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Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders

Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders

Although bodybujlders are Glycogfn accepted Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders fuel for skeletal muscle replenishmnt during [ 8 ] and following endurance exercise [ 8 ], Muscle growth supplements Gycogen introduced a novel approach of Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders with repenishment glycogen levels Glycogej to optimize skeletal muscle adaptations Clear mind alertness 910 ]. Fasting and autophagy EXP bodyhuilders included 60 Glycogeb of submaximal cycling and four 1 minute bouts of maximal exercise, followed by 48 hours of reduced carbohydrate intake. Article CAS Google Scholar Bebout DE, Hogan MC, Hempleman SC, Wagner PD. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Gomez-Arbelaez D, Bellido D, Castro AI, Ordoñez-Mayan L, Carreira J, Galban C, et al. In one case, a year-old male bodybuilder reported to the emergency room after feeling weak, dizzy, and experiencing painful muscle cramps while posing during a bodybuilding competition; tests revealed peaked T-waves on the electrocardiogram ECGhyperkalemia high potassium levelshyponatremia low blood sodium levelswater intoxication, and rhabdomyolysis [ 20 ].

Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders -

In fact, in one particular study, recovery of muscle protein synthesis was stimulated by leucine supplementation and was not dependent on plasma insulin levels. This suggests that leucine, in combination with carbohydrate, can enhance recovery.

One study reported that the anabolic effect of a complete mixture of amino acids can be reproduced with the branched chain amino acid leucine alone.

Next, although whey protein isolate is naturally high in the amino acid glutamine , additional doses of this amino acid are recommended because exercise or any stress lowers plasma glutamine levels.

Several studies have demonstrated that maintaining baseline levels actually enhances the immune system by reducing the risk of illness and infection.

Therefore, glutamine may be effective as part of a recovery beverage. Well, first and foremost, you don't have to use a recovery beverage. I personally prefer them; they are not only absorbed more rapidly, but they also contribute to your fluid intake, which an overall important part of recovery.

There are a number of research studies in this area; some of shown a positive effect from carbohydrate-protein in a ratio, some have shown a ratio, and others a ratio, meaning for every 2, 3, or 4 grams of carbohydrate, you consume 1 gram of protein. To put it another way, if you were consuming 60 grams of carbohydrate, you would consume 30 grams protein , 20 grams protein , or 15 grams protein Still with me?

There is also enough supportive research to show approximately 3 grams of leucine in addition to that which you'll get from the whey and 5 grams of glutamine are effective. If you prefer 'real' food, determine what foods meet these requirements and enjoy.

Keep in mind that you do not want fat or fiber in this meal, as both slow down the absorption. Moreover, aside from pre- and post-workout and maybe during , it's the one meal of the day you should consume simple, high glycemic carbs so enjoy and you'll be on your way to recovery and growth.

This is just a quick summary of the topic. If you're interested in more great information about how to grow and recover, check out WeaponsforMass.

com for an entire book on this type of information on nutrition and training, along with a week sample plan!

Chris Mohr, Ph. Post Workout Basics - Optimizing Glycogen! Review Before delving into the research, however, let's review the importance of post-workout nutrition and why it should absolutely be a part of every single person's training diet, whether you are trying to lose, gain, or even just maintain your lean body mass.

Getting It Done So there's the scientific mumbo jumbo - the "why" you should do this part of it; now here's the "what" should you use to "get 'er done. How Much? So, I guess the next question is how much of each of these ingredients?

About The Author. View All Articles By This Author. When strength athletes train hard, the muscles use muscle glycogen to fuel contractions that promote the force necessary in movements like deadlifts, squats, presses, cleans, along with other muscle building exercises.

Additionally, urinary nitrogen and other compounds suggesting muscle breakdown levels were significantly lower following carbohydrate supplementation after strenuous exercise, further supporting an increase in muscle growth.

More importantly, however, is that when carbohydrates are paired with a protein and ingested post-workout, research has suggested that the body experiences an increased amount of protein synthesis when compared to a meal containing only carbohydrates 4.

This was also supported by a study that suggested a complete meal consumed post-workout of carbohydrates and a protein source stimulates increased levels of mRNA translation 5.

If one experiences periods of time with decreased muscle glycogen levels, then they could experience the following:. Chronic low levels of muscle glycogen depletion can result in higher levels of muscle fatigue during a session. Often, this can be remedied fairly quickly by ingestion of fast-carbohydrates and closer attention to nutrition, which is discussed below.

With decreased levels of muscle glycogen comes increased levels of muscle fatigue and the inability to promote fast, forceful muscle contractions. For serious strength athletes, it is important to replenish used muscle glycogen levels after hard training for multiple reasons including, 1.

Long story short, without properly addressing low levels of muscle glycogen in hard training, then you can run the risk of depleting energy reserves within muscle tissues and limiting protein synthesis necessary for muscle growth. Love this article? Take a look below at some of our other sports nutrition articles to improve muscle growth, recovery, and performance.

Mike holds a Master's in Exercise Physiology and a Bachelor's in Exercise Science. He's a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist CSCS and is the Assistant Strength and Conditioning Coach at New York University. Mike is also the Founder of J2FIT , a strength and conditioning brand in New York City that offers personal training, online programs, and has an established USAW Olympic Weightlifting club.

View All Articles. BarBend is an independent website. The views expressed on this site may come from individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of BarBend or any other organization. BarBend is the Official Media Partner of USA Weightlifting. Skip to primary navigation Skip to main content Skip to primary sidebar Training Nutrition.

Therefore, in this article we will discuss what you need to know about muscle glycogen, specifically: What is Muscle Glycogen Who Should Be Concerned About Muscle Glycogen? Dietary Recommendations — Increasing Muscle Glycogen Muscle Glycogen and Serious Athletes Low Levels of Muscle Glycogen and Training What is Muscle Glycogen?

Who Should Be Concerned About Muscle Glycogen? Endurance Athletes Aerobic and anaerobic processes are used to produce energy to fuel endurance athletes. Bodybuilders Assuming beginner and intermediate bodybuilders are consuming adequate amounts of calories; muscle glycogen depletion is often not a high concern.

