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Nutrition periodization for older adults

Nutrition periodization for older adults

Received : 26 February Time-dependent olver of periodizxtion muscle protein Flaxseed nutrition facts rates after milk protein ingestion in young men. Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, USA. Sixty-seven articles were additionally excluded, and consequently, 25 articles were included in this systematic review. Nutrition periodization for older adults

Nutrition periodization for older adults -

Nutritional strategies to attenuate postprandial glycemic response Pasmans, Kenneth, Meex, Ruth C. and Blaak, Ellen E.. Nutritional strategies to attenuate postprandial glycemic response. Obesity Reviews. Exercise-based interventions to counteract skeletal muscle mass loss in people with cancer : Can we overcome the odds?

Bland, Kelcey A. and Fairman, Ciaran M.. Sports Medicine. The impact of collagen protein ingestion on musculoskeletal connective tissue remodeling : A narrative review Holwerda, Andrew M. The impact of collagen protein ingestion on musculoskeletal connective tissue remodeling : A narrative review.

Nutrition Reviews. Impact of magnesium on bone health in older adults : A systematic review and meta-analysis Groenendijk, Inge, van Delft, Marieke, Versloot, Pieter, van Loon, Luc J. Impact of magnesium on bone health in older adults : A systematic review and meta-analysis.

L-arabinose co-ingestion delays glucose absorption derived from sucrose in healthy men and women : A double-blind, randomized crossover trial Pasmans, Kenneth, Meex, Ruth C.

L-arabinose co-ingestion delays glucose absorption derived from sucrose in healthy men and women : A double-blind, randomized crossover trial.

Amino acid removal during hemodialysis can be compensated for by protein ingestion and is not compromised by intradialytic exercise : A randomized controlled crossover trial Hendriks, Floris K. Amino acid removal during hemodialysis can be compensated for by protein ingestion and is not compromised by intradialytic exercise : A randomized controlled crossover trial.

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Fragile bones of elite cyclists : To treat or not to treat? Hilkens, Luuk, Knuiman, Pim, Heijboer, Mathieu, Kempers, Robert, Jeukendrup, Asker E. and van Dijk, Jan-Willem. Journal of Applied Physiology. Gut amino acid absorption in humans : Concepts and relevance for postprandial metabolism Trommelen, Jorn, Tomé, Daniel and van Loon, Luc J.

Gut amino acid absorption in humans : Concepts and relevance for postprandial metabolism. Clinical Nutrition Open Science. Comprehensive assessment of post-prandial protein handling by the application of intrinsically labelled protein in vivo in human subjects Trommelen, Jorn, Holwerda, Andrew M.

and van Loon, Lucas J. Comprehensive assessment of post-prandial protein handling by the application of intrinsically labelled protein in vivo in human subjects.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. Dietary protein interventions to improve nutritional status in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis Hendriks, Floris K. Dietary protein interventions to improve nutritional status in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis.

Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. A white paper on collagen hydrolyzates and ultrahydrolyzates : Potential supplements to support joint health in osteoarthritis? Mobasheri, Ali, Mahmoudian, Armaghan, Kalvaityte, Ursule, Uzieliene, Ilona, Larder, Christina E.

and Zuscik, Michael J.. Current Rheumatology Reports. The anabolic response to plant-based protein ingestion Pinckaers, Philippe J.

The anabolic response to plant-based protein ingestion. Hepatic steatosis contributes to the development of muscle atrophy via inter-organ crosstalk Pasmans, Kenneth, Adriaens, Michiel E. Olde, Caiment, Florian, van Loon, Luc J. and Meex, Ruth C.

Hepatic steatosis contributes to the development of muscle atrophy via inter-organ crosstalk. Frontiers in Endocrinology. Acute effects of dietary nitrate on exercise tolerance, muscle oxygenation, and cardiovascular function in patients with peripheral arterial disease van der Avoort, Cindy M.

and Hopman, Maria T. Acute effects of dietary nitrate on exercise tolerance, muscle oxygenation, and cardiovascular function in patients with peripheral arterial disease. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. Mass spectrometry imaging of L-[ring C6]- labeled phenylalanine and tyrosine kinetics in non-small cell lung carcinoma Cao, Jianhua, Balluff, Benjamin, Arts, Martijn, Dubois, Ludwig J.

and Heeren, Ron M. Mass spectrometry imaging of L-[ring C6]- labeled phenylalanine and tyrosine kinetics in non-small cell lung carcinoma. Insects are a viable protein source for human consumption : From insect protein digestion to postprandial muscle protein synthesis in vivo in humans : A double-blind randomized trial Hermans, Wesley J.

Insects are a viable protein source for human consumption : From insect protein digestion to postprandial muscle protein synthesis in vivo in humans : A double-blind randomized trial. Increasing nitrate-rich vegetable intake lowers ambulatory blood pressure in pre hypertensive middle-aged and older adults : A wk randomized controlled trial van der Avoort, Cindy M.

Increasing nitrate-rich vegetable intake lowers ambulatory blood pressure in pre hypertensive middle-aged and older adults : A wk randomized controlled trial. Undeclared doping substances are highly prevalent in commercial sports nutrition supplements Duiven, Erik, Luc J.

van Loon, Spruijt, Laila, Koert, Willem and de Hon, Olivier M.. Undeclared doping substances are highly prevalent in commercial sports nutrition supplements. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. No differences in muscle protein synthesis rates following ingestion of wheat protein, milk protein, and their protein blend in healthy, young males Pinckaers, Philippe J.

No differences in muscle protein synthesis rates following ingestion of wheat protein, milk protein, and their protein blend in healthy, young males.

Does supplementation with leucine-enriched protein alone and in combination with fish-oil-derived n-3 PUFA affect muscle mass, strength, physical performance, and muscle protein synthesis in well-nourished older adults? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Murphy, Caoileann H.

and Roche, Helen M.. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in response to low- And high-frequency resistance exercise training in healthy, young men Shad, Brandon J. and Wallis, Gareth A.. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in response to low- And high-frequency resistance exercise training in healthy, young men.

Basal protein synthesis rates differ between vastus lateralis and rectus abdominis muscle Smeets, Joey S. Olde, Schijns, Olaf E. Basal protein synthesis rates differ between vastus lateralis and rectus abdominis muscle. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle. Myonuclear content and domain size in small versus larger muscle fibres in response to 12 weeks of resistance exercise training in older adults Snijders, Tim, Holwerda, Andy M.

and Verdijk, Lex B.. Myonuclear content and domain size in small versus larger muscle fibres in response to 12 weeks of resistance exercise training in older adults.

Acta Physiologica. The impact of beetroot juice supplementation on muscular endurance, maximal strength and countermovement jump performance Jonvik, Kristin L. The impact of beetroot juice supplementation on muscular endurance, maximal strength and countermovement jump performance.

