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Natural antioxidant sources

Natural antioxidant sources

Food Chem — Jowko E, Sacharuk Antkoxidant, Balasinska B, Quinoa salad recipes P, Natral M, Charmas R Diabetic autonomic neuropathy tea extract supplementation gives protection against Soutces oxidative damage in healthy men. In addition, caution is needed regarding supplements. Epidemiological prospective studies show that higher intakes of antioxidant-rich fruits, vegetables, and legumes are associated with a lower risk of chronic oxidative stress-related diseases like cardiovascular diseasescancer, and deaths from all causes.

Natural antioxidant sources -

The nature is always a significant and rich source of countless ingredients that can be served as health-promoting agents. Many of these natural sources include routinely used fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, and edible mushrooms that can be the part of routine diet.

In addition to that, there is a huge list of medicinal plants reported to have extensive health-boosting potentials. One of the most beneficial effects from these natural sources is due to their potential antioxidant properties.

Regarding the antioxidant capability, the researchers have focused their studies to explore the most potential sources along with their active ingredients. The researchers have added some marine sources such as algae and seagrass as well in the list of these natural sources.

The recent studies have also explored the role of naturally occurring microbiome in the gut in the body antioxidant pool denoted as good bugs.

These good bugs can also be used as supplement called as probiotics. Thus, generated literature is a big data bank for the researchers of the field and beneficial information for the general reader as well. There is a need to summarize this enormous data bank based upon the identification of most potential sources, which will make the literature feasible for the professional and nonprofessional readers at the same time.

This chapter will elaborate the various natural sources of antioxidants that hopefully help to prioritize the beneficial amendments in dietary composition. Fruits and vegetables are highly recommended dietary contents, widely known for their health-promoting effects and nutritious values.

They got an essential place as conventional foods in the history because of their excessive amount of minerals, specifically electrolytes; vitamins, specifically vitamins C and E; while various current studies are revealing their phytochemical contents, having antioxidant capabilities [ 13 ].

These antioxidants scavenge the oxidants or free radicals produced as a result of several degenerative and disease processes such as diabetes, cancers, and cardiovascular disorders.

So, regular consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of mortality associated with these diseases [ 14 ]. Most of the natural antioxidants convert the lipid radicals into more stable products by breaking the chain.

Antioxidants obtained from vegetables and fruits are mostly of phenolic structure, which may include vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols [ 15 ]. Antioxidant minerals, such as iron, zinc, selenium, copper, and manganese, act as cofactor of many antioxidant enzymes, absence of which may certainly disturb the activity of their enzymatic scavenging activity [ 16 ].

The antioxidant capability of different fruits is being presented in Table 1. Polyphenols, present in fruits and vegetables, is a group of several low- and high-molecular-weight compounds having antioxidant properties that prevent lipid oxidation [ 17 ].

Most of them are conjugates of mono and polysaccharides connected with one or more groups of phenol rings or may also present as functional derivatives such as esters and methyl esters [ 18 ]. This major class of natural antioxidants can be obtained from teas, particularly green and red teas, as well as fruits such as grapes [ 19 ].

However, polyphenols from teas have more significant than in fruits because of their bioavailability in blood. This absorption is enhanced when there are no sugar molecules attached with them.

So, teas have more absorption of polyphenols than in fruits because of high sugar content in fruits [ 20 ]. Flavonoids, another important antioxidant content, is a subclass of polyphenols present abundantly in most of the foods, such as potatoes, wheat, tomatoes, red berries, peaches, and almonds [ 21 ].

Anthocyanin is a subcategory of flavonoids Figure 1 which is present in berries and red wine. It is a potent antioxidant with decreased bioavailability as compared to other flavonoids [ 19 ]. Polyphenols show their antioxidant properties by preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins LDL , thus preventing plaque formation [ 22 ].

Some types of polyphenols have also been found to inhibit the oxidation of some important enzymes and thus preserve their proper functioning [ 23 ].

Carotenoids are another major class of phytochemicals antioxidants from fruits and vegetables after polyphenols.

They mostly found in vegetables, such as potatoes, carrots, papayas, and apricots [ 21 ]. Among the vitamins obtained from fruits and vegetables, acting as antioxidants, vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a very potent water-soluble antioxidant commonly found in citrus fruits and vegetables such as oranges, lemons [ 24 ], and tomatoes [ 21 ].

It is recommended that the fruits and vegetables containing vitamin C should be taken in small divided doses instead of having a large dose simultaneously because vitamin C shows less absorption when given in large quantities [ 25 ]. Another vitamin with antioxidant properties is vitamin E, which is related to tocopherol family of antioxidant.

