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Citrus aurantium for immune system

Citrus aurantium for immune system

Hansen DK, George NI, White GE, Bodyweight workouts LS, Abdel-Rahman Airantium, Fabricant D Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats. Phytomedicine — J Sci Food Agric —

Citrus aurantium for immune system -

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Key Takeaways According to new research, nutrients in citrus fruit juices may support the immune system and combat inflammation. Drinking orange juice and taking vitamin C supplements do not offer the same nutritional benefits. Some studies have begun exploring a connection between oragne juice, the immune system, and COVID Will Vitamin C Help You Recover From COVID Faster?

How to Keep Your Immune System Strong. Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to learn more about how we fact-check and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

See Our Editorial Process. However, more rigorous human research is needed An ongoing study is also exploring the use of limonene as a treatment for COVID However, the results are not yet known.

Bear in mind that limonene cannot prevent or cure COVID Another protoalkaloid found in bitter orange is p-octopamine. However, little to no p-octopamine exists in bitter orange extracts.

The leaves of the bitter orange plant are rich in vitamin C , which acts as an antioxidant. Antioxidants are substances that may protect your body from disease by preventing cell damage.

They work by deactivating free radicals, which are unstable compounds that damage your cells, increasing inflammation and your disease risk 15 , Protoalkaloids are plant compounds found in bitter orange that have anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties.

They have been shown to be safe for consumption. Many weight loss supplements use bitter orange extracts in combination with other ingredients. However, scientific studies have not thoroughly examined the composition of these supplements to determine which ingredient, if any, supports weight loss.

Notably, p-synephrine has been shown to increase fat breakdown, raise energy expenditure, and mildly suppress appetite , all of which may contribute to reduced weight. Yet, these effects occur at high doses that are discouraged due to the lack of safety information 4 , 8 , Bitter orange and its extracts are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM to treat indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery, and constipation.

In other regions, the fruit is used to treat anxiety and epilepsy 3. Another study noted that the bitter orange compound p-synephrine may improve athletic performance though by increasing total reps and volume load, or your ability to train harder A stimulant is a substance that increases your heart rate and blood pressure 1.

Several sports organizations, such as the National Collegiate Athletic Association NCAA , list synephrine as a stimulant. Furthermore, one study determined that bitter orange juice contains furanocoumarin, a compound that may cause the same medication interactions as grapefruit juice Therefore, people taking decongestants or those who have high blood pressure, an irregular heartbeat, or glaucoma should avoid the juice and fruit of bitter oranges.

Despite numerous studies showing that bitter orange extracts are not stimulants, widespread controversy exists, and the NCAA has listed it as a banned substance. Bitter orange may also interact with certain medications. Generally, bitter orange extracts in dietary supplements are safe to consume in doses of 50—98 mg per day 1 , One study showed that 40 mg of synephrine combined with mg of caffeine is a safe dose of these combined ingredients 3.

In another study, eating a whole bitter orange containing Still, people who are pregnant or breastfeeding should avoid bitter orange due to a lack of safety information 1. Bitter orange is likely safe in doses ranging from The juice of the bitter orange can be used as a marinade to flavor fish and meat.

Bitter orange has several other household uses outside of the kitchen. Department of Disease Control and Immunization, Bayelsa State Primary Health Care Board, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Department of Chemical Sciences, Crown-Hill University, Eiyenkorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

Department of Zoology, Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma University, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Correspondence to Olalekan Bukunmi Ogunro. Department of Microbiology, Bayelsa Medical University, Yenagoa, Bayelsa, Nigeria. Department of Sustainable Development, Appalachian State University, Boone, USA. Government College, University of Faisalabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Reprints and permissions. Ogunro, O. Citrus aurantium : Phytochemistry, Therapeutic Potential, Safety Considerations, and Research Needs. In: Izah, S. eds Herbal Medicine Phytochemistry.

Reference Series in Phytochemistry. Springer, Cham. Received : 10 September Accepted : 17 September Published : 10 November Publisher Name : Springer, Cham. Print ISBN : Online ISBN : eBook Packages : Springer Reference Biomedicine and Life Sciences Reference Module Biomedical and Life Sciences.

Policies and ethics. Skip to main content. Abstract Citrus aurantium , commonly referred to as sour orange or bitter orange, holds significant importance both in biological and economic terms. Keywords Citrus aurantium Bitter orange Phytochemicals Non-pharmacological uses Economic relevance.

Abbreviations ALT: Alanine transminase AMPKα: Activated protein kinase alpha AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase alpha AST: Aspartate aminotransferase CAVAPs: Crude polysaccharides of C. aurantium L. Amara Engls DPPH: 2,2-Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl ERK: Extracellular signal- regulated kinase EtOAc: Ethyl acetate FAS: Fatty acid synthase FDA: Food and Drug Administration FRAP: Ferric reducing antioxidant power GGT: Gamma-glutamyl transferase GSK3β: Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta IL-1β: Interleukin-1β IL Interleukin 6 iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase MTD: Maximum tolerated dose NAFLD: Non-alcohol fatty liver disease NASH: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis NF-kB: Nuclear factor kappa B NOAEL: No-observed-adverse-effect-level NOEL: No-observed-effect-level Nrf2: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance capacity PGC-1α: PPARγ co-activator 1α PTFC: Pure total flavonoids from citrus SCD1: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 TAC: Total antioxidant capacity TBARS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TNF- α: Tumor necrosis factor α UCP1: Uncoupling protein-1 WADA: World Anti-Doping Agency.

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Int J Drug Discov Herb Res — Google Scholar Palazzolo E, Armando Laudicina V, Antonietta Germanà M Current and potential use of citrus essential oils. Curr Org Chem — Article CAS Google Scholar Download references.

Author information Authors and Affiliations Reproductive and Endocrinology, Toxicology, and Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, KolaDaisi University, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria Olalekan Bukunmi Ogunro Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria Glory Richard Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Bayelsa Medical University, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria Sylvester Chibueze Izah Department of Disease Control and Immunization, Bayelsa State Primary Health Care Board, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria Kurotimipa Frank Ovuru Department of Chemical Sciences, Crown-Hill University, Eiyenkorin, Kwara State, Nigeria Oladimeji Taiwo Babatunde Department of Zoology, Cooch Behar Panchanan Barma University, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India Moyuri Das Authors Olalekan Bukunmi Ogunro View author publications.

View author publications. Editor information Editors and Affiliations Department of Microbiology, Bayelsa Medical University, Yenagoa, Bayelsa, Nigeria Sylvester Chibueze Izah Department of Sustainable Development, Appalachian State University, Boone, USA Matthew Chidozie Ogwu Government College, University of Faisalabad, Islamabad, Pakistan Muhammad Akram.

Rights and permissions Reprints and permissions. Copyright information © Springer Nature Switzerland AG. About this entry. Cite this entry Ogunro, O. Publish with us Policies and ethics. search Search by keyword or author Search.

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