European Journal of Sport Science. Assessing the whole-body protein synthetic response to feeding in vivo in human subjects Trommelen, Jorn and Van Loon, Luc J. Assessing the whole-body protein synthetic response to feeding in vivo in human subjects.

Exercise plus presleep protein ingestion increases overnight muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates in healthy older men Holwerda, Andrew M. Exercise plus presleep protein ingestion increases overnight muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates in healthy older men.

Whey protein supplementation does not accelerate recovery from a single bout of eccentric exercise Hilkens, Luuk, De Bock, Jolien, Kretzers, Joris, Kardinaal, Alwine F.

Whey protein supplementation does not accelerate recovery from a single bout of eccentric exercise. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism.

Muscle fiber capillarization is associated with various indices of skeletal muscle mass in healthy, older men Betz, M. and Snijders, T.. Muscle fiber capillarization is associated with various indices of skeletal muscle mass in healthy, older men. Experimental Gerontology.

Higher levels of physical activity are associated with greater fruit and vegetable intake in older adults Van Loon, L.. Higher levels of physical activity are associated with greater fruit and vegetable intake in older adults.

Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging. Dietary protein intake does not modulate daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates of loss of muscle mass and function during short-term immobilization in young men : a randomized controlled trial Kilroe, Sean Paul, Fulford, Jonathan, Jackman, Sarah, Holwerda, Andrew, Gijsen, Annemie, van Loon, Luc and Wall, Benjamin Toby.

Dietary protein intake does not modulate daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates of loss of muscle mass and function during short-term immobilization in young men : a randomized controlled trial.

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Effect of acute and short-term dietary fat ingestion on postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in middle-aged, overweight and obese men Tsintzas, Kostas, Jones, Robert, Pabla, Pardeep, Mallinson, Joanne, Barrett, David A.

and Stephens, Francis B.. Effect of acute and short-term dietary fat ingestion on postprandial skeletal muscle protein synthesis rates in middle-aged, overweight and obese men. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism.

In vitro ketone-supported mitochondrial respiration is minimal when other substrates are readily available in cardiac and skeletal muscle Petrick, Heather L. and Holloway, Graham P.. In vitro ketone-supported mitochondrial respiration is minimal when other substrates are readily available in cardiac and skeletal muscle.

The Journal of Physiology. Casein ingestion does not increase muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates Trommelen, Jorn, Holwerda, Andrew M.

Casein ingestion does not increase muscle connective tissue protein synthesis rates. The glycation level of milk protein strongly modulates post-prandial lysine availability in humans Nyakayiru, Jean, van Lieshout, Glenn A.

The glycation level of milk protein strongly modulates post-prandial lysine availability in humans. The concept of skeletal muscle memory : Evidence from animal and human studies Snijders, Tim, Aussieker, Thorben, Holwerda, Andy, Parise, Gianni, van Loon, Luc J. The concept of skeletal muscle memory : Evidence from animal and human studies.

Temporal muscle-specific disuse atrophy during one week of leg immobilization Kilroe, Sean P. and Wall, Benjamin T.. Temporal muscle-specific disuse atrophy during one week of leg immobilization.

Short-term bed rest-induced insulin resistance cannot be explained by increased mitochondrial H2O2 emission Dirks, Marlou L.

Short-term bed rest-induced insulin resistance cannot be explained by increased mitochondrial H2O2 emission. Protein type, protein dose, and age modulate dietary protein digestion and phenylalanine absorption kinetics and plasma phenylalanine availability in humans Gorissen, Stefan H.

Protein type, protein dose, and age modulate dietary protein digestion and phenylalanine absorption kinetics and plasma phenylalanine availability in humans.

Postexercise cooling impairs muscle protein synthesis rates in recreational athletes Fuchs, Cas J. van Marken, Verdijk, Lex B. Postexercise cooling impairs muscle protein synthesis rates in recreational athletes. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Effects of Carbohydrate Ingestion During Exercise Ian Rollo, Javier T.

Gonzalez, Cas J. Fuchs, Lucas Van Loon and Clyde Williams. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Effects of Carbohydrate Ingestion During Exercise. PRESENT Text Expanding on the Checklist for Proper Reporting of Evidence in Sport and Exercise Nutrition Trials James A.

Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez, Louise Burke, Graeme L. Close, Ina Garthe, Lewis J James, Asker E Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, David C Nieman, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Trent Stellingwerff, Lucas Van Loon, Clyde Williams, Kathleen Woolf, Ronald J.

Maughan and Greg Atkinson. PRESENT Text Expanding on the Checklist for Proper Reporting of Evidence in Sport and Exercise Nutrition Trials. Mitochondrial ROS and Aging: Understanding Exercise as a Preventive Tool Henver S Brunetta, Andrew M Holwerda, Luc Van Loon and Graham P Holloway.

Mitochondrial ROS and Aging: Understanding Exercise as a Preventive Tool. Journal of Science in Sport and Exercise. Impact of whole dairy matrix on musculoskeletal health and aging—current knowledge and research gaps N. Geiker, C. Mølgaard, S. Iuliano, R. Rizzoli, Y.

Manios, L. van Loon, J. Lecerf, G. Moschonis, J. Reginster, I. Givens and A. Impact of whole dairy matrix on musculoskeletal health and aging—current knowledge and research gaps. Osteoporosis International. Intermittent versus continuous enteral nutrition attenuates increases in insulin and leptin during short-term bed rest Gonzalez, Javier T.

Intermittent versus continuous enteral nutrition attenuates increases in insulin and leptin during short-term bed rest. European Journal of Applied Physiology. Impact of exercise-nutritional state interactions in patients with type 2 diabetes Verboven, Kenneth, Wens, Inez, Vandenabeele, Frank, Stevens, An, Celie, Bert, Lapauw, Bruno, Dendale, Paul, van Loon, Luc J.

Impact of exercise-nutritional state interactions in patients with type 2 diabetes. Could intramuscular storage of dietary nitrate contribute to its ergogenic effect? A mini-review Jean Nyakayiru, Luc Van Loon and Lex B. A mini-review. Hot-water immersion does not increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates during recovery from resistance-type exercise in healthy, young males Fuchs, Cas J.

Hot-water immersion does not increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates during recovery from resistance-type exercise in healthy, young males.

Endurance-type exercise increases bulk and individual mitochondrial protein synthesis rates in rats Holwerda, Andrew M. Endurance-type exercise increases bulk and individual mitochondrial protein synthesis rates in rats. End-stage renal disease patients lose a substantial amount of amino acids during hemodialysis Hendriks, Floris K.

End-stage renal disease patients lose a substantial amount of amino acids during hemodialysis. Nutrition in Clinical Practice.

