Category: Home

Carbohydrate metabolism and glycemic index

Carbohydrate metabolism and glycemic index

Glycemc meal glycemic index by metagolism measured and Natural ulcer healing methods food Metabolism boosting weight loss supplements jetabolism with directly measured meal glycemic index. Scholl TO, Stein Locally sourced ingredients, Smith WK. A dietitian can help you make healthy changes in your diet for better blood sugar control. In addition, in a recent meta-analysis of 28 studies examining the effect of low- versus high-GI diets on serum lipidsGoff et al. Official websites use. Sign up for free e-newsletters. Carbohydrate metabolism and glycemic index

Carbohydrate metabolism and glycemic index -

Eating low GI foods 2 hours before endurance events, such as long-distance running, may improve exercise capacity. Moderate to high GI foods may be most beneficial during the first 24 hours of recovery after an event to rapidly replenish muscle fuel stores glycogen.

The GI can be considered when choosing foods and drinks consistent with the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating External Link , but there are limitations. For example, the GI of some everyday foods such as fruits, vegetables and cereals can be higher than foods to be eaten occasionally discretionary like biscuits and cakes.

This does not mean we should replace fruit, vegetables and cereals with discretionary choices, because the first are rich in important nutrients and antioxidants and the discretionary foods are not. GI can be a useful concept in making good food substitution choices, such as having oats instead of cornflakes, or eating grainy bread instead of white bread.

Usually, choosing the wholegrain or higher fibre option will also mean you are choosing the lower GI option. There is room in a healthy diet for moderate to high GI foods, and many of these foods can provide important sources of nutrients. Remember, by combining a low GI food with a high GI food, you will get an intermediate GI for that meal.

The best carbohydrate food to eat varies depending on the person and situation. For example, people with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance have become resistant to the action of insulin or cannot produce insulin rapidly enough to match the release of glucose into the blood after eating carbohydrate-containing foods.

This means their blood glucose levels may rise above the level considered optimal. Now consider 2 common breakfast foods — cornflakes and porridge made from wholegrain oats.

The rate at which porridge and cornflakes are broken down to glucose is different. Porridge is digested to simple sugars much more slowly than cornflakes, so the body has a chance to respond with production of insulin, and the rise in blood glucose levels is less.

For this reason, porridge is a better choice of breakfast cereal than cornflakes for people with type 2 diabetes. It will also provide more sustained energy for people without diabetes. On the other hand, high GI foods can be beneficial at replenishing glycogen in the muscles after strenuous exercise.

For example, eating 5 jellybeans will help to raise blood glucose levels quickly. This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by:. Learn all about alcohol - includes standard drink size, health risks and effects, how to keep track of your drinking, binge drinking, how long it takes to leave the body, tips to lower intake.

A common misconception is that anorexia nervosa only affects young women, but it affects all genders of all ages. Antioxidants scavenge free radicals from the body's cells, and prevent or reduce the damage caused by oxidation.

No special diet or 'miracle food' can cure arthritis, but some conditions may be helped by avoiding or including certain foods.

It is important to identify any foods or food chemicals that may trigger your asthma, but this must be done under strict medical supervision.

Content on this website is provided for information purposes only. Information about a therapy, service, product or treatment does not in any way endorse or support such therapy, service, product or treatment and is not intended to replace advice from your doctor or other registered health professional.

The information and materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website.

All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions and to ascertain whether the particular therapy, service, product or treatment described on the website is suitable in their circumstances.

The State of Victoria and the Department of Health shall not bear any liability for reliance by any user on the materials contained on this website.

Skip to main content. Healthy eating. Home Healthy eating. Carbohydrates and the glycaemic index. Glycemic Index of Certain Foods. Low GI foods 0 to 55 : Bulgar, barley Pasta, parboiled converted rice Quinoa High-fiber bran cereal Oatmeal, steel-cut or rolled Carrots, non-starchy vegetables, greens Apples, oranges, grapefruit, and many other fruits Most nuts, legumes, and beans Milk and yogurt Moderate GI foods 56 to 69 : Pita bread, rye bread Couscous Brown rice Raisins High GI foods 70 and higher : White bread and bagels Most processed cereals and instant oatmeal, including bran flakes Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Honey Sugar Watermelon, pineapple.

Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index. When planning your meals: Choose foods that have a low to medium GI. When eating a high GI food, combine it with low GI foods to balance the effect on your glucose levels.

The GI of a food, and its impact on people with diabetes may change when you combine it with other foods. Portion size still matters because calories still matter, and so does the amount of carbohydrates. You need to keep an eye on the portion size and number of carbohydrates in the meal you are having, even if it has low GI foods.

In general, processed foods have a higher GI. For example, fruit juice and instant potatoes have a higher GI than whole fruit and whole baked potatoes. Cooking can affect the GI of a food. For example, al dente pasta has lower GI than soft-cooked pasta. Foods higher in fat or fiber tend to have a lower GI.

Certain foods from the same class of foods can have different GI values. For example, converted long-grain white rice has a lower GI than brown rice.

And short-grain white rice has a higher GI than brown rice. Likewise, quick oats or grits have a high GI but whole oats and whole-grain breakfast cereals have a lower GI. Choose a variety of healthy foods keeping in mind the nutritional value of the whole meal as well as the GI of foods.

Some high GI foods are high in nutrients. So balance these with lower GI foods. In gravidas who are diabetic and in those who are not, there is a significant relation among increasing maternal glucose levels, greater fetal growth, and higher infant weight at birth 4 — 9.

African-American women give birth to infants that weigh less for gestation than the infants of White women, and a portion of this ethnic difference is related to their lower circulating levels of glucose During pregnancy, increased maternal plasma glucose also is a marker for an increased risk of serious complications that include chorioamnionitis, cesarean section, and preeclampsia 5 , 6 , 8 , 9.

The glycemic index is a relative measure of the blood glucose response to a given amount of carbohydrate that represents the quality of the carbohydrate that is eaten. The glycemic index is defined as the incremental area under the glucose response curve following the intake of 50 g of carbohydrate from food compared with the glucose area generated from a similar amount of white bread or glucose 11 , Although there is variation within and between individuals, on average foods with a lower glycemic index give rise to a smaller blood glucose response than do foods with a higher glycemic index 13 , Several of the prospective studies that examined the glycemic index or glycemic load have found that high values generally are associated with increased risk of chronic disease, including type 2 diabetes 15 , 16 and coronary heart disease There is, however, only limited information on the effects of a low dietary glycemic index.

Some carbohydrates are absorbed more slowly than others and thus may have a weak effect on raising blood glucose levels. Therefore, it is possible that during pregnancy gravidas who eat foods with a lower glycemic index have lower circulating levels of blood glucose and thus less fuel for fetal growth.

Infants who are small for gestational age have an increased risk of infant morbidity and mortality and may evidence persistent delay in their growth and development 18 — In addition, Barker 21 has linked reduced fetal growth in utero to an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in later life.

We therefore examined the relation among the glycemic index, biomarkers