It is a fat-soluble, nonpolar vitamin found naturally in lipid-rich fruits and vegetables, such as olives, sunflower, and nuts [ 21 ]. Vitamin E shows higher bioavailability than vitamin C, which is perhaps due to its fat solubility and can be further enhanced when taken with fatty foods [ 25 ].

Fruits and vegetable waste material is produced during their cultivation, industrial management, processing, preservation, and distribution [ 26 ]. In the past few decades, researchers have been struggling to device the methods to recycle these wastes to get therapeutic benefits [ 27 ].

The vegetables and fruit waste material includes peelings, trimming, shells, seeds, stems, and pulp residues that remained after extraction of juices and starch or sugar preparation. According to a research, greater amounts of phenols and ascorbic acids have been reported in these waste scalps than their pulp [ 29 ] and in unripe form than their ripened form [ 30 ].

Most of the fruit peels contain 2—27 times greater amount of antioxidants than their pulp [ 31 ]. According to Someya et al.

Cucumis sativus Cucumber peel has been reported as a good source of flavonoids, which is considered as a potential antioxidant [ 33 ]. Many bioactive substances may be recovered from theses wastes to prepare foods in food processing and therapeutic preparations [ 34 ].

A significant amount of bioactive phytochemicals, having strong antioxidant properties, can be obtained from the tomato wastes, which include carotenes, tocopherols, terpenes, sterols, and polyphenols.

These natural antioxidants obtained from food waste may be used to formulate functional foods or can be used as food additives [ 35 ].

A lot of antioxidants, such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and dietary fibers, are found in mango peel. The wastes of wine-making industry include degradable solids such as skin, stem, and seeds, which contain many antioxidants that have shown to prevent many degenerative processes and possess health-promoting effects [ 37 ].

Pujol et al. Antioxidant ingredients from various sources of fruit waste have been presented in Table 2. In the nutrition world, mushrooms are delegated vegetables; however, they are not actually plants.

They have a place with the kingdom of fungi. In spite of the fact that they are not vegetables, mushrooms give imperative supplements.

Mushrooms are considered as healthfully utilitarian sustenance and also source of valuable medicines [ 39 , 40 ]. Numerous consumable mushrooms for the most part Basidiomycetes are great wellsprings of important nutritive components including carbohydrates, for example, β-glucans; lipids; B-vitamins, such as niacin, flavin, and pyridoxine; phenolics, like tocopherols; organic acids, for example, malate ascorbate, fumarate, and shikimate; monoterpenoid and diterpenoid; proteins, for example, hydrophobins; and trace components, for example, selenium [ 41 , 42 , 43 ].

These components are established as to be responsible for immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antitumor, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant activities of mushrooms [ 44 , 45 ].

Out of approximately 15, known species, 2, are found safe for human utilization, and around of these contain therapeutic properties [ 47 ]. There are a number of mushrooms including Agaricus bisporus [ 48 ] Lentinus edodes [ 49 ], Armillaria mellea [ 50 ], Auricularia auricula [ 51 ], Boletus edulis [ 52 ], Ganoderma applanatum [ 53 ] , Grifola frondosa [ 54 ], Hypsizigus marmoreus [ 55 ], Pleurotus sp.

The antioxidant properties of mushrooms are mainly due to their phenolic compound [ 52 , 48 ]. Phenolic acid is the chief phenolic component present in the mushrooms. There are an assortment of phenolic compounds recognized in wild mushrooms, including cinnamic acid, protocatechuic, p -hydroxybenzoic, p -coumaric acids, gallic acid, vanillin, rutin, and quercetin [ 60 ].

Polysaccharides are one of the major components in the mushroom. In recent studies, it has been revealed that they contain the antioxidant property [ 61 ]. Scavenging properties of polysaccharides are impacted by chemical properties such as atomic weight, level of branching, monosaccharide types, and proportion of monosaccharides, intermolecular relationship of polysaccharides, and alteration of polysaccharides.

Among the monosaccharides, rhamnose is the most critical determinant factor related to scavenging properties of mushroom [ 62 ]. bisporus, also known as white button mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America, cultivated in more than 70 countries [ 63 ], possesses polysaccharides and antioxidants including vitamin C, D, B 12 ; folates; and polyphenols [ 48 ].

The phenolic composition of methanolic extract from A. bisporus is investigated by HPLC. Polysaccharides and phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, rutin, caffeic acid, and catechin found in the mushroom are responsible for its scavenging activity [ 64 ].