Dose-response effects of dietary protein on muscle protein synthesis during recovery from endurance exercise in young men : A double-blind randomized trial Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.

Dose-response effects of dietary protein on muscle protein synthesis during recovery from endurance exercise in young men : A double-blind randomized trial. Casein protein processing strongly modulates post-prandial plasma amino acid responses in vivo in humans Trommelen, Jorn, Weijzen, Michelle E.

Casein protein processing strongly modulates post-prandial plasma amino acid responses in vivo in humans. A nitrate-rich vegetable intervention elevates plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy young adults van der Avoort, Cindy M.

A nitrate-rich vegetable intervention elevates plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy young adults. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Voeding bij intensieve sportbeoefening van Loon, L. and Saris, W. Voeding bij intensieve sportbeoefening. In In Former, Majorie, van Asseldonk, Gerdie, Drenth, Jacqueline and Schuurman, Caroelien Ed. Informatorium voor Voeding en Dietetiek - Supplement - December pp.

Short-term muscle disuse induces a rapid and sustained decline in daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates Kilroe, Sean P. Short-term muscle disuse induces a rapid and sustained decline in daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates.

The intrinsically labeled protein approach is the preferred method to quantify the release of dietary protein-derived amino acids into the circulation Jorn Trommelen, Andrew M.

Holwerda, Jean Nyakayiru, Stefan H M Gorissen, Olav Rooyackers, Nicholas A Burd, Yves Boirie and Luc J. Van Loon. The intrinsically labeled protein approach is the preferred method to quantify the release of dietary protein-derived amino acids into the circulation. Fructose co-ingestion to increase carbohydrate availability in athletes Cas J.

Fuchs, Javier T. Gonzalez and Luc J. Fructose co-ingestion to increase carbohydrate availability in athletes. Dietary Protein and Physical Activity Interventions to Support Muscle Maintenance in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Hemodialysis Floris K.

Hendriks, Joey S J Smeets, Frank M van der Sande, Jeroen P Kooman and Lucas Van Loon. Dietary Protein and Physical Activity Interventions to Support Muscle Maintenance in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Hemodialysis.

The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Meal Ingestion Following Resistance-Type Exercise Jorn Trommelen, Milan W Betz and Luc Van Loon. The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response to Meal Ingestion Following Resistance-Type Exercise.

Exercising to offset muscle mass loss in hemodialysis patients: The disconnect between intention and intervention Colleen F. McKenna, Amadeo F. Salvador, Floris K. Hendriks, Alana P. Harris, Luc J. Van Loon and Nicholas A.

Exercising to offset muscle mass loss in hemodialysis patients: The disconnect between intention and intervention. Seminars in Dialysis. Perioperative nutritional supplementation and skeletal muscle mass in older hip-fracture patients Irene Fleur Kramer, Taco J.

Blokhuis, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc Van Loon and Martijn Poeze. Perioperative nutritional supplementation and skeletal muscle mass in older hip-fracture patients. One week of step reduction lowers myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in young men Shad, Brandon J.

One week of step reduction lowers myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in young men. Leucine co-ingestion augments the muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of 15 g protein following resistance exercise in older men Holwerda, Andrew M.

Leucine co-ingestion augments the muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of 15 g protein following resistance exercise in older men. Dietary feeding pattern does not modulate the loss of muscle mass or the decline in metabolic health during short-term bed rest Dirks, Marlou L.

Dietary feeding pattern does not modulate the loss of muscle mass or the decline in metabolic health during short-term bed rest. Coordinated regulation of skeletal muscle mass and metabolic plasticity during recovery from disuse Kneppers, Anita, Leermakers, Pieter, Pansters, Nicholas, Backx, Evelien, Gosker, Harry, van Loon, Luc, Schols, Annemie, Langen, Ramon and Verdijk, Lex.

Coordinated regulation of skeletal muscle mass and metabolic plasticity during recovery from disuse. Time-dependent regulation of postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after milk protein ingestion in young men Vliet, Stephan Van, Beals, Joseph W.

and Burd, Nicholas A.. Time-dependent regulation of postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after milk protein ingestion in young men. Ascorbic acid supplementation improves postprandial glycaemic control and blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized cross-over trial Mason, Shaun A.

Ascorbic acid supplementation improves postprandial glycaemic control and blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized cross-over trial.

Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics. Blood flow restricted resistance exercise and reductions in oxygen tension attenuate mitochondrial H2O2 emission rates in human skeletal muscle Petrick, Heather L.

Blood flow restricted resistance exercise and reductions in oxygen tension attenuate mitochondrial H2O2 emission rates in human skeletal muscle. The effect of minimally invasive surgical aortic valve replacement on postoperative pulmonary and skeletal muscle function Boujemaa, Hajar, Yilmaz, Alaaddin, Robic, Boris, Koppo, Katrien, Claessen, Guido, Frederix, Ines, Dendale, Paul, Völler, Heinz, van Loon, Luc J.

and Hansen, Dominique. The effect of minimally invasive surgical aortic valve replacement on postoperative pulmonary and skeletal muscle function. Experimental Physiology. In In A. Holwerda Ed. Dietary protein to support active aging pp.

The effect of beetroot juice supplementation on dynamic apnea and intermittent sprint performance in elite female water polo playres Jonvik, Kristin L.

The effect of beetroot juice supplementation on dynamic apnea and intermittent sprint performance in elite female water polo playres. Age-Associated Impairments in Mitochondrial ADP Sensitivity Contribute to Redox Stress in Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle Holloway, Graham P.

Age-Associated Impairments in Mitochondrial ADP Sensitivity Contribute to Redox Stress in Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle. Cell Reports. Daily resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis in vivo in young men Holwerda, Andrew M.

Daily resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis in vivo in young men. Temporal response of angiogenesis and hypertrophy to resistance training in young men Holloway, Tanya M. Temporal response of angiogenesis and hypertrophy to resistance training in young men.

Muscle atrophy due to nerve damage is accompanied by elevated myofibrillar protein synthesis rates Langer, Henning, Senden, Joan M. Muscle atrophy due to nerve damage is accompanied by elevated myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. Frontiers in Physiology.

Reply: measurement of regional rates of protein synthesis in human brain in vivo with l-[c]-leucine PET Smeets, Joey S. J and Van Loon, Luc. Reply: measurement of regional rates of protein synthesis in human brain in vivo with l-[c]-leucine PET.

Brain: a journal of neurology. Skeletal muscle fiber characteristics in patients with chronic heart failure: Impact of disease severity and relation with muscle oxygenation during exercise Niemeijer, Victor M.

Skeletal muscle fiber characteristics in patients with chronic heart failure: Impact of disease severity and relation with muscle oxygenation during exercise. Dose-response effects of supplementation with calcifediol on serum hydroxyvitamin D status and its metabolites: a randomized controlled trial in older adults Vaes, Anouk M.