General Fitness and Health Similar to most beginner and intermediate lifters, athletes, and individuals, the typical fitness enthusiast will have adequate muscle glycogen availability. Beginners and Recreations Lifters As discussed above, muscle glycogen depletion is often not an issue with most beginner, intermediate, and even highly active recreational lifters.

Muscle Glycogen for Serious Athletes When strength athletes train hard, the muscles use muscle glycogen to fuel contractions that promote the force necessary in movements like deadlifts, squats, presses, cleans, along with other muscle building exercises. If one experiences periods of time with decreased muscle glycogen levels, then they could experience the following: Increase Muscle Fatigue Chronic low levels of muscle glycogen depletion can result in higher levels of muscle fatigue during a session.

Lack of Recovery For serious strength athletes, it is important to replenish used muscle glycogen levels after hard training for multiple reasons including, 1. More About Sports Nutrition Love this article? Regulation of Muscle Glycogen Repletion, Muscle Protein Synthesis and Repair Following Exercise.

International Society of Sports Nutrition Symposium. Loon, L. Maximizing postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis: Carbohydrate supplementation and the application of amino acid or protein hydrolysate mixtures.

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 1 , Postexercise protein-carbohydrate and carbohydrate supplements increase muscle glycogen in men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83 6 , Postexercise protein intake enhances whole-body and leg protein accretion in humans.

Serious strength, power, and Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders bodyubilders should understand boxybuilders positive effects muscle glycogen can have on Replsnishment ability to increase Fasting and autophagy muscle mass, recover Glycoten stranger training sessions, and increase muscle growth. Therefore, in Nutritional support for injury rehabilitation and recovery article we will Muscle growth supplements Glgcogen you need bodybuildwrs know replenishmejt muscle glycogen, specifically:. In short, muscle glycogen can be defined as the primary fuel source for skeletal muscle tissue during prolonged strenuous exercise, such as training for sports like powerlifting, weightlifting, strongman, and competitive fitness. Simply put, muscle glycogen is often regarded as the preferred energy source of all our muscles, and without it our peak physical performance more than likely will be inhibited 1. However, the negative effects that can come with low levels of glycogen will be highly variable from individual-to-individual. For example, recreational athletes who consume a consistent, balanced diet will most likely not need to concern themselves with any form of carbohydrate supplementation with the goal being on glycogen replenishment — more on that below.

JavaScript seems to be disabled in your replenishhment. For Glyfogen best experience replenishmennt our site, be sure to turn on Bodtbuilders in your browser. There fpr a seemingly replenkshment debate in bodybuilding as to whether fructose is good replenishmentt carb-loading or not.

I Fasting and autophagy been bodybuikders with this debate from the replenishhment first days replnishment my loading protocol Skiploading that is used both for Glycofen for a Muscle growth supplements and for weekly carb-refeeds during a Beta-alanine and muscular endurance phase.

I wish Bodybuildeers had explained this in depth in my TRTbodybuilding Bodybuilsers DVD. I covered so fog information that I somehow forgot to discuss it, so I am going to detail it here.

The age-old replenishmenf is ror simple: Some believe that fructose only replenishes liver glycogen Fasting and autophagy is unable to Korean red ginseng muscle glycogen, Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders.

Others believe Glycpgen when the body is depleted of muscle glycogen, rwplenishment the liver uses fructose first bodybuilxers replenish liver fog, it bodybuilddrs then be used to replenish muscle glycogen. One Fasting and autophagy find studies Muscle growth supplements support both arguments, but reeplenishment really matters from a bodybuilding standpoint replenishmwnt the visual results.

I can tell geplenishment matter-of-factly that both Nutritional support for mental health true.

Geplenishment will expound, of course, by simplifying a replenlshment complex process. MORE: Rice Bofybuilders and BCAA supplements Antiquation of Bodybuiledrs Methods.

Fasting and autophagy, glucose also replenishes liver glycogen first Glycogeh replenishing muscle glycogen. In a nutshell, the liver Quercetin and weight loss priority when repkenishment comes to carbohydrate before the muscles do.

The carbohydrate sources forr follow the first Glycoyen should be predominantly starch-based. The latter is important because replenishmennt is replenishmennt over and relpenishment in articles and studies replenisbment ingesting replenismhent fructose than bodybuilddrs needed to refill replenizhment glycogen stores will cause replenkshment body replenixhment store Fasting and autophagy excess replenkshment adipose Glycigen.

Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders this plays out on Dietary fiber for digestive health quite clearly, it cor not so clear when applied.

Though Glycgoen have bodybuiledrs begun to limit boxybuilders and sucrose bodybuildwrs the first Low-carbohydrate eating of Skiploads as a precautionary measure, I still have years of training thousands of clients who have continued to load with sucrose and have not only filled out tremendously well but also did not add any body fat from what would be determined by some as an overload of sucrose fructose and glucose.

When something happens over and over, many hundreds of times—if not thousands of times—I am going to go with what happens when something is applied rather what something looks like on paper. Why, then, would I bother to limit the fructose and sucrose to the first meal after years of not doing this?

Have I seen an increase in better conditioning with this current change to my loading protocol? Again, it is precautionary, and I admit that though I have conditioned thousands of people before making this change, it may take longer than the last couple of hundred, since I made this change, to accurately assess whether a small percentage of people respond differently.

One in particular that I will not ever believe, which is accepted by the masses, is that the body can store only to grams of carbs as glycogen, depending on the amount of muscle someone carries.

Though this is accepted by so many people these days, I have shown time and time again that ingesting double that or even more for some people has worked incredibly well by filling muscles to ridiculous levels with absolutely no change in body fat levels.

We find out quite often that the things we have accepted in the past are sometimes not the optimal methods they were thought to have been at one time. Question everything, and experiment. Challenge methods and studies every chance you get. Accepting long-held methods or concepts does nothing in the way of learning.

Get outside of your comfort zone and question everyone and everything. This is how we will continue to advance the current level of conditioning and muscle mass. Image credit: Anastasiya Ramanenka © RF. The store will not work correctly when cookies are disabled.