Mushrooms being routinely used as dietary ingredient made them a significant natural antioxidant source. mellea is a culinary-medicinal honey mushroom, used as an admired element in the traditional Chinese medicine. The mushroom is pathogenic and is found worldwide in temperate, boreal, and tropical forests [ 65 ].

It grows on living trees and on dead and rotting sustenance material [ 66 ]. Polysaccharides obtained from wild sporophores and refined products of A. mellea have scavenging properties [ 67 ].

Two polysaccharides, AkPS1V-1 and AkPS1V-2, from the alkaline extract of the mushroom have been isolated and reported for their antioxidant activity [ 68 ]. Moreover, their ascorbic acid and phenolic components have been reported for their scavenging impact on superoxide anions [ 69 ].

Overall, it is reported to have a fair antioxidant capacity to be used as food oxidation-reducing substance. auricula is an edible mushroom, found worldwide, belongs to the family Auriculaceae, commonly known as tree-tea or wood-ear. The mushroom contains high quantity of carbohydrates including polysaccharides, proteins, minerals, and phenolic substances [ 69 , 70 ].

Polysaccharides of the mushroom have antioxidant activity [ 71 ] by the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and have effective hydroxyl radical scavenging activity [ 72 ]. In the case of lipid peroxidation, IC 50 values of ethanolic, crude, and boiled extracts of A.

Khaskheli et al. isolated two polysaccharides from fruiting body of A. auricula and evaluated potential antioxidant activity of these polysaccharides [ 71 ].

Among its various extracts, the boiled extract, which is also convenient, proves to be more effective antioxidant. edulis belongs to the Boletus species of mushroom widely distributed in the holarctic across Asia, Europe, and North America, commonly known as porcino and penny bun [ 73 ].

Other edible mushrooms of boletus species including B. aereus, B. reticulate , and B. edulis have good antioxidant properties. Total phenol contents of B. edulis is higher that shows the scavenging activity [ 74 ].

auranticus EC50 0. However, reducing power of B. edulis is higher. edulis extricate averts lipid peroxidation [ 75 ]. Antioxidant activity of B.

edulis is attributed to its polysaccharides found in the fruiting bodies that are reported to have chelating action and inhibitory impacts on superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical [ 67 ]. Vieira et al. edulis antioxidant activity with the combination of another edible mushroom Marasmius oreades.

They investigated different parameter to observe the antioxidant capacity of the both mushroom species mixture, and they observed the good antioxidant activity in synergism. These results show that on various occasions, the addition of more than one mushroom as a combination gives more effective results than alone.

Ganoderma lucidum is also commonly known as Lingzhi, a basidiomycete fungus, native to China and grows in mountain woods with humid and dim-light conditions, in the rotten bark or root of tree.

The mushroom is well known as medicinal mushroom and has been prescribed to prevent and treat different diseases [ 77 ]. lucidum contains polysaccharides, sterols, triterpenoids, nucleosides, and alkaloids [ 78 ].

lucidum is called as marvelous mushroom of immortality because it shows that the consumption of the mushroom can prolong life [ 77 ]. Shi et al. lucidum and investigate their antioxidant property. They demonstrated that these four polysaccharides have scavenging activities in a concentration-dependent manner [ 79 ].

applanatum is known as shelf fungus and also belongs to Ganoderma species of the mushroom. applanatum exhibits the higher antioxidant property over G.

lucidum and other two edible mushrooms including L. edodes and Trametes versicolor [ 80 ]. frondosa , also known as Maitake, is a culinary as well as medicinal mushroom native to China, North America, and northeastern part of Japan but cultivated worldwide in several countries because of its useful effects [ 81 ].

The mushroom is progressively being perceived as a powerful wellspring of polysaccharide with sensational well-being and advanced potential. Total phenols, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and flavonoids are the major scavenging agents present in the different G.

frondosa extricates [ 82 ]. frondosa polysaccharides have critical inhibitory impacts on hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical, and 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH radical [ 83 ].

Their ferrous particles chelating activity is also strong [ 84 ]. Fan et al. frondosa by various separating techniques. Hot alkali extract of G. frondosa has the better antioxidant activity as compared to partially purified polysaccharides.

It has the lower EC 50 values of DPPH scavenging ability [ 86 ]. The study results enforce the variation of their antioxidant ingredients due to the seasonal and geographic displacements. marmoreus is an edible mushroom commonly found in East Asia including Korea, China, and Japan, widely known due to its antioxidant activity [ 87 ].