Dose-response effects of supplementation with calcifediol on serum hydroxyvitamin D status and its metabolites: a randomized controlled trial in older adults. Clinical Nutrition.

Increasing vegetable intake to obtain the health promoting and ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate Van der Avoort, Cindy M.

Increasing vegetable intake to obtain the health promoting and ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Effects of creatine and carbohydrate loading on cycling time trial performance Tomcik, Kristyen A.

Effects of creatine and carbohydrate loading on cycling time trial performance. IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete Maughan, Ronald J.

Engebretsen, Lars. IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete British Journal of Sports Medicine. The dutch physical activity guidelines Weggemans, Rianne M. The dutch physical activity guidelines. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity.

Interventional strategies to combat muscle disuse atrophy in humans: Focus on neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary protein Dirks, Marlou L. and van Loon, Luc. Interventional strategies to combat muscle disuse atrophy in humans: Focus on neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary protein.

IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete Maughan, Ronald J. IOC Consensus Statement: Dietary Supplements and the High-Performance Athlete. A novel in vitro model for the assessment of postnatal myonuclear accretion Kneppers, Anita, Verdijk, Lex B.

A novel in vitro model for the assessment of postnatal myonuclear accretion. Skeletal Muscle. Protein supplementation after exercise and before sleep does not further augment muscle mass and strength gains during resistance exercise training in active older men Holwerda, Andrew M.

Protein supplementation after exercise and before sleep does not further augment muscle mass and strength gains during resistance exercise training in active older men. Protein content and amino acid composition of commercially available plant-based protein isolates Gorissen, Stefan H.

Protein content and amino acid composition of commercially available plant-based protein isolates. Amino Acids. Leucine supplementation does not attenuate skeletal muscle loss during leg immobilization in healthy, young men Backx, E.

Intervention: structured body movements that increase energy expenditure, practiced systematically frequency, intensity, and duration , designed to maintain or improve health and supervised by health professionals, with cardiorespiratory or strength exercises, associated or not with a nutritional regimen, focused on energy or protein ratio, changes in macronutrient profile or proportion of additional macronutrients mainly proteins and amino acids , in the form of whole foods orally.

Figure 1. PRISMA search diagram. Results measures: search for differences in operating averages, physical work, functional independence, geriatric assessment, activity rate, cardiorespiratory capacity, running speed, balance, gripping force, or leg strength 8.

Studies with scores equal to or greater than five can be considered to be studies of high methodological quality and low bias risk. Data extraction: the research team reviewed the full text by extracting the data and performing the synthesis. The main result was the effect on functionality, including its standard deviation, with the descriptive characteristics of the article year and sample , the characteristics of the interventions and the results.

Qualitative analysis of the data: the results of the studies were examined, presenting them in a summary table, looking for the means with their standard deviation, which presented statistical significance, in tests that measure functioning, physical work, functional independence, geriatric assessment, activity index, cardiorespiratory capacity, running speed, balance, gripping force, or leg strength.

Characteristics of the studies: articles were identified by applying the selection criteria. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria.

Figure 1 shows the flowchart and the selection of studies, according to the PRISMA statement 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , Characteristics of the participants: Table 1 presents 19 studies, with a total of participants.

Fifty-seven per cent of the studies use body mass index to assess the nutritional status of older adults. The average body mass index of the elderly involved was Table 1. Characteristics of the studies. Characteristics of the interventions: The exercise regimen lasted for 8—78 weeks.

Fifty-seven per cent of the studies use multi-component exercise to intervene with older adults i. Thirty-seven per cent of studies use caloric restriction as nutritional intervention. Description of the quality of the studies: Table 2 presents the evaluation of the studies, presenting a moderate methodological quality PEDro 7.

The lowest scores on the PEDro scale in the analyzed research are obtained for the method of producing blindness of researchers concerning the subjects they were treating or evaluating, administering the therapy, and measuring a key outcome.

Table 2. Evaluation of the quality of the studies Notes: 1. Eligibility criteria were specified; 2. Subjects were randomly allocated to groups in a crossover study, subjects were randomly allocated an order in which treatments were received ; 3.

Allocation was concealed; 4. The groups were similar at baseline regarding the most important prognostic indicators; 5. There was blinding of all subjects; 6. There was blinding of all therapists who administered the therapy; 7.

There was blinding of all assessors who measured at least one key outcome; 8. The results of between-group statistical comparisons are reported for at least one key outcome; The study provides both point measures and measures of variability for at least one key outcome.

Estimating the effect of exercise and nutrition: The 19 studies included in the qualitative analysis have different and heterogeneous results. Therefore, it is not possible to perform statistical analysis with meta-analysis. Therefore, a qualitative analysis of the articles was performed, and the results are presented in a summary table.

This study aimed to determine the most effective exercise and nutrition planning to improve functionality of older obese adults. A decrease in functional capacity predicts mortality, increased hospital income, and decreased quality of life In the literature, there are different tests to evaluate functional capacity.

It is possible to choose those that best fit the population to be evaluated. It may even be necessary to use several of them in combination to perform a complete study. Our review describes different results that are related to functionality and recommends to use the Short Physical Performance Battery SPPB , a test used in geriatrics that allows to evaluate a greater number of patients with a decrease in their functional capacity and who are challenging to evaluate with other physical fitness tests The aging process is often associated with a deterioration in functional capacity, which can often cause problems in daily activities and lead to dependence.

The help of another person is required to perform them. Therefore, we use different measures in our review to evaluate the results of interventions in older adults to assess the change in functionality.

Functional ability is a combination of daily, raw, instrumental, and advanced activities. Disability problems often start with instrumental activities, which are more complex and require more significant effort and skill to execute.

They often end up in those necessary activities that are easier to execute but involve a more significant care burden. Therefore, our results include different measures to evaluate functionality such as the strength of the lower limbs or the gripping force of the upper limb In turn, frail elderly have a vulnerable situation that increases the likelihood of adverse health outcomes It is closely related to age and the consequent loss of functional capacity.

Therefore, it is a syndrome that may be present in older adults. It is also associated with significant health implications because fragile people have a high risk of institutionalization, hospitalization, disability, and death.

SPPB is a validated and standardized test that combines balance, speed of travel, and the test of getting up from the chair It is validated for the frail elderly in primary care and has high reliability in predicting disability.

A score of 10—12 is non-fragile, 4—9 is fragile, and 0—3 is disabled. We recommend using this evaluation in older adults to define exercise-based intervention. Speed of travel is the most common objective functional limitation assessment test.