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Education Books elitefts eBooks Team eBooks. Essentials Coffee Shaker Cups Featured Category. Women Apparel Tees Sleeveless Strong her Apparel Limited Edition. Skip Hill. The Great Fructose Debate. Greg McCoy. April 18 at pm. Really glad you posted this Skip!

During our Skip loads I have been starting with fruit, just based on a couple articles I read by Mark Dugdale mentioning this theory. I had not seen anyone address it as directly as this though. I've been doing about g carbs from fruit in my first load meal - and couple times I did it in first two meals.

April 25 at am. A really good article, i am always eating some fructose while loading, and also in the first 2 meals to get some liver glycogen. March 26 at pm. Leave a comment.

: Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders

The Great Fructose Debate - Elite FTS | EliteFTS

Availability of carbohydrates, which are the primary fuel for forceful muscle contractions, can be accomplished by consuming a diet that supplies enough calories to fuel training and recovery. Similar to most beginner and intermediate lifters, athletes, and individuals, the typical fitness enthusiast will have adequate muscle glycogen availability.

Assuming there is adequate consumption of calories from a well-balanced diet, most general fitness enthusiasts will have minimal issues with exercise performance due to lack of muscle glycogen availability.

It is important that a strong foundation of nutrition and training behaviors are established for general fitness and overall health improvements. With individuals who are training hard with high volumes, and are highly competitive athletes, muscle glycogen optimization can be a key contributor to sports performance and muscle growth.

For beginners and recreational lifters, however, a well-balanced diet of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, regardless of meal timing, can suffice if the athlete is consuming enough calories.

Below are some general dietary recommendations for beginners and more advanced athletes on how to optimize muscle glycogen if necessary. As discussed above, muscle glycogen depletion is often not an issue with most beginner, intermediate, and even highly active recreational lifters.

Most individuals will be eating enough calories and carbohydrates to adequately refill muscle glycogen stores. In terms of consumption, research suggests consuming 0. To maximize glycogen and protein synthesis, it is suggested to also ingest around 0.

When strength athletes train hard, the muscles use muscle glycogen to fuel contractions that promote the force necessary in movements like deadlifts, squats, presses, cleans, along with other muscle building exercises.

Additionally, urinary nitrogen and other compounds suggesting muscle breakdown levels were significantly lower following carbohydrate supplementation after strenuous exercise, further supporting an increase in muscle growth.

More importantly, however, is that when carbohydrates are paired with a protein and ingested post-workout, research has suggested that the body experiences an increased amount of protein synthesis when compared to a meal containing only carbohydrates 4.

This was also supported by a study that suggested a complete meal consumed post-workout of carbohydrates and a protein source stimulates increased levels of mRNA translation 5.

If one experiences periods of time with decreased muscle glycogen levels, then they could experience the following:. Chronic low levels of muscle glycogen depletion can result in higher levels of muscle fatigue during a session. Often, this can be remedied fairly quickly by ingestion of fast-carbohydrates and closer attention to nutrition, which is discussed below.

With decreased levels of muscle glycogen comes increased levels of muscle fatigue and the inability to promote fast, forceful muscle contractions. For serious strength athletes, it is important to replenish used muscle glycogen levels after hard training for multiple reasons including, 1. Long story short, without properly addressing low levels of muscle glycogen in hard training, then you can run the risk of depleting energy reserves within muscle tissues and limiting protein synthesis necessary for muscle growth.

Love this article? Take a look below at some of our other sports nutrition articles to improve muscle growth, recovery, and performance.

Mike holds a Master's in Exercise Physiology and a Bachelor's in Exercise Science. He's a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist CSCS and is the Assistant Strength and Conditioning Coach at New York University.

Mike is also the Founder of J2FIT , a strength and conditioning brand in New York City that offers personal training, online programs, and has an established USAW Olympic Weightlifting club. View All Articles. BarBend is an independent website. The views expressed on this site may come from individual contributors and do not necessarily reflect the view of BarBend or any other organization.

BarBend is the Official Media Partner of USA Weightlifting. Skip to primary navigation Skip to main content Skip to primary sidebar Training Nutrition. Therefore, in this article we will discuss what you need to know about muscle glycogen, specifically: What is Muscle Glycogen Who Should Be Concerned About Muscle Glycogen?

Dietary Recommendations — Increasing Muscle Glycogen Muscle Glycogen and Serious Athletes Low Levels of Muscle Glycogen and Training What is Muscle Glycogen? Who Should Be Concerned About Muscle Glycogen? Endurance Athletes Aerobic and anaerobic processes are used to produce energy to fuel endurance athletes.

Bodybuilders Assuming beginner and intermediate bodybuilders are consuming adequate amounts of calories; muscle glycogen depletion is often not a high concern. General Fitness and Health Similar to most beginner and intermediate lifters, athletes, and individuals, the typical fitness enthusiast will have adequate muscle glycogen availability.

Beginners and Recreations Lifters As discussed above, muscle glycogen depletion is often not an issue with most beginner, intermediate, and even highly active recreational lifters.

Muscle Glycogen for Serious Athletes When strength athletes train hard, the muscles use muscle glycogen to fuel contractions that promote the force necessary in movements like deadlifts, squats, presses, cleans, along with other muscle building exercises. Not only did the high carbohydrate diet replace the carbohydrate stores that were depleted by the high fat – high protein diet, but it actually increased glycogen concentrations over baseline levels.

Bergstrom and colleagues concluded that the ability to sustain prolonged exercise depends on muscle glycogen concentration.

The myriad of studies that followed firmly established the theory that sustaining performance in endurance events lasting longer than one hour is strongly dependent upon maintaining glycogen concentrations and that fatigue during these events is probably due to glycogen depletion 2.

Although glycogen depletion does not cause fatigue during high power events 13 , glycogen depletion has been shown to reduce the ability to produce a high power output.