Phenols [ 88 ] and polysaccharides are the major bioactive components present in H. marmoreus that show the antioxidant activity by scavenging reactive oxygen species and strengthening its reducing power [ 55 ].

Liu et al. investigated the intracellular polysaccharides of H. marmoreus and revealed that these polysaccharides can be utilized as an antioxidant agent that improves adaptive immune reactions [ 89 ]. edodes also known as shitake mushroom is the second most well-known consumable mushroom in the worldwide market and is usually cultivated in Indonesia, Taiwan, China, and Japan [ 90 ].

The mushroom is credited to its wholesome incentive as well as to conceivable potential for therapeutic applications [ 91 ].

edodes contains some important polysaccharides that have therapeutic activity. The mushroom is also a good source of vitamins, particularly vitamin B, including B1, B2, B5, B12, and provitamin D2. edodes extract has potent antioxidant effect due to the presence of bioactive compounds ergothioneine [ 92 ].

edodes has the ability to increase the total antioxidant capacity and reduce the total oxidative stress [ 91 ]. UV-C radiation can improve scavenging capacity of L.

edodes [ 93 ]. Chen et al. edodes , and they demonstrated the polysaccharides as potent antioxidant agents that can produce healthy immune response. The treatment of mushroom crude powder or its extract may also helpful to enhance its antioxidant capability.

Pleurotus ostreatus is the third most cultivated mushroom worldwide after A. bisporus [ 94 ]. Its mycelia as well as fruiting bodies have well-known therapeutic effects due to its various biologically active compounds including phenols, flavonoids, and carotenoids [ 95 ] having strong antioxidant activity [ 96 ].

The methanol extract demonstrated the most grounded β-carotene-linoleic acid restraint when contrasted with alternate extracts.

On the other hand, acetone has the strong reducing power than alternate concentrates. commune is a standout among the usually discovered fungus and can be separated from all landmasses, aside from Antarctica.

commune has been accounted for to be a pathogen of people and trees; however, it principally receives a saprobic way of life by causing white rot.

The antioxidant activity of S. commune is due to polysaccharides and polyphenols components [ 97 ]. sativum commonly known as garlic is a species belongs to family Alliaceae commonly cultivated in India [ 98 ]. It is a perpetual herb with a tall, erect blooming stem that grows up to 3 feet.

Garlic has been utilized all through history for both culinary and therapeutic purposes. sativum is an adaptable herb that contains various trace elements, vitamins, and minerals.

The total phenolic compound of the garlic has the antioxidant activity [ 99 ]. As an antioxidant, garlic has the strongest DPPH-scavenging ability [ ]. Aged garlic extract has significantly eminent total phenolic substance than raw garlic extract [ ]. It has been noticed that as the plant gets older, more the antioxidant potential it will gain.

Capsicum annuum red pepper is native to southern North America and northern South America and was introduced in Asia in sixteenth century from South America [ ]. It contains a wide cluster of phytochemicals with their radical-scavenging properties [ ]. The spice contains carotenoids, flavonoids, tocopherols, free sugars, capsaicinoids, L-ascorbic acid, and organic acids [ ].

At the ripe stage, hot-dried peppers have a high bioactive substances that show huge free radical-scavenging properties such as polyphenols and carotenoids [ ].

Curcuma longa is a well-known spice that has a place in the Zingiberaceae family and is a lasting herb that measures up to 1 m high with a short stem. It is circulated all through tropical and subtropical locales of the world, being generally developed in Asiatic nations [ ], primarily in India and China.

In Pakistan and India, it is prevalently known as Haldi. As a powder, called turmeric, it has been in continual use as a flavor enhancer in both veggies lover and non-vegan foods.

Essential oil of fresh rhizomes has higher scavenging properties [ ]. The phenolic compounds of C. longa are the primary contributor of antioxidant activity [ ]. Eugenia caryophyllus commonly known as clove is a medium-size tree m that belongs to family Myrtaceae. caryophyllus has been utilized for a considerable length of time as nourishment additive and for some therapeutic purposes as well [ ].

Clove is local of Indonesia yet these days also cultivated in some other countries including Brazil in the province of Bahia. This plant is one of the wealthiest sources of phenolic compounds, for example, gallic acid eugenol and eugenol acetate [ ]. caryophyllus leaf essential oil and its main constituent eugenol possess high antioxidant activity [ ].