In longitudinal studies, it has demonstrated the ability to predict adverse events such as hospitalization, frail elderly, falls, dependence, and mortality; it is also a component of the frail elderly phenotype. Therefore, SPPB is a valid test for determining exercise prescription programs with an individualized prescription according to the functional capacity and monitoring of the subject over time; the disadvantage is that its realization requires more time and greater patient collaboration Nutritional recommendations for older adults are to maintain the calorie balance to reach and maintain a healthy weight and to limit the intake of sodium, solid fats, added sugars and refined cereals.

In addition, the focus should be on consuming nutrient-rich beverages and foods such as milk and dairy products, lean poultry and meats, eggs, legumes, nuts, and seeds.

Likewise, it is necessary to consume vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk, and dairy products to obtain more potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and vitamin D. Similarly, it is essential to consume a wide variety of vegetables e.

At least half of all cereals in the diet should be in the form of whole grains. Thus, our review concludes that the consumption of these foods, together with caloric restriction and suppression of high energy-power foods, is the most useful nutritional intervention in older obese adults Nutrition professionals should perform these nutritional interventions to avoid health consequences for the obese elderly.

Changes in body weight and composition have implications for the health status and functional efficiency in advanced age populations These changes include decreased fat-free mass, bone mineral density, and increased fat mass as age progresses.

Older people with excess fat have an increased risk of knee osteoarthritis, sarcopenia, physical deterioration, reduced quality of life, and present risk factors that are commonly associated with coronary heart disease, stroke, and other disorders such as dementia.

Cossio et al. Therefore, this review used body mass index and fat percentage to assess the nutritional status of older adults Fitness assessment is essential in promoting functional capacity and health because it can identify people who are at risk for chronic diseases and the frail elderly Physical performance decreases with age mainly due to deterioration of aerobic endurance, flexibility, strength, speed, agility, and balance.

Therefore, for older obese adults, we recommend multi-component exercises accompanied by caloric restriction, which is reflected in most of the results of this review, with interventions ranging from 8 weeks to 78 weeks.

It is necessary to plan and distribute training loads by following the principles of training in search of improving the physical and functional performance of older adults The population of Latin American has increased.

Because functionality is critical to the quality of life, preventing and reversing dependence should be the priority of the public agenda. Therefore, this review outlines exercise and nutrition plans for older obese adults In Colombia, research using SPPB established benchmark values for Colombian seniors living in the community.

The evaluation of physical function with SPPB provides information on the functional decline of elderly people. It also allows to evaluate the effect of interventions on the functional state of the elderly.

SPPB is calculated based on the time required to complete a 4-meter walk, time to get up from a chair five times, and the ability to stand up to 10 s in three different ways.

This approach has been validated in studies in Brazil and Colombia. In this study, the SPPB score was 8. Therefore, the diet, health status, race, and geographical location of Colombian populations, in general, greatly affect anthropometric and physical performance.

We encourage the use of this test in experimental studies with the elderly to analyze the results. In our study, the evaluation of studies is heterogeneous. Using SPPB, the meta-analysis of results provides more information This approach evaluates the effectiveness of nutrition and exercise on body composition and strength in older adults with obesity and sarcopenia.

In only two trials with 61 participants, with nutrition of 15 grams of protein per day cheese consumption and resistance training with high-speed circuits, it was determined that exercise improves muscle strength. In our study, caloric restriction and multi-component exercise improved functionality in obese older adults.

However, protein intake needs to be considered to improve muscle protein synthesis in obese older adults to improve functionality. Future research should focus on aging, frail elderly, cognitive decline, and improving functionality, disability, and quality of life, with multidomain exercise interventions, nutrition, and cognitive training, improving the functional decline and quality of life of older people In addition, the results of our research indicate that inequalities in older adults, between men and women, depending on the economic status, access to public services, family environment, and health conditions should be considered in Latin America to improve living conditions and health of aging people because these methodologies must be available to all older adults in public service and primary care The limitation of our research is the language due to the lack of accurate translations that allow us to evaluate and analyze other databases.

Another limitation is that functionality is a complex variable, and different evaluation methodologies are used. We propose to use SPPB to evaluate functionality in obese older adults, which would make it easier to perform a meta-analysis to obtain quantitative results. We use qualitative analysis due to the heterogeneity of tests used to evaluate functionality in older obese adults.

Our work allows us to conclude that multi-component exercises and caloric restriction provide benefits for older, obese adults and improve their functional capacity. We hope that these results will help plan and structure exercise for primary care of older adults.

In addition, we note that caloric restriction is a strategy that can be used in older obese adults. However, additional studies on older, obese adults with sarcopenia are needed to analyze nutritional interventions in these patients. The authors would like to thank the Research Executive of the Universidad Santo Tomás, the Universidad Mayor, the Universidad de la Frontera, and the Universidad Pablo de Olavide in Seville, Spain, for their constant support for research.

com for proofreading the English language in this paper. Ahmed AM, Ahmed D, Alfaris M, Holmes A, Aljizeeri A, Al-Mallah MH. Prevalence and predictors of frailty in a high-income developing country: A cross-sectional study.

Qatar Med J. Suikkanen S, Soukkio P, Pitkälä K, Kääriä S, Kautiainen H, Sipilä S, et al. Older persons with signs of frailty in a home-based physical exercise intervention: baseline characteristics of an RCT.

Aging Clin Exp Res. Hernández I, Martínez M, Sánchez A, Reolid R, Tello G, Párraga I. Análisis de la comorbilidad y calidad de vida de pacientes mayores polimedicados. Rev Clín Méd Fam [internet]. Sánchez-García S, García-Peña C, Salvà A, Sánchez-Arenas R, Granados-García V, Cuadros-Moreno J, Velázquez-Olmedo LB, Cárdenas-Bahena Á.

Frailty in community-dwelling older adults: association with adverse outcomes. Clin Interv Aging. Gobbens R, Van Assen M. Associations between multidimensional frailty and quality of life among Dutch older people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. Lu Y, Niti M, Yap KB, Tan CTY, Zin Nyunt MS, Feng L, et al.

Assessment of sarcopenia among community-dwelling at-risk frail adults aged 65 years and older who received multidomain lifestyle interventions. JAMA Netw Open.

Giuliano C, Karahalios A, Neil C, Allen J, Levinger I. The effects of resistance training on muscle strength, quality of life and aerobic capacity in patients with chronic heart failure: a metanalysis. Int J Cardiol. Abizanda Soler P. Medicina geriátrica. Barcelona: Elsevier; Izquierdo M.

Prescripción de ejercicio físico: el programa Vivifrail como modelo. Nutr Hosp. Liu J, Kor P, Lee P, Chien W, Siu P, Hill K. effects of an individualized exercise program plus behavioral change enhancement strategies for managing fatigue in older people who are frail: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

Phys Ther. Louzada A, Mota J, Furtado V, Clodoaldo A. Multimodal HIIT is more efficient than moderate continuous training for management of body composition lipid profile and glucose metabolism in the diabetic elderly.

