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Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease

Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease

Memory Vitamin B sources or Alzheimer's? Alzheijers goals were to obtain preliminary Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease Alzheomers on behavior and activities of daily living and Mental alertness supplements plasma and cerebrospinal fluid CSF AD biomarkers. Although this rise can be attributable to increases in population growth and aging, in the absence of disease-modifying therapies it poses a huge societal challenge we must urgently address. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease -

Akhlaq A. Book Title : Therapeutic Potentials of Curcumin for Alzheimer Disease. Authors : Akhlaq A. Publisher : Springer Cham. eBook Packages : Biomedical and Life Sciences , Biomedical and Life Sciences R0.

Copyright Information : Springer International Publishing Switzerland Hardcover ISBN : Published: 14 March Softcover ISBN : Published: 24 April eBook ISBN : Published: 05 March Edition Number : 1. Number of Pages : XIX, Topics : Neurochemistry , Food Science.

Policies and ethics. Skip to main content. Authors: Akhlaq A. Farooqui 0. Farooqui Columbus, USA View author publications. Provides current and comprehensive information on the effects of curcumin in a brain affected by Alzheimers disease Explores a unique topic in the field of neurochemistry and neuroscience Explores the relation of signal transduction processes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease and modulation of pathogenic changes by curcumin Includes supplementary material: sn.

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Table of contents 10 chapters Search within book Search. Front Matter Pages i-xix. Neurochemical Aspects of Alzheimer Disease Akhlaq A. Farooqui Pages Potential Animal Models of Alzheimer Disease and Their Importance in Investigating the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer Disease Akhlaq A.

Metabolism, Bioavailability, Biochemical Effects of Curcumin in Visceral Organs and the Brain Akhlaq A. Effects of Curcumin on Transcription Factors and Enzyme Activities in Visceral Organs and the Brain Akhlaq A.

Effect of Curcumin on Growth Factors and Their Receptors, Ion Channels, and Transporters in the Visceral Organs and the Brain Akhlaq A. Immunohistochemical examination of AD pathological hallmarks in rat hippocampal tissue. Photomicrographs of Aβ protein deposits a and p-tau protein positive cells b in brain sections of rats of different groups.

It is most manifested in AD. Extracellular amyloid beta Aβ plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles comprised hyper-phosphorylated Tau protein p-Tau represent the major pathological hallmarks of AD. Curcumin was found to affect pathways such as the β-amyloid cascade, tau phosphorylation, neuro-inflammation, and oxidative stress sequelae that are involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders Witkin and Li ; Fan et al.

It was thus concluded that CUR might be used therapeutically to reduce neuro-inflammation in AD. However, curcumin limited absorption as well as permeability through the BBB restricts its therapeutic potential. To achieve acceptable therapeutic results, free CUR can be delivered to target tissues by increasing its bioavailability in the brain and plasma Anand et al.

Thus, our study focused on increasing CUR concentration in the plasma and brain in a trial to enhance its neuroprotective effects on AD parameters. Based on previous reports on the potential ability of GBE to boost the distribution of the co-administered drugs to brain tissue, the present study investigated the effect of GBE supplementation on CUR plasma and brain concentrations, in addition to its beneficial effects on an AD animal model.

This is probably the first study investigating the simultaneous oral administration of CUR with GBE followed by quantifying CUR concentration in plasma and brain using RP-HPLC analysis. The enhancement of CUR bioavailability and brain distribution may be attributed to the presence of flavones in GBE.

These flavones act as inhibitors of the p-glycoprotein pathway; a significant bottleneck in CUR absorption and distribution. In addition, GBE's capacity to open gap junctions and raise the para-cellular permeability of the BBB via adenosine receptor activation may be another beneficial mechanism.

The increased bioavailability induced by GBE is in line with several other studies Ren et al. One of these studies found that the concentration of four ginsenosides the major pharmacologically active components of Ginseng increased in the brain of rats treated with a combination of Ginseng and GBE Liang et al.

In contrast, some reports found that GBE decreases the plasma concentration of the co-administered drugs Hoerr et al. Both CUR and GBE have long been known to help treat and prevent AD. Hence, we studied the effect of their concurrent administration on AD-like alterations. Due to its numerous limitations to mimic human AD, SCO model was used in the present study with some modifications.

Ashok et al. Therefore, the present study used a modified SCO model by addition of HMM to enhance the pathological features of the traditional SCO model. Our novel model met the requirements for AD induction, and this was confirmed by significant memory decline, elevation in brain lipid peroxidation biomarkers, Aβ deposits, p-tau Ser positive cells, TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as caspase-3 and AChE activity.

On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in GSH level. Similar findings from other researches conducted on SCO model support these outcomes San Tang ; Ashok et al.

Many previous studies reported that CUR alone has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, decreases Aβ deposits, p-tau Ser aggregation, decreases caspase-3 hippocampal levels and acts as anti or decreases cholinesterase activity, with concurrent improvement in the cognitive function in different AD animal models induced by many substances including SCO Lin et al.