Among various extracts, the methanolic extract has higher scavenging activity than acetone and chloroform extracts [ ]. Geranium sanguineum , usually called as bloody cranesbill, is a herbaceous plant that belongs to family Geraniaceae.

It is local from Asia and Europe and is developed as a garden subject. In Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Zanzibar, it is cultivated on large scale. It is found naturally in Madagascar, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and West Indies [ ]. Methanol extract of G. sanguineum has the free radical-scavenging property [ ].

Pistacia lentiscus is extensively used in folk medicine by rural populations in Algeria. The herb is imperative due to its therapeutic uses. lentiscus have the radical-scavenging activity [ ]. lentiscus have exceptional reducing power and strong radical-scavenging activity against DPPH [ , ].

Salvia officinalis , also known as garden sage, belongs to family Lamiaceae and possesses strong antioxidant property [ ]. The plant is grown and cultivated in some parts of Iran.

The leaves of the plant are utilized as a part of Iranian folk medicine. The antioxidant activity of the plant is due to the presence of polyphenol constituents [ ].

Dried sage leaves infusion with boiling water sage tea is the most typical form of preparation. Sage tea contains polyphenolic constituents that possess antioxidant property and other therapeutic effects [ ].

Its native is Amazon rainforest and other tropical territories of Central and South America. For centuries, the plant has been utilized as a part of customary practices in South America particularly in Peru.

Due to its anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging activities, the plant has been used to treat rheumatic diseases and cancer [ ]. Decoctions prepared from the bark of U.

tomentosa are generally utilized as a part of the conventional Peruvian medicine for the treatment of many diseases [ ]. The bark decoctions have strong ability to decrease the free radicals diphenylpicrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorous acid [ ].

Leea indica belongs to the family Vitaceae and has been traditionally used as natural folk medicine in Malaysia. In the leaves of L. indica , 23 known chemical compounds are identified [ ].

The identified compounds include 11 hydrocarbons, 3 phthalic acid esters, phthalic acid, gallic acid, ursolic acid, solanesol, farnesol, β-sitosterol, lupeol, and 1-eicosanol [ ]. Among these, total phenolic compounds possess the antioxidant activity [ ]. Polyalthia cerasoides belongs to the family Annonaceae and is a medicinal plant used in Thai native medicine.

The roots of P. cerasoides are used for therapeutic purposes that contain alkaloid, bidebiline, three known sesquiterpenes, four known isoquinoline, and other compounds such as laudanosine, codamine, laudanidine, and reticuline [ ].

The extract has the highest phenolic compound and high reactive oxygen species-scavenging activity [ , ]. Marine ecosystem has been reported as a potential source of biodiversity and chemical activities. The organisms living in marine environment are gaining the attention of industries such as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, and cosmetics because of possessing various interesting and useful chemical compounds [ ].

Marine biotechnologists are trying to produce the tool for the utilization of marine biodiversity for the production of cheap source of pharmaceutical products and functional foods [ ].

Seaweeds and sponges are considered as the richest source of bioactive compounds having the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities [ ]. Seaweeds and sponges with their associated bacteria have been found to possess various health-promoting and disease prevention effects due to their phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and useful organic acids [ ].

These are supposed to be the most protective group of foods against environmental pollutants and radiation [ ]. Among various other useful compounds, the marine organisms also contain polyphenolic compounds that are responsible for antioxidant activity including flavonoids, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, gallic acid, quercy, and phlorotannins [ ].

Nonanimal sulfated polysaccharides are reported to have antioxidant activities [ ], which can be obtained from marine algae and other marine organisms from the phaeophyta group [ ]. A large number of different species of algae and microalgae have been studied for the use of their bioactive contents as functional food components.

Algae comprised of a huge and complex group of photosynthetic organisms with simple reproductive organs, which can be multicellular, known as macroalgae and unicellular called as microalgae.

Algae grow in extremes of environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and salinity, which results in the production of a large number of reactive oxygen species ROS.

To cope with these ROS, algae produce various secondary metabolites with many antioxidant activities such as phycobilins, polyphenols, carotenoids, and vitamins [ ]. People living in coastal areas use many types of seaweed, both as fresh and dry forms, as a natural source of food, and from the research, it is known that these seaweeds contain a large amount of proteins, minerals, and vitamins.

Although the composition of these seaweeds varies according to their species, geographical distribution, temperature, and seasonal variation, the overall nutritional value remains the same.

Many compounds from marine algae possess anticancer activity, and recently, seaweeds have gained attention as a rich source of antioxidants [ ].