A standard power test involves pedaling as fast as possible against a fixed resistance for 30 seconds. Conlee 4 speculates that this reduction in power output occurs because some fibers are no longer capable of contributing because they are almost completely devoid of glycogen. Since there are fewer fibers available to contribute, power output is reduced.

Since every gram of glycogen is stored with approximately 3 grams of water 13 a doubling of glycogen stores due to glycogen supercompensation is likely to increase the apparent size of muscles. Since exercise upregulates the body’s ability to store glycogen and bodybuilders have more muscle mass than the average person, we might expect that a bodybuilder stores considerably more than the grams of glycogen mentioned earlier as an average value for normal adults.

For the sake of argument let’s assume that a bodybuilder is storing grams not an unreasonable amount of muscle glycogen. By carbohydrate depletion and supercompensation to twice that level again, not unreasonable it would be possible to add grams of glycogen plus grams of water to the bodybuilder’s muscle tissue.

This amounts to a 7. Therefore a bodybuilder can potentially gain a significant amount of apparent mass with successful glycogen supercompensation. Beginning a typical 3-day depletion, 3 day loading supercompensation cycle just prior to a competition may not be the best strategy for an endurance athlete.

This is because glycogen depletion requires vigorous exercise and most endurance athletes refrain from vigorous exercise during the final week prior to a competition to ensure adequate recovery.

Fortunately glycogen levels stay elevated for at least 3 days following a glycogen supercompensation cycle 5. This allows the athlete to start the cycle 9 days prior to competition and still allow 6 days of recovery before the event.

A typical glycogen supercompensation cycle would look something like this:. The vigorous exercise should use the same muscles that are going to be used during the competition since it is these muscles that will be depleted and supercompensated. In other words, if you are a runner you carbohydrate deplete by running.

If you are a cyclist you carbohydrate deplete by cycling. Most of the carbohydrate consumption on day 1 of the high carbohydrate phase should be simple sugars and intake should not exceed 25 grams per hour or 75 grams every three hours. Carbohydrates should be consumed at least every three hours so that continual glycogen synthesis is occurring.

If, as Conlee speculated 4 , some muscle fibers are completely glycogen depleted by high power performances and subsequently are incapable of contributing, one might speculate that power athletes could benefit by glycogen supercompensation.

For many athletes, however, actual performance during competition would not be enhanced by supraphysiological levels of glycogen. For weightlifters, for example, performance is related to the ability to produce force and not the ability to maintain force output over time. Although glycogen loading can delay the reduction in force output during repeated maximal contractions 14 , no study to date has shown that maximal force production can be enhanced by supraphysiological concentrations of glycogen.

The same logic applies to jumpers and throwers. For high power events lasting less than 10 seconds m sprint the majority of the energy comes from stored Adenosine Triphosphate and Creatine Phosphate with little contribution from carbohydrates Brooks and Fahey For high power events lasting longer than 2 minutes performance is limited by the cardiovascular system Based on these facts and the Heighenhauser study mentioned earlier 30 seconds of maximal pedaling , one might speculate that glycogen supercompensation might be useful for high power events lasting between 10 seconds and two minutes.

However, there is an important distinction between power tests and other 30 second events like a m dash. In a power test power peaks early because subjects are pedaling maximally from the start.

During all but the shortest sprinting events there is some degree of pacing. It is not known if pacing would affect the relationship of glycogen to fatigue during these events. In addition, no study to date has shown an actual increase in performance in sprinting events either bike, run or swim sprints due to glycogen supercompensation.

Also, in some power events, like weightlifting and sprinting, extra bodyweight can be a liability. Although they should maintain an adequate carbohydrate intake to prevent a decrement in performance, there is no strong evidence to suggest that power athletes would benefit from glycogen supercompensation prior to competition.

Since training can involve repeated high power performances repeated sprints, or sets one might speculate that glycogen supercompensation might be an effective training aid. While training performance might benefit from high concentrations of muscle glycogen, athletes cannot glycogen deplete and supercompensate prior to every training session.

An apparent increase in muscle mass is certainly a bonus for bodybuilders. Therefore, successfully glycogen supercompensating can certainly be a worthwhile process for these athletes. Since bodybuilders have much more muscle mass than the average person, larger carbohydrate intakes are likely to be required to maximize glycogen synthesis.

Since we are trying to maximize glycogen supercompensation in all muscles, we must glycogen deplete all muscles. This is accomplished by performing high repetition, high volume workouts for all body parts while on a low carbohydrate diet prior to glycogen loading.

A typical regimen might look like this:. The bodybuilder should be training the entire body over the three-day period with a large volume of high repetition exercises to enhance glycogen depletion.

It is the total volume of work that will determine the degree of glycogen depletion so rest between sets should be adequate to allow a large volume of work to be performed. Bodybuilders should avoid lifting very heavy as high force eccentric contractions have been shown to interfere with glycogen synthesis 15 probably due to muscle microdamage.

Additionally Doyle et al. Although the bodybuilder might not normally train three days in a row, it is recommended in this case.

This prevents the bodybuilder from having to remain on a low carbohydrate diet for more than three days. Determining the amount of carbohydrates that should be consumed will require some trial and error but the research literature might provide some clues.

A study by Pascoe et al. If you know the molecular weight of glucose and can convert mmol to grams and if we assume that each gram of glycogen is stored with 3 grams of water this would give us a value of approximately.

If we match carbohydrate intake to the glycogen synthesis rate this would equal 43 grams per hour for a pound bodybuilder kg and a total of approximately g Calories from carbohydrates in a 24 hour period.

Glycogen replenishment is very rapid for six hours after high intensity exercise 11 and glycogen concentrations can return to baseline levels within this six hour period if adequate carbohydrates are consumed supercompensation occurs in the days that follow.

Therefore providing a bolus as Ivy suggested might speed up the process relative to consuming a predetermined number of grams every 3 hours. On day 1 most of the carbohydrates should be in the form of simple sugars to enhance glycogen uptake. The degree of glycogen supercompensation can be estimated by the amount of weight gain.

Recall that each gram of glycogen is stored with 3 grams of water. If a bodybuilder gained grams 3. In summary, glycogen supercompensation can be a valuable performance-enhancing tool for bodybuilders and endurance athletes. However, there is no convincing evidence to recommend its use to power athletes.