To examine the impact of CUR alone and CUR and GBE combination, the following tests the PA, MWM, and the NORT were chosen to evaluate the behavioral changes in different groups of rats.

These tasks are widely used to evaluate learning and memory Morris, , Rasmussen et al. In addition, rats treated with these natural products showed a significant reduction in the escape latency, while spending noticeably more time in the target quadrant in the MWM probe trial.

In harmony with our results, Zhao et al. Moreover, the study of Abdelmeguid et al. Notably, no previous studies reported the effect of GBE, in combination, on AD pathological hallmarks.

However, GBE alone has a proven efficacy on theses hallmarks in previous reports Nikmahzar et al. Numerous investigations have revealed that SCO induces brain oxidative stress. Likewise, human AD brains have elevated levels of ROS reactive oxygen species.

Consequently, scavenging oxygen free radicals is one of the most essential criteria for an AD modifying drug Morrison et al.

Interestingly, the combination produced a more pronounced effect on the oxidative stress parameters than CUR alone.

In accordance to our results, Zhao et al. Additionally, the study of Tian et al. Microglial cells in the CNS trigger inflammatory processes by releasing cytokines in response to APP amyloid precursor protein , which leads to a continuous state of inflammation.

This cascade worsens the neural plaque load and accelerates the progression of the disease Dong et al.

To overcome this, a disease-modifying drug should also target neuro-inflammation Coman and Nemeş, These findings strengthened the notion of the involvement of neuro-inflammation in the cognitive dysfunction and suggest its role in the dysregulated or increased levels AChE activity and subsequent behavioral alterations observed in demented rats.

Again, the combination resulted in a more profound reduction in hippocampal TNF-α and IL-1β levels than CUR alone. Also, the study of Abdelmeguid et al revealed that the combined treatment of docosahexaenoic acid and GBE significantly decreased TNF-α level compared to diseased rats.

All these findings suggest that GBE can improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of CUR, and this could be attributed to enhancement of CUR brain levels by the co-administered GBE as confirmed by HPLC results. Both experimental animals and AD patients' neurons displayed apoptotic alterations, such as caspase-3 activation Forloni et al.

This protease is thought to be crucial for apoptosis because it performs an irreversible phase in the apoptotic process Wolf et al. The combined effects of CUR and GBE were more pronounced than CUR alone.

Similarly, Tian et al. Another well-known fact is that AChE expression and activity control the dynamic concentration of ACh in the cholinergic synapses of the brain Buckingham et al. Our result revealed that co-administration of CUR and GBE produced a synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE hippocampal activity as compared to the diseased group.

This inhibitory effect was also more pronounced than those animals treated with CUR alone. In agreement to this finding, Zhao et al. Again, these findings support the idea that co-administration of GBE can enhance the beneficial effects of CUR on AD-like alterations, including anti-cholinesterase activity and caspase-3 level.

This may also be the result of increasing central CUR levels. This combination dramatically enhanced the beneficial effects of CUR. In addition, the increased ability of curcumin by ginkgo biloba extract to attenuate cholinesterase activity, and enhance its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, was evidenced.

These effects may be mediated by activate gap junctions, improve the para-cellular permeability of the BBB via adenosine receptor activation and P-glycoprotein inhibitor of ginkgo biloba extract. This research may serve as a stepping stone to the creation of an innovative anti-neurodegeneration prophylactic strategy.

Moreover, it may support the idea that ginkgo biloba extract and curcumin may be used together to prevent the central pathological changes that result in the occurrence of AD, and arrest the progression of AD successfully. Therefore, it is recommended that further studies should be applied to reveal the effectiveness of this combination strategy in treatment of the AD.

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Some data may not be made available because of privacy or ethical restrictions.

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Download references. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, Assiut, , Egypt.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by A-AA-MMA, DMMB, MMYF, MAAN, and EAHA. The first draft of the manuscript was written by MAAN and EAHA.

All authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Mariam A.

This study was carried out in strict accordance with the recommendations of the international guidelines on animal Care. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines Medical ethics committee, Assiut University , the approved ethical number We the undersigned declare that this manuscript is original, has not been published before and is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere.

We confirm that the manuscript has been read and approved by all named authors and that there are no other persons who satisfied the criteria for authorship but are not listed.

We further confirm that the order of authors listed in the manuscript has been approved by all of us. We understand that the corresponding author is the sole contact for the Editorial process.

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The popular spice, taken in small Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease, may Alzbeimers improve memory, but Dissase it can reverse dementia remains to Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease seen. AAlzheimers says. Curcumln, the root Alzheiners been used Venomous snakebite prevention strategies cooking — particularly in India — as well as in medicine, primarily in southern Asia. It has been used to treat breathing problems, rheumatic diseases like arthritispain, and fatigue, the NIH says. Clinical studies are ongoing. Turmeric and curcumin are widely available as dietary and nutritional supplements. Still, Shetty emphasizes that you should consult your doctor before trying any supplement. Curcumin and Alzheimers Disease

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