Many of the secondary metabolites produced by marine organisms reflect the presence of chloride and bromide ions in seawater. Marine halogenated compounds assemble a large number of other useful compounds such as indoles, peptides, terpenes, phenols, acetogenins, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons.

This protective effect suggests the presence of antioxidant compounds that show their antioxidant activity as free radical scavengers, hydrogen-donating compounds, single oxygen quenchers, and metal ion chelators.

Many biological compounds have previously isolated from some other marine organisms such as fish, crustaceans, and their byproducts [ ].

Seaweeds also create a suitable environment to a large number of bacteria that live on their surface having much more diversity of microorganisms as compared to other multicellular organisms [ ].

These associated microorganisms have a protective effect on the seaweeds from pathogen, and they produce a large number of bioactive compounds of biomedical importance [ ]. Exopolysaccharides produced by these bacterial species are used as an ingredient in food, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries and emulsification of crude oil, vegetables, mineral oils, and bioremediation agents in environment management systems [ ].

Fish protein hydrolysate FPH , which is prepared from various marine organisms such as mackerel, tuna, Alaska Pollock, and yellowfin sole, has also been reported to have antioxidant activity [ , , ].

Many types of peptides are obtained from fish muscle, bone, skin, and other tissues. All of these amino acids can scavenge-free radicals, but the most powerful scavenging activity attributes to those who can easily donate hydrogen atoms.

These amino acids are cystine and methionine, which have nucleophilic sulfur-containing side chains or tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, which have aromatic side chains. Peptide size and amino acid composition are important for the FPH because it determines its antioxidant nature [ ].

An in vitro study on phycocyanin, a pigment obtained from blue-green algae, reveals its antioxidant activity. It was evaluated in vitro by the use of luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence LCL.

This antioxidant activity was also confirmed in vivo by induction of inflammation in mice paw with glucose oxidase. The edema caused by inflammation was reduced, and the luminous signal indicated that the phycocyanin can scavenge OH˙ and RO˙ [ ].

Algal antioxidants are also used in the cosmeceutical industries as antiaging agents [ ]. A carotenoid pigment known as astaxanthin, found in microalga Haematococcus pluvialis , is reported to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant activities [ ].

An increasing interest has been observed from the past decade in exploring the natural ingredients to be used in the food and food products.

The researchers from all over the world are focusing on the alternate sources other than the synthetic one, which will be more safe and convenient as dietary component. Moreover, the synthetic antioxidants and preservatives in the food may lead to lipid peroxidation and deterioration of food flavor and quality.

The use of natural herbs, spices, and plant ingredients is in practice from the ancient times and still practiced in the traditional food preparation as preservative, aroma, and flavor. This chapter is an effort to overview the potentials of various natural sources having reasonable antioxidant potential.

The literature reports compiled here will be beneficial to identify the significance of various natural sources based on their antioxidant capacity, active ingredients, and geographic availability. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.

Edited by Emad Shalaby. Open access peer-reviewed chapter Antioxidants from Natural Sources Written By Haseeb Anwar, Ghulam Hussain and Imtiaz Mustafa. DOWNLOAD FOR FREE Share Cite Cite this chapter There are two ways to cite this chapter:. Choose citation style Select style Vancouver APA Harvard IEEE MLA Chicago Copy to clipboard Get citation.

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Chapter metrics overview 5, Chapter Downloads View Full Metrics. Impact of this chapter. Abstract Antioxidants are the defense system of the body against the damage of reactive oxygen species, which is normally produced during the various physiological processes in the body.

Keywords antioxidants vegetables fruits plants herbs. Introduction The formations of oxygen reactive forms as a result of rigorous oxidative processes taking place in human organism are the potent precursors of systemic cells and tissues damage.

Types of antioxidants from fruits and vegetables Polyphenols, present in fruits and vegetables, is a group of several low- and high-molecular-weight compounds having antioxidant properties that prevent lipid oxidation [ 17 ].

Antioxidants from fruits and vegetables wastes Fruits and vegetable waste material is produced during their cultivation, industrial management, processing, preservation, and distribution [ 26 ]. No English name Antioxidant contents Concentration ORAC value References 1.