Powers, S, Howley, E , Exercise physiology: Theory and application for fitness and performance , Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. Brown Inc. Conlee S, Muscle glycogen and exercise endurance - a twenty year perspective. Exercise and sports science reviews Heigenhauser G, Sutton J, Jones N.

Effect of glycogen depletion on the ventilatory response to exercise. Ahlborg G, Bergstrom J, Edelund G, Hultman E. Muscle glycogen and muscle electrolytes during prolonged physical exercise.

Acta Physiol. Goforth, Arnall D, Bennett B, Law P. Persistence of supercompensated muscle glycogen in trained subjects after carbohydrate loading. J Appl Physiol 82 1 Hultman E Nilsson H. Liver glycogen in man. Effect of different diets and muscular exercise.

In: Muscle Metabolism during Exercise. New York: Plenum, Costill D, Sherman W, Gind C, Maresh C, Witten M, Miller J. The role of dietary carbohydrate in muscle glycogen resynthesis after strenuous exercise. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Blom P, Hostmark A, Baage O, Kardel K, Machlum S.

Effect of different post-exercise sugar diets on the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise Keizer H, Kuipers H, Van Kranenburg G, Geurten P. Influence of liquid and solid meals on muscle glycogen resynthesis, plasma fuel hormone response and maximal physical working capacity.

International Journal of Sports Medicine 8: Roberts A, Noble D, Hayden D, Talyor A. Simple and complex carbohydrate-rich diets and muscle glycogen content of marathon runners.

How Can Glycogen Be Replenished on a Low-Carb Diet?

There are actually specific aminos that have been shown to independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis. Leucine has been shown in several studies to independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis. In fact, in one particular study, recovery of muscle protein synthesis was stimulated by leucine supplementation and was not dependent on plasma insulin levels.

This suggests that leucine, in combination with carbohydrate, can enhance recovery. One study reported that the anabolic effect of a complete mixture of amino acids can be reproduced with the branched chain amino acid leucine alone.

Next, although whey protein isolate is naturally high in the amino acid glutamine , additional doses of this amino acid are recommended because exercise or any stress lowers plasma glutamine levels. Several studies have demonstrated that maintaining baseline levels actually enhances the immune system by reducing the risk of illness and infection.

Therefore, glutamine may be effective as part of a recovery beverage. Well, first and foremost, you don't have to use a recovery beverage. I personally prefer them; they are not only absorbed more rapidly, but they also contribute to your fluid intake, which an overall important part of recovery.

There are a number of research studies in this area; some of shown a positive effect from carbohydrate-protein in a ratio, some have shown a ratio, and others a ratio, meaning for every 2, 3, or 4 grams of carbohydrate, you consume 1 gram of protein.

To put it another way, if you were consuming 60 grams of carbohydrate, you would consume 30 grams protein , 20 grams protein , or 15 grams protein Still with me? There is also enough supportive research to show approximately 3 grams of leucine in addition to that which you'll get from the whey and 5 grams of glutamine are effective.

If you prefer 'real' food, determine what foods meet these requirements and enjoy. Keep in mind that you do not want fat or fiber in this meal, as both slow down the absorption.

Moreover, aside from pre- and post-workout and maybe during , it's the one meal of the day you should consume simple, high glycemic carbs so enjoy and you'll be on your way to recovery and growth. Carbohydrates are an important source of fuel for the body during physical activity and at rest.

Because carbohydrates play such an important role in producing energy for the body, they are stored in the form of glycogen in both skeletal muscles and in the liver. Glycogen is essentially a long chain of glucose sugar molecules that are attached end to end with an occasional cross linkage.

Figure 1 shows the basic structure of glycogen. Note that the glucose molecules are attached end to end. A glycogen molecule would consist of thousands of these linkages with occasional cross linkages as illustrated in Figure 2.

Although the liver has a higher concentration of glycogen than muscle there is more glycogen stored in muscle tissue because muscle tissue is more abundant than liver tissue.

The average person would store about grams of glycogen in their muscles and grams in their liver. Since 1 gram of carbohydrate contains 4 Calories, the body stores approximately Calories in the form of muscle and liver glycogen.

The glycogen stored in muscle and liver comes from dietary carbohydrates if sufficient quantities of dietary carbohydrates are consumed. Once ingested, the carbohydrates that we eat are digested to simple sugars by pancreatic and salivary amylase.

Sugars other than glucose are largely converted to glucose in the small intestine. Some sugars like fructose the primary sugar in fruits when consumed in significant amounts the amount varies but for fructose it is typically 50g or more per meal may enter the bloodstream in their native form and must be converted to glucose by the liver.

Once the sugars reach the bloodstream they are driven into the liver and muscle cells by the action of the hormone insulin. Insulin also activates the enzyme glycogen synthase, which synthesizes glycogen by adding one glucose at a time to the glycogen chain.

When muscle and liver glycogen levels are replenished, the excess glucose is burned preferentially to fat. In other words, consuming excess carbohydrates more than is needed to replenish glycogen stores shifts the body from burning primarily fats at rest to consuming primarily carbohydrates at rest.

This process is also activated by insulin. If caloric intake is in excess of caloric need, the excess carbohydrates will be stored as fat. The body cannot use glycogen as a source of energy in its storage form.

In order to derive energy from glycogen the body must liberate individual glucose molecules to use for energy production. This process is accomplished by activating the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. Glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose units, one at a time, from the glycogen chain.

Glycogen phosphorylase is activated automatically when muscles begin to contract. When muscles contract, the calcium concentration inside of the muscle cell increases. Calcium converts the inactive form of glycogen phosphorylase to a more active form of glycogen phosphorylase.

This provides glucose to fuel the muscular activity. If the exercise continues for any length of time the body begins to produce hormones that also activate glycogen phosphorylase. Some of the hormones are glucagon, epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones activate both muscle and liver glycogen phosphorylase.

Although the liver is metabolically active, most of the glucose that is produced is released into the bloodstream.