Int J Morphol. Rocha C, Guimarães A, Maia B, Santos C. Effects of a week concurrent training program on bone metabolism in elderly women. Anton S, Manini TM, Milsom VA, Dubyak P, Cesari M, Cheng J, et al. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial.

Armamento-Villarreal R, Aguirre L, Napoli N, Shah K, Hilton T, Sinacore DR, et al. Changes in thigh muscle volume predict bone mineral density response to lifestyle therapy in frail, obese older adults.

Osteoporos Int. Armamento-Villarreal R, Aguirre LW, Qualls C, Villareal DT. Effect of lifestyle intervention on the hormonal profile of frail, obese older men.

J Nutr Health Aging. Arrieta H, Hervás G, Rezola-Pardo C, Ruiz-Litago F, Iturburu M, Yanguas JJ, et al. Serum myostatin levels are higher in fitter more active, and non-frail long-term nursing home residents and increase after a physical exercise intervention.

Avila J, Gutierres J, Sheehy M, Lofgren I, Delmonico M.

The present study aimed at investigating the vor of two different resistance training protocols Flaxseed nutrition facts nonperiodized NP and daily undulating periodization Macro and micronutrient balance - on hemodynamic, morphofunctional periodiztaion cognitive parameters Nutrition periodization for older adults robust older oldder. Methods: Periodizztion older women were Nutritino allocated into Flaxseed nutrition facts of the three experimental groups: NP, DUP, and control group CG. Evaluations of the hemodynamic, morphofunctional and cognitive parameters occurred before, during and after six months. The exercise groups performed the program of exercise twice a week over 22 weeks. In NP, the two weekly sessions were based on 3 sets of repetitions at a difficult intensity. However, in DUP, a power exercise session based on 3 sets of repetitions at a moderate intensity was added in the first session of the week.

Nutrition periodization for older adults -

NCT Take notes. Trial design 14 participants in 3 patient groups. Nonperiodized resistance training. Experimental group. The Nonperiodized group performed was an intervention based on resistance exercise program with a constant intensity. Daily undulating periodized. The Daily undulating periodized program was an intervention based on daily alterations on exercise load.

Control group. No Intervention group. The control group remained their regular habits of life during all study period, without engaging in physical exercise programs.

Patient eligibility Sex Female. Volunteers Accepts Healthy Volunteers. Inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria. Changes on antihypertensive medication in the past 6 months prior to inclusion in the study; Cardiovascular disease i. Trial contacts and locations 0.

The volunteers performed the same exercises and the total volume number of sets × number of repetitions was equalized between exercise groups. This period also consisted of nine exercises performed three sets times of 8—10 submaximal repetitions with a 1-min rest interval period been provided between sets.

The list of exercises was almost the same of the first month, session training A and B; Training A e. All exercises were performed in the full range of motion and all groups performed a brief warm-up at the beginning of each session, which was based on one set of 12—15 repetitions at easy i.

In addition, volunteers were instructed to avoid the Valsalva maneuver during the entire muscle contraction, regardless of the session of exercise. Exercise intensity and the velocity of concentric muscle contraction were modified differently for each group according to the peculiarities of each type of exercise, as recommended by the ACSM Chodzko-Zajko et al.

In this sense, the NP group performed the exercise sessions at a difficult i. Exercise cadence was 2 seconds for concentric and eccentric phases. On the other hand, to offer a PT session Cadore and Izquierdo, for DUP, concentric contractions were performed as fast as possible, while the eccentric phase was performed within 2 s during training A.

In addition, all exercises were performed at a moderate i. The training B in DUP was the same as that performed by NP 3 sets of 8—10 repetitions at a difficult intensity using machines and free weights.

To offer to the volunteers a more favorable physiological environment, the exercise groups performed a regenerative week every 4 weeks i. In this week, the sessions of exercise were based on 3 sets of 12—15 submaximal repetitions of each exercise, at easy i.

The design of each group across the intervention may be seen in Figure 2. Training load was adjusted based on the rating of RPE method, using the CR Foster et al. Figure 2. Training load distribution in the Non-periodized A and Daily undulating periodization B programs over 3 weeks. It is possible to observe that the training load remains constant across the non-periodized program, while it is distributed according to a wave shape in the daily undulating periodization program.

RPE, Rating of perceived exertion; AU, Arbitrary units; PT, Power training; ST, Strength training. The elastic bands were used to offer to the volunteers the possibility to perform the concentric contraction as fast as possible, avoiding any range-of-motion limitations imposed by the machines, given that elastic bands propitiate large mobility in the achievement of the movement Uchida et al.

Elastic bands are portable, inexpensive, reliable, and have high practical application. Moreover, several studies have been showing similar muscular activations across the muscle contraction during single- and multiple joint exercises Aboodarda et al.

Therefore, the elastic bands in the present study should be viewed as a tool to provide load and mobility, like machines and free weights, and not an independent variable.

Volunteers of the present study performed the exercises using yellow, red and green elastic bands Thera Band, Ohio, USA , which were kept tensioned across the entire muscle contraction, and any kind of slack in the elastics was largely avoided.

All the elastic bands were warily used and then store according to the manufacturer's directions Thera Band, Ohio, USA. The CG remained their regular habits of life during the entire study period, without engaging in physical exercise programs. To ensure that the volunteers did not engage a physical exercise program, face-to-face or telephonic contact was performed every 15 days.

All subjects were instructed to refrain from physical exercise for 96 h before the tests. All tests were conducted between am. and am. under a controlled temperature of 26°C. In the morning of the experiment, upon arriving at the laboratory, the participants were asked about any basic needs drink water or use the bathroom before the beginning of the experiments and were urged to avoid doing these activities during the experiments.

The procedures for measurement of blood pressure were adapted from the VII Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure JNC7 Chobanian et al. In summary, older women remained in a seated position on a comfortable chair for 20 min in a quiet room.

After this period, an appropriate cuff was placed at approximately the midpoint of the upper left arm heart level. An automatic, non-invasive, and validated Cuckson et al. During blood pressure recordings, volunteers remained relaxed in the sitting position, with parallel feet at shoulder width, both forearm and hands on the table, supinated hands, back against the chair, without moving or talking.

The volunteer did not have access to blood pressure values during the measurement. The evaluation lasted approximately 80 seconds and was performed three times the first measurement was discarded with one minute of rest among the measurements.

The size of the arm cuff was selected after measuring the arm circumference of each participant Sanny, São Paulo, Brazil. All evaluations were performed in two non-consecutive days by the same investigator and the mean values of three measurements were used in the final evaluation.

Saliva samples were collected at rest. Researchers asked the participants to put a piece of cotton in their mouth and remove it when it became soggy. The samples were transferred to a Falcon tube and frozen immediately until the end of the experiment.