Beet root Betalains [ ] 2. Guava β-Carotene, lycopene, vitamin C, ellagic acid, anthocyanin [ ] 3. Water melon Lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C [ ] 7. Apple Proanthocyanidins, flavonoids kaempferol, quercetin, and naringenin derivatives ; phenolic acids protocatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives ; hydroxychalcones phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives ; and isoprenoid glycosides vomifoliol derivatives Flavanols, flavonols, dihydrochalcones, and hydroxycinnamates Plum Proanthocyanidins, flavonoids kaempferol, quercetin, and naringenin derivatives ; phenolic acids protocatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives ; hydroxychalcones phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives ; and isoprenoid glycosides vomifoliol derivatives Guava β-Carotene, lycopene, vitamin C, ellagic acid, anthocyanin Table 1.

Some important fruits having antioxidant constituents. No Fruit Residue Antioxidant Reference 1. Research suggests that when it comes to longevity and overall health, some of the benefits of consuming antioxidant foods, herbs, teas and supplements include:.

There are many different types of antioxidants, including several antioxidant vitamins, minerals and polyphenols. Most whole foods include a mix of the best antioxidants, making it easy to maximize the potential health benefits and fit a range of vitamins for the immune system into your diet.

Along with other compounds on the list of antioxidants, vitamin C antioxidants are highly effective at neutralizing free radicals to protect against disease.

Other vitamins and minerals that have powerful antioxidant properties include vitamin A, vitamin E, manganese and selenium. Other antioxidants include lycopene, carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, anthocyanins , quercetin, glutathione and flavonoids like rutin. As described above, the single most important benefit of antioxidants is counteracting free radicals found inside every human body, which are very destructive to things like tissue and cells.

Free radicals are responsible for contributing to many health issues and have connections to such diseases as cancer and premature aging of the skin or eyes.

The body uses antioxidants to prevent itself from the damage caused by oxygen. Electrons exist in pairs; free radicals are missing an electron. This is their weapon of sorts. Free radicals then damage DNA, cellular membranes and enzymes.

Many foods that provide these nutrients also supply antioxidants called lutein and zeaxanthin, nicknamed the eye vitamins , found in brightly colored foods like fruits and vegetables — especially leafy greens and types that are deep orange or yellow.

These antioxidants are believed to be easily transported around the body, especially to the delicate parts of the eyes called the macula and the lens. In fact, there are more than different types of carotenoids found in nature, but only about 20 make their way into the eyes.

Of those 20, lutein and zeaxanthin are the only two macular carotenoids that are deposited in high quantities into the macular portion of the eyes, which is one of the earliest to be damaged during aging.

Research shows that high-lutein sources like spinach are proven to help decrease eye-related degeneration and improve visual acuity. Similarly, flavonoid antioxidants found in berries, such as bilberries or grapes also great sources of the antioxidant resveratrol , may be especially beneficial at supporting vision into older age.

Perhaps most noticeably, free radicals speed up the aging process when it comes to the appearance and health of your skin. Using antioxidants for skin may help combat this damage, especially from eating sources high in vitamin C, beta-carotene and other antioxidants. Vitamin A and C have been connected to a decrease in the appearance of wrinkles and skin dryness.

Vitamin C, specifically, is a powerful antioxidant that can help reduce the effect of oxidative damage caused by pollution, stress or poor diet. Vitamin A deficiency has also been linked to skin dryness, scaling and follicular thickening of the skin.

Similarly to how free radicals damage surface skin cells, keratinization of the skin, when the epithelial cells lose their moisture and become hard and dry, can occur in the mucous membranes of the respiratory, gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract. At this point, the data does not show that all antioxidants are effective in protecting against heart disease, but some, such as vitamin C, do seem to be.

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition featured a study that found those with high levels of vitamin C in their blood had almost a 50 percent decreased risk of stroke.

Countless studies also have found that people who consume highly plant-based diets — loaded with things like fresh veggies, herbs, spices and fruit — have a better chance of living longer and healthier lives with less heart disease.

Some research has unearthed a potential connection between antioxidants and cancer. In fact, studies have found that high intakes of vitamin A, vitamin C and other antioxidant foods could help prevent or treat several forms of cancer thanks to their ability to control malignant cells in the body and cause cell cycle arrest and apoptosis destruction of cancer cells.

Retinoic acid, derived from vitamin A, is one chemical that plays important roles in cell development and differentiation, as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid.

Another study collected numerous references demonstrating the findings of retinoic acid in protection against melanoma, hepatoma, lung cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. Many studies have found that people eating plant-based diets high in antioxidants, such as the Mediterranean diet , have better protection over cognition.

In addition to improving heart health and cognitive function, some research suggests that antioxidants could aid in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

For example, one animal model out of Japan showed that administering antioxidants to mice helped preserve the function of beta cells in the pancreas, which are responsible for the production of insulin. Another large review of 12 studies found that vitamin E helped reduce blood sugar levels, while vitamin C was effective at decreasing levels of oxidative stress.