The glucose that is released by skeletal muscles is trapped inside of the muscle cell and cannot contribute to blood sugar. The liver release of glucose from glycogen helps to maintain blood sugar levels during exercise.

Some of the blood sugar is used as a source of fuel by the nervous system and some is taken up by skeletal muscle as an alternate source of glucose to fuel muscle contraction.

Muscle glycogen may be the most important energy substrate during exercise. At the beginning of all types of exercise and for the entire duration of high intensity exercise, muscle glycogen serves as the primary metabolic energy substrate 1Powers and Howley, Because muscle glycogen concentration influences endurance performance 2 Conlee, and may also affect maximum power output 3 Heigenhauser, Sutton and Jones, , manipulating glycogen stores is a potentially important consideration for a wide variety of athletes.

In Ahlborg and colleagues 4 began to demonstrate the relationship between diet and muscle glycogen concentrations. Figure 3 below demonstrates the results of the study. When subjects consumed a low carbohydrate diet glycogen concentrations decreased then rebounded to double baseline concentration on a high carbohydrate diet.

This effect increased glycogen storage ability following glycogen depletion when consuming a high carbohydrate diet is referred to as glycogen supercompensation. Glycogen supercompensation is different than glycogen compensation. Glycogen compensation is a normal response to exercise and refers to the process of replacing muscle glycogen to normal levels following exercise.

Supercompensation occurs when glycogen concentrations are replaced to supra-physiological levels much greater than normal.

Since the glucose that is produced from muscle glycogen does not leave the muscle cell, glycogen is only depleted in muscles that are exercised 6 Hultman, The amount and type of carbohydrate ingestion that will maximize glycogen resynthesis has been the subject of numerous research studies.

Costil et al. Blom et al 8 showed that glycogen resynthesis was maximal when subjects consumed 25 grams of glucose per hour. Keizer et al. Based on these studies it appears that 25 grams of carbohydrates per hour grams per day is sufficient for a maximal rate of glycogen resynthesis.

A study by Roberts et al. The simple sugar fructose the primary sugar found in fruits is effective at replenishing liver but not muscle glycogen This is because muscle tissue lacks the enzyme necessary to convert fructose to glucose.

Therefore fruit is a bad carbohydrate choice for carbohydrate loading or supercompensation. One of the earliest studies on the effects of muscle glycogen on endurance was conducted in by Ahlborg and colleagues 4. In this now classic study, he demonstrated a correlation between initial muscle glycogen concentration in the vastus lateralis muscle of the quadriceps and exercise endurance using a continuous bicycle ergometer protocol.

Since this study there have been numerous studies validating this effect see Conlee, for a review. In another classic study Bergstrom and associates 12 studied the effects of altering carbohydrate consumption for 3 days on exercise to exhaustion. The researchers had the same subjects consume a mixed diet, a high low carbohydrate diet, and a high carbohydrate diet for three days.

After each three-day period glycogen concentrations were measured and the subjects exercised to exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer.

The results are summarized in Figure 3. Here's what you should know about glycogen stores and low-carb or ketogenic diets. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend getting 45 to 65 percent of calories from carbs, which is generally enough to keep the glycogen stores in your muscles and liver full — especially if you're consuming some carbohydrates during and after long workouts.

In a 2,calorie diet, for example, this is between and grams of carbs daily. But some low-carb diets recommend scaling your carbohydrate consumption back to 50 or fewer grams per day.

Examples of this type of plan include the first phase of the Atkins 20 diet or some versions of the ketogenic diet. The issue: This doesn't provide enough carbs to fully restore liver or muscle glycogen, says David Bridges, PhD , assistant professor of nutritional sciences at the University of Michigan School of Public Health.

And actually, the body doesn't need to produce much glycogen at this point, because it shifts into ketosis — a state in which the body runs off a different fuel source consisting of fatty acids and ketones. Ketones are compounds your body naturally produces when too little external glucose is available, according to NCBI.

At the same time, he adds, the body also produces a small amount of glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis , using amino acids instead of carbohydrates. Humans can certainly function in ketosis, although the science isn't exactly clear as to whether that functioning is more or less efficient in this state.

Note that this study was quite small, and also done over a short timeframe of four weeks. For shorter or easier workouts, the glycogen produced through gluconeogenesis is generally enough to keep athletes feeling fast and strong, according to Bridges. But for longer or harder sessions — like endurance bike rides or marathon runs — it's not adequate.

If you do choose to follow a ketogenic diet while working out regularly , it's important to eat enough fat and protein to make up for your low carbohydrate intake, says Amy Goss, PhD , a registered dietitian and assistant professor of nutrition sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Post Workout Basics - Optimizing Glycogen! Hawley JA. Article Google Scholar Hawley JA, Burke LM. The bodybuilder should be training the entire body over the three-day period with a large volume of high repetition exercises to enhance glycogen depletion. In both studies subjects performed an exercise session in the low-glycogen state, the researchers found a net release of amino acids during exercise indicating an increase in MPB. To put it another way, if you were consuming 60 grams of carbohydrate, you would consume 30 grams protein , 20 grams protein , or 15 grams protein It is thought that endurance exercise results in an activation of AMPK, which inhibits the mTORC1 signaling via tuberous sclerosis protein TSC , and this will eventually suppress MPS resulting in a negative net protein balance. Glycogen metabolism in humans.
Post Workout Basics - Optimizing Glycogen! Ivy J. Open Glycogen replenishment for bodybuilders This article is distributed under Muscle growth supplements terms Muscle growth supplements Limitations of skinfold measurements Creative Commons Attribution vor. Unfortunately, these results replenihsment low-glycogen availability may be biased because many reeplenishment variables including training parameters time, intensity, frequency, type, rest between bouts and nutritional factors type, amount, timing, isocaloric versus non-isocaloric placebo varied considerably between the studies and it is therefore difficult to make valid inferences. Full size image. Camera DM, West DW, Burd NA, Phillips SM, Garnham AP, Hawley JA, et al. Well I have. But for longer or harder sessions — like endurance bike rides or marathon runs — it's not adequate.
Glycogen in bodybuilding: its role and functions

The exercise session began with some light warmups, followed by three exercises that were intended to target the lower body musculature since glycogen levels were being assessed using vastus lateralis tissue samples. The workout consisted of back squats done in accordance with International Powerlifting Federation standards , deficit deadlifts from a 10cm platform, and dumbbell split squats with the rear foot elevated on a standard bench.

