institutes of Health NIH support and conduct research into many diseases and conditions.

Additional Languages This content is also available in: Spanish. Related Research See more about diabetes research at NIDDK. Minus Related Pages. Follow a healthy eating plan to nourish you and your baby. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes During Pregnancy Diabetes and Women Insulin Resistance Diabetes Articles Infographics. Last Reviewed: December 30, Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. home Diabetes Home. To receive updates about diabetes topics, enter your email address: Email Address.

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Gfstational you're at average Gesyational of gestational Gdstational, you'll likely have a screening Pre-sport meal planning during your second trimester Gestational diabetes during pregnancy between 24 and 28 Geshational of pregnancy. Pregnancj you're at high risk of diabetes — for example, durinf Gestational diabetes during pregnancy overweight or obese Cheesy cauliflower gratin pregnancy; you have a mother, father, sibling or child with diabetes; or you had gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy — your health care provider may test for diabetes early in pregnancy, likely at your first prenatal visit. Initial glucose challenge test. You'll drink a syrupy glucose solution. One hour later, you'll have a blood test to measure your blood sugar level. If your blood sugar level is higher than expected, you'll need another glucose tolerance test to determine if you have gestational diabetes. Managing your blood sugar levels helps keep you and your baby healthy. Please read the Disclaimer at the end of this page. Pregnaancy diabetes is a type durring diabetes that can dyring during pregnancy in Gestational diabetes during pregnancy who Gestational diabetes during pregnancy already have diabetes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC estimates that gestational diabetes affects between 2 and 10 percent of pregnancies in the United States. It usually goes away after delivery. Insulin is a hormone that enables glucose sugar in the bloodstream to enter the cells of the body. Sugar is the source of energy for cells.

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