Antioxidants may be easier to add to your diet than you might think. Here are the nutrition facts for 1 cup of brewed green tea g , per the USDA :.

Sweet and sumptuous, strawberries are a crown jewel of the berry world. Like blueberries, strawberries get their vivid red color from anthocyanins, granting them superfood status. Studies have shown strawberries may reduce inflammation and decrease blood pressure, which in turn could help prevent heart disease , according to a research review.

Here are the nutritional facts for 1 cup g of strawberry halves, per the USDA :. RELATED: The 8 Best Fruits for a Diabetes-Friendly Diet. In fact, beans have almost the same amount of protein found in meat, according to a study.

While beans have a reputation of causing digestive discomfort in some people, that usually subsides with regular consumption — and the numerous health benefits from these high nutrient nuggets also make up for it.

Here are the nutritional facts for 1 cup g of canned red kidney beans, drained and rinsed, per the USDA :. Whole oats are hives of antioxidant activity, which may help reduce chronic inflammation linked to heart disease and diabetes, according to the Harvard T.

Oats are also a good food for those trying to lose weight. The high levels of soluble fiber in oats allows them to readily absorb water, which helps slow digestion and makes you feel more full, notes Harvard. RELATED: The Complete Guide to Oats. Yes, you finally have an excuse to eat chocolate on the daily — dark chocolate , that is.

The flavonoids in cacao beans, from which chocolate is produced, act as antioxidants that may play a role in cancer prevention , heart health, and weight loss, according to a study. Consumed in small amounts around 1 ounce per day , dark chocolate with a minimum of 70 percent cacao may have other added health benefits, such as improving cognition, preventing memory loss , and boosting mood, reported another study.

Here are the nutritional facts for 1 ounce Everyday Health follows strict sourcing guidelines to ensure the accuracy of its content, outlined in our editorial policy.

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About DailyOM Most Popular Courses New Releases Trending Courses See All. By Anna Brooks. Medically Reviewed. Kayli Anderson, RDN of American College of Lifestyle Medicine. Consider nutrient-rich foods for your arsenal against chronic disease.

Department of Agriculture USDA : Calories 84 Protein 1. Here are the nutrition facts for 1 cup 91 g of chopped broccoli, per the USDA : Calories 31 Protein 2. Here are the nutrition facts for 1 ounce 28 g of walnuts, per the USDA : Calories Protein 4.

Here are the nutrition facts for 1 cup 30 g of spinach, per the USDA : Calories 7 Protein 0. Here are the nutritional facts for 1 medium g russet potato with skin , per the USDA : Calories Protein 4.

Here are the nutrition facts for 1 cup of brewed green tea g , per the USDA : Calories 2. Here are the nutritional facts for 1 cup g of strawberry halves, per the USDA : Calories 49 Protein 1. Here are the nutritional facts for 1 cup g of canned red kidney beans, drained and rinsed, per the USDA : Calories Protein How to Cook It: Roasted Balsamic Strawberry Sauce Everyday Health staff nutritionist Kelly Kennedy, RDN, shows you how to make a low-calorie strawberry balsamic sauce.

This sweet and tangy sauce can top everything from salad to ice cream. Add a dose of antioxidants to your favorite dish today! Next up video playing in 10 seconds. Editorial Sources and Fact-Checking. Resources Rodriguez-Amaya DB. Natural Food Pigments and Colorants. Current Opinion in Food Science.

February Harvard T. Antioxidant Supplements: What You Need to Know. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.

July Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: An Overview. Journal of Nutritional Science. December 29, Viña J, Borras C, Abdelaziz KM, et al.

Natyral process of oxidation Sweet onion varieties the human body Quinoa salad recipes cell membranes and other structures, including cellular proteins, Quinoa salad recipes and DNA. The sourcess can cope with some free radicals and needs them to function Natura. However, the damage caused Quinoa salad recipes an overload sourves free radicals over time may become irreversible and lead to certain diseases including heart and liver disease and some cancers such as oral, oesophageal, stomach and bowel cancers. Oxidation can be accelerated by stresscigarette smokingalcoholsunlight, pollution and other factors. Antioxidants are found in certain foods and may prevent some of the damage caused by free radicals by neutralising them. These include the nutrient antioxidants, vitamins A, C and E, and the minerals copper, zinc and selenium. Natural antioxidant sources


What are best sources of antioxidants? - Ms. Sushma Jaiswal

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