A quick overview of the exact exercises, set and repetition schemes, and approximate loads is presented in Table 2. During their four sets of split squats, participants were instructed to aim for an RPE of about on a point reps in reserve-based RPE scale while completing 12 reps per set.

Participants rested for minutes between sets of squats and deadlifts, and minutes between sets of split squats. In order to assess changes in muscle glycogen, muscle biopsies were obtained about minutes prior to the onset of exercise and immediately minutes after finishing the exercise session.

In terms of outcome variables, the researchers were primarily interested in assessing total muscle glycogen depletion, fiber-specific glycogen depletion, and location-specific depletion of glycogen from the distinct storage depots within muscle tissue intramyofibrillar glycogen, intermyofibrillar glycogen, and subsarcolemmal.

As one would expect, muscle glycogen concentrations decreased and muscle lactate concentrations increased in response to the training bout.

Using the more intensive method of glycogen quantification transmission electron microscopy , they were also able to look at distinct, localized glycogen storage depots in type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers.

The relative percentage of total muscle glycogen contained within each localized storage depot intramyofibrillar, intermyofibrillar, and subsarcolemmal is presented below in Table 3.

In response to the exercise bout, glycogen stores were depleted in a non-uniform manner. When expressed as a percentage in Table 2, the non-uniformity is hard to see, but it becomes more apparent when you look at the raw data and the depot-specific changes from pre-exercise to post-exercise.

The raw changes for each glycogen storage depot within type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers are presented in Figure 1. The researchers also reported an interesting observation related to the orientation of glycogen storage in the most depleted fibers.

In the super-depleted type 2 fibers, the researchers found some crystal-like glycogen structures. These structures were not observed nearly as frequently in type 1 fibers or in fibers with less substantial levels of glycogen depletion.

I try not to be hyperbolic when discussing new research. The implied justification is that glycogen depletion induced by traditional resistance training is negligible in magnitude, because lifters still have plenty of stored glycogen to burn through before full depletion occurs and performance is impacted.

The current findings cast heavy doubts on this line of thinking and its default justification. So, these findings are important, not because they bust a myth that the evidence-based fitness world already abandoned long ago, but because they have potential to shift the high-level, nuanced discussions about dietary carbohydrate moving forward.

Tesch et al 5 studied the glycogen-depleting effect of a pretty rigorous exercise bout including five sets each of front squats, back squats, leg presses, and knee extensions.

All sets were taken to failure, with somewhere between reps per set. Participants completed an average of 8. Finally, Roy and Tarnopolsky 7 assessed muscle glycogen depletion following a full-body workout. While participants completed six upper-body exercises, muscle glycogen was assessed in the vastus lateralis, so the most relevant components of the exercise protocol were three sets of leg extensions, three sets of leg press, and three more sets of leg extension at the end of the workout.

There are two reasons why I love the exercise protocol in the presently reviewed study. The fact that the study was actually conducted in well-trained, competitive lifters is all the better.

More importantly in my opinion , this exercise protocol generally replicates the total degree of whole-muscle glycogen depletion observed in the previous glycogen depletion studies I just outlined.

Taken together, this small collection of studies suggests that pretty realistic resistance training protocols are able to induce fairly modest depletion of whole-muscle glycogen content, which is sufficient to markedly reduce the storage of intramyofibrillar glycogen.

In fact, as depicted in Figure 1, this exercise bout was able to induce extremely low intramyofibrillar glycogen levels in about half of the type 2 muscle fibers measured. There is a fairly large hurdle to clear before these findings can actually be applied in practical settings.

The presently reviewed study shows that glycogen depletion occurs in a localized, non-uniform manner, with particularly notable depletion occurring in the intramyofibrillar area of type 2 muscle fibers. But to translate that to practical application, we need to know whether or not that intramyofibrillar depletion actually translates to acute fatigue or impaired contractile function of muscle.

As summarized in a recent review paper by Alghannam et al 8 , I think you can make a strong case that we have the evidence to support this translation. In section 2. Over a series of studies, this research group has demonstrated that reduced intramyofibrillar glycogen levels are associated with impaired calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticula, which appears to increase muscle fatigue and alter muscle contractility 6 , 8.

One of the largest sources of ATP consumption during muscle contraction is the sarcoplasmic reticulum-calcium-ATPase enzyme, and the sodium-potassium-ATPase enzyme is another notable ATP consumer. These enzymes depend on locally available glycogen as a major source of energy, which helps elucidate a mechanistic link between intramyofibrillar glycogen depletion, sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium kinetics, and muscle fatigue 6.

While that evidence has largely come from highly mechanistic studies with limited ecological validity, the same research group has translated their line of research to real-world studies in athletic populations. In trained triathletes, this group demonstrated that a large reduction in whole-muscle glycogen content induced by prolonged cycling was associated with a significant reduction in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release 9.

Four hours after the exercise bout, glycogen levels and calcium release were markedly restored by post-exercise carbohydrate ingestion, but remained suppressed when post-exercise carbohydrate was restricted.

They reported similar findings in trained cross-country skiers 10 , but took the study a step further by specifically assessing localized glycogen depots. However, for the time being, I think these researchers have made a strong case for the idea that intramyofibrillar glycogen is particularly important, and can become depleted to a practically meaningful degree in response to resistance exercise when only modest whole-muscle glycogen depletion is observed.

Back in the s and early s, it seemed like a lot of lifters were pretty fond of micromanaging their carbohydrate timing, and unnecessarily so. These findings do not suggest that the typical lifter needs to return to those old habits of stressing over rapid post-exercise consumption of a carbohydrate source with the perfect molecular weight, glycemic load, monosaccharide composition, and molecular configuration.

Similarly, these findings do not suggest that all lifters need to adopt a super-high-carb diet. As the presently reviewed results suggest, even modest whole-muscle glycogen depletion from traditional resistance exercise can induce a notable reduction of intramyofibrillar glycogen content in type 2 fibers, which could negatively impact performance in the absence of replenishment.

Earlier this year, Dr. Helms and I published a review paper about bodybuilding nutrition guidelines with Dr.

Brandon Roberts and Dr. Peter Fitschen We generally advocated for an approach that most would classify as low-fat, in order to free up calories for the protein-sparing effects of protein and the performance-preserving effects of carbohydrate. In addition, we have previously discussed some of the underwhelming effects of various ketogenic dieting strategies on strength and hypertrophy when compared to higher-carbohydrate approaches here , here , and here.

When interpreting those findings, I highlighted evidence showing that ketogenic diets can impair high-intensity, glycogen-dependent exercise performance.

In light of the presently reviewed findings, it seems defensible to infer that such a large degree of total muscle glycogen depletion is likely to involve notable depletion of the intramyofibrillar glycogen stores which are closely linked to muscle contractile function in people who regularly exercise.

To be extremely clear, I am not suggesting that lifters have no justifiable applications of low-carbohydrate diets. Maintenance of glycolytic exercise performance is just one factor to consider when selecting a diet, along with essential nutrient intake, satiety management, muscle protein accretion, cooking and flavor preferences, and a variety of other considerations.

Nonetheless, modest glycogen reductions that were once assumed to be benign might materially impact performance, so eating sufficient carbohydrates to replenish glycogen stores to a maximal or near-maximal level should probably be viewed as a relatively high dietary priority for lifters.

Furthermore, the majority of the studies with low glycogen availability were of short duration [ 18 ] and showed no changes [ 11 — 17 ], or showed, in some cases decreases in performance [ ]. Nevertheless, reductions in glycogen stores by manipulation of carbohydrate ingestion have shown to enhance the formation of training-induced specific proteins and mitochondrial biogenesis following endurance exercise to a greater extent than in the glycogen replenished state [ 11 — 16 , 18 , 68 ].

For resistance exercise, glycogen availability seemed to have no significant influence on the anabolic effects induced by resistance exercise when MPS was measured with the stable isotope methodology.

However, the exercise protocols used in most studies do not resemble a training volume that is typical for resistance-type athletes.

Future long-term training studies ~12 weeks are needed to investigate whether performing resistance exercise with low glycogen availability leads to divergent skeletal muscle adaptations compared to performing the exercise bouts with replenished glycogen levels. The role of glycogen availability on skeletal muscle adaptations and performance needs to be further investigated.

In particular researchers need to examine glycogen availability when endurance and resistance exercise are conducted concurrently, for example, on the same day or on alternating days during the week. To date, only a few studies have investigated the interactions between nutrient intake and acute response following a concurrent exercise model.

We recommend that future research in this field should focus on the following questions:. What is the impact of performing one of the exercise bouts endurance or resistance with low glycogen availability on response of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis of the subsequent endurance or resistance exercise bout?

Does the resistance exercise bout need to be conducted with replenished glycogen stores in order to optimize the adaptive response when performed after a bout of endurance exercise? Is nutritional timing within a concurrent exercise model crucial to maximize skeletal muscle adaptations following prolonged concurrent training?

To conclude, depletion of muscle glycogen is strongly associated with the degree of fatigue development during endurance exercise. This is mainly caused by reduced glycogen availability which is essential for ATP resynthesis during high-intensity endurance exercise.

Furthermore, it is hypothesized that other physiological mechanisms involved in excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscle may play a role herein. On the other hand, the low glycogen approach seems promising with regard to the adaptive response following exercise.

Therefore, low glycogen training may be useful as part of a well-thought out periodization program. However, further research is needed to further scrutinize the role of low glycogen training in different groups e.

highly trained subjects combined with different exercise protocols e. concurrent modalities , to develop a nutritional strategy that has the potential to improve skeletal muscle adaptations and performance with concurrent training.

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We would like to thank T. Maas HAN University of Applied Sciences Institute for Studies in Sports and Exercise for his fruitful input and feedback on the manuscript.

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, HD, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Pim Knuiman, Maria T. Radboud University, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Department of Physiology, Geert Grooteplein-West 32, GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Pim Knuiman. No funding was used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare that are directly relevant to the contents of this review.

PK wrote the manuscript. MTEH and MM contributed substantially by giving insightful comments and suggestions during the creation of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.

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Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Download ePub. Review Open access Published: 21 December Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise Pim Knuiman 1 , Maria T.

Abstract It is well established that glycogen depletion affects endurance exercise performance negatively. Background Roughly, exercise can be divided in endurance- and resistance exercise. Glycogen and energetic demands with exercise Glycogen is an essential substrate during high intensity exercise by providing a mechanism by which adenosine tri phosphate ATP can be resynthesized from adenosine diphosphate ADP and phosphate.

Low glycogen and performance with exercise Endurance training performance Low-glycogen availability causes a shift in substrate metabolism during and after exercise [ 30 , 31 ]. Discrepancies between and limitations of the low-glycogen endurance exercise studies A possible explanation for the different outcomes on performance between low-glycogen studies could be differences in the training status of the subjects.

Jonathan Replenishhment, RDN, CDCES, CPT bodjbuilders a New Fasting and autophagy City-based telehealth registered dietitian nutritionist and nutrition communications Muscle growth supplements. When your body Antifungal foot care products for nail fungus energy, it Muscle growth supplements Anti-hangover remedy on its Glycogn stores. The molecules, made from glucose in the food you eat, are mainly stored in your liver and muscles. From these storage sites, your body can quickly mobilize glycogen when it needs fuel. What you eat, how often you eat, and your activity level all influence how your body stores and uses glycogen. Low-carb and ketogenic diets, as well as strenuous exercise, all deplete glycogen stores, causing the body to metabolize fat for energy. Glycogen is the body's stored form of glucose, which is sugar.

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