The NO pool was considered the mensuration of nitrite NO 2 - levels in saliva. Briefly, a solution containing 0. Saliva samples 50 μL and Griess reagent 50 μL were mixed and transferred to microplates.

Absorbance was measured at nm, and sodium nitrite NaNO 2 was used as the standard. Nitrite quantification μM was achieved using a standard curve constructed with NaNO 2 at the concentrations of , 50, 25, Data were analyzed using the Microplate software CA, USA.

The biochemical variables measured were fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol. Venous blood samples were collected by trained phlebotomists into sterile vacuum tubes, and plasma levels of the aforementioned lipid fractions and fasting blood glucose were measured using an ACON Laboratories San Diego, CA, USA and an SD Biosensor Chungcheongkuk-do, SK clinical chemistry systems, respectively.

Normality of data was tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Baseline comparisons between the groups were performed using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance ANOVA followed by Tukey's posthoc test.

An ANOVA [3 × 2, groups × time pre- and post weeks ] was used to examine differences between NP, DUP, and CG pre and post exercise, as the CG had only two measurement moments pre and post.

In addition, a second ANOVA [2 × 4, groups × time Baseline, 4th week, 16th week, and 22nd week ] was used to examine differences between NP and DUP over the 4 measurement moments.

In both cases, a Dunnet post-hoc test was performed to identify differences among the different times of evaluations and treatments. Cohen's d effect size was calculated to assess the magnitude of the results.

The effect size ES was classified according to Rhea for untrained volunteers i. San Diego, California, USA. The intention-to-treat principle was applied to the analysis of the outcomes for all participants based on their assigned treatment.

However, due to convenience, 42 volunteers were recruited. All values are shown as mean ± SD, except for ES that is shown as Cohens'd. Subjects did not show adverse events during the sessions of exercise and during any evaluation.

They were not absent for more than three sessions of physical exercise. All volunteer reported personal reasons for leaving the protocol.

The participation rate for NP and DUP groups were Finally, volunteers did not report any changes in food intake and in the number or class of medications during the whole course of the present study.

Table 1 shows the main characteristics of the volunteers before the beginning of the experiments. Body mass index BMI evaluation—according to specific cut-offs for older adults Corona et al. Blood pressure values in CG were classified as Prehypertension, while trained groups showed blood pressure values classified as Stage 1 Hypertension.

However, hypothesis tests did not indicate significant differences in any variable. Table 1. Comparison between the groups in relation to morphological and cardiovascular variables. When the analyses were performed by subgroups, CG and NP demonstrated overweight and obese phenotypes, respectively, while DUP showed a normal classification in the Normotensive subgroup.

On the other hand, only NP was classified as overweight in the Hypertensive subgroup. Regarding blood pressure values, Normotensive and Hypertensive subgroups showed values according to the proposed cut-offs Corona et al.

Two-way ANOVA demonstrated elevated SBP in all Hypertensive groups when compared to Normotensive groups. Figure 3 shows the hemodynamic parameters before i. DBP and MAP were significantly reduced after NP. However, no significant alterations were observed in DUP.

In turn, CG presented higher HR values when compared to Baseline, NP, and DUP on the 22 nd week. The ES classification of SBP from small to moderate , DBP, and DP from trivial to small in both increased linearly in NP.

A similar pattern was seen in SBP from trivial to small and DBP from small to moderate of DUP. In CG, a moderate classification was attributed to HR. Figure 3.

Hemodynamic parameters of experimental groups in the overall sample. Values expressed as mean ± SD. CG in the 22nd week. An ANOVA [3 × 2, groups × time] was used to examine differences between NP, DUP and CG pre and post-exercise.

An ANOVA [2 × 4, groups × time] was used to examine differences between NP and DUP over the 4 measurement moments Baseline, 4th week, 16th week, and 22nd week. Dunnet was performed as the post-hoc test.

When the analyses were performed by subgroups Figures 4 , 5 , NP training demonstrated further benefits in the Hypertensive sample Figure 4 , since a significant decrease in SBP, DBP, and MAP was observed on the 22nd week. On the other hand, a significant increase in HR and DP was demonstrated by CG.

DUP did not cause significant alterations in the hypertensive sample. When the comparisons were performed among the groups, lower SBP, MAP, HR, and DP were observed in NP, as well as a lower HR in DUP, when compared to CG on the 22nd week.

Evaluations in the Normotensive sample Figure 5 demonstrated that SBP values were lower in NP than in DUP. However, DUP, but not NP, was effective to decrease DBP values. As observed in the overall sample, HR values were elevated in CG when compared to Baseline, NP, and DUP on the 22 nd week.

In CG, HR values of Hypertensive and Normotensive samples were classified as large and moderate, respectively. In the Hypertensive subgroup, ES classification was in concordance with the hypothesis test, because SBP reached a Large classification in NP.

Regarding the Normotensive sample, comparisons between NP and DUP did not confirm ANOVA results because the trained groups showed small and moderate classifications on SBP and DBP values, respectively. However, the highest ES classification on DBP was reached by the NP.

Lastly, the exercise groups demonstrated lower classifications on HR than CG. Figure 4. Hemodynamic parameters of experimental groups in the hypertensive subsample.

Figure 5. Hemodynamic parameters of experimental groups in the normotensive subsample. DUP in the 22nd week. Figure 6 shows the biochemical analysis before and after the protocols.

DUP demonstrated a significant increase in total cholesterol levels after 22 weeks of RT, which was accompanied by a small ES classification. In turn, HDL cholesterol was decreased in the NP group Cohens'd : small. Figure 6. Biochemical parameters of experimental groups.

NP, Non-periodized; DUP, Daily undulating periodization; CG, Control group; NO, Nitric oxide; LDL, Low-density lipoprotein; HDL, High-density lipoprotein. An ANOVA [3 × 2, groups × time] was used to examine differences between NP, DUP, and CG pre and post-exercise.

The main findings of the present study indicate that a week NP exercise training program reduces DBP and MAP in older female volunteers. Moreover, although our study was not designed to evaluate the effects of DUP and NP on samples composed exclusively by hypertensive and normotensive volunteers, we observed further benefits on blood pressure when the sample was divided according to HTN, since hypertensive patients showed a significant reduction in SBP, DBP, and MAP after NP exercise training, but not after DUP.

On the other hand, a decreased DBP was only observed after DUP in the normotensive group. It should be stressed, that both NP and DUP programs presented lower HR values on the 22nd week in comparison to CG. Although significant values were only observed in the hypertensive sample, ES evaluation indicated that NP results were better ranked in intra and intergroup comparisons when compared to DUP and CG.

These data are supported by previous research, which has shown that NP programs are effective to decrease blood pressure values in hypertensive Terra et al. Indeed, in a recent experiment, Tomeleri et al. Similarly, Terra et al. Despite the similarities among the studies, it is necessary to highlight some bias associated with these previous trials, such as the short-term intervention period, samples composed of a mixture of middle-aged and older adults, and a high prevalence of patients with other comorbidities than HTN e.

In addition, some exercise programs were prescribed based on the maximum number of repetitions that the volunteer could reach, which does not bring an attractive cost-benefit because blood pressure values increase progressively in these regimes of exercise, reaching the highest level during the last repetition MacDougall et al.

On the other hand, in the present investigation, we observed that older women submitted to a week moderate intensity NP exercise training program demonstrated a greater decrease on hemodynamic parameters when compared to the aforementioned studies, regardless of the elevated intensity proposed by some of the studies.

Nevertheless, it should be stressed that the main positive effects of the present study were observed in NP since DUP did not cause significant reductions in blood pressure values of hypertensive patients.

Unfortunately, this is the first study that investigated the impact of a chronic DUP composed of ST and PT sessions, which severely limits our discussion. It is well-accepted, that the chronic adaptations presented by the cardiovascular system in response to physical exercise may be due to the sum of the acute effects Terra et al.

In this sense, an increasing number of studies have shown that a session of low-to-moderate load power exercise may cause post-exercise hypotension PEH in hypertensive older women Coelho-Júnior et al. In addition, Arazi et al. Therefore, in our point of view, these data suggested that exercise intensity does not play a key role in the hemodynamic adaptations in response to PT, leading us to combine low-to-moderate PT and traditional RT in a DUP program.

However, it should be stressed that the findings of Arazi et al. Findings from studies that investigated the acute effects of resistance exercise on blood pressure have been demonstrating a similar phenomenon Figueiredo et al. Unfortunately, the evidence is scarce in relation to this specific issue, and future studies should be designed to allow better inferences.

It is noteworthy that the findings of the current study seem to have great practical application because a slight decrease in SBP and DBP reduces cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk Antonakoudis et al.

Furthermore, CG demonstrated an exponential increase in HR over the 22 weeks, which was not observed in both exercise groups, indicating a cardioprotective role of NP and DUP programs.

Several biological mechanisms may underlie the cardioprotective benefits observed in HR after NP and DUP, such as an ameliorated autonomic balance and an increased anti-inflammatory milieu mediated by myokines to review see Fiuza-Luces et al.

Once these possible mechanisms were not investigated in the present study, future studies should consider their assessment. Moreover, there is no consensus regarding the effects of RT on NO bioavailability.

In fact, acutely, we observed elevated salivary NO levels in response to the exercise programs used in the current study Coelho-Júnior et al. However, chronically, this phenomenon was not reported by Moraes et al. The inconsistencies between these findings may be a function of the different exercise training designs, assay methods e.

When baseline data was confronted, for example, was possible to observe different NO levels at baseline μM; Moraes et al. Accordingly, several variables associated or not with exercise training prescription appear to influence NO levels and more controlled studies are still necessary.

Interestingly, although volunteers were asked not to change their diet or food habits during the experimental period, elevated total cholesterol and reduced HDL cholesterol levels were observed on the 22nd week in DUP, and NP, respectively, when compared to Baseline. An altered caloric intake may be responsible for this phenomenon, as well as for the lack of alterations in NO bioavailability since cholesterol levels are positively associated with the atherosclerotic process, decreasing NO levels Cornelissen and Smart, Nevertheless, we should assume that more studies confirming the reliability of salivary NO as a method to assess vascular NO are still necessary.

Since NO availability was unchanged in the groups, other mechanisms are responsible for the beneficial effects observed after NP exercise training, such as autonomic modulation Shimojo et al.

Other limitations of the present study—in addition to the absence of the evaluation of the autonomic cardiac control—should be mentioned to collaborate with better inferences about the data, such as the lack of dietary control and the inclusion of individuals regardless of BMI.

It is worth mentioning that our sample size may limit the investigation of subgroups i. Indeed, our experimental design was based on 3, and not 6 groups, as stated in the statistical analyses.

In this sense, inferences about the findings of our subgroup analyses should be taken carefully. Another important limitation of the present study is the lack of a control hemodynamic evaluation performed a few weeks before the baseline evaluation, which is helpful to avoid bias and the influence of external factors.

Finally, we proposed PT as a safer kind of RT than traditional ST. However, we do not have enough data to support this hypothesis.

Therefore, future studies with larger sample sizes, other periodization designs, sessions of PT performed at higher intensities, and more detailed evaluations should be performed to confirm the current findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a week NP RT program causes beneficial effects on hemodynamic parameters of older women.

HC-J conception and design, analysis, and interpretation of data, drafting the article and analysis and interpretation of data for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be submitted. BR drafting the article and analysis and interpretation of data for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be submitted; NC, IG, MC, and RB analysis, acquisition, and interpretation of data, critical review for important intellectual content.

JS, EC, and RA conception and design, analysis, and interpretation of data, drafting the article and analysis and interpretation of data for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be submitted.

MU conception and design, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting the article and analysis and interpretation of data for important intellectual content; final approval of the version to be submitted.

BR received financial support from Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento CNPq-BPQ. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Aboodarda, S. Muscle activation comparisons between elastic and isoinertial resistance: a meta-analysis. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Andersen, L. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance.

Antonakoudis, G. Blood pressure control and cardiovascular risk reduction. Hippokratia 11, — PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Arazi, H. Post-plyometric exercise hypotension and heart rate in normotensive individuals: influence of exercise intensity.

Asian J. Sports Med. Cadore, E. Muscle power training: a Hallmark for muscle function retaining in frail clinical setting. Chobanian, A. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA , — Chodzko-Zajko, W.

Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

BMC Geriatrics volume 21Flaxseed nutrition facts number: Cite this article. Metrics details. Nutrution Correction to this article peruodization published on 28 June Health-promoting interventions are important for preventing frailty and sarcopenia in older adults. However, there is limited evidence that nutritional interventions yield additional effects when combined with resistance training. The present study Nutrition periodization for older adults at investigating the olrer of aduls daily undulating periodization DUP Amino acid synthesis inhibitors non-periodized NP resistance training programs on hemodynamic parameters of older women. Forty-two older dor were randomized periodizatoon one of the Flaxseed nutrition facts experimental groups: NP, DUP, and control group CG. Evaluations of the hemodynamic parameters occurred before, during and after the intervention. The exercise programs were performed twice a week over 22 weeks. NP and DUP groups were based on 3 sets of 8—10 repetitions in 9 exercises. In NP, the two exercise sessions were based on traditional strength training, which was performed at a Difficult intensity according to the rating of perceived exertion RPE method.

Author: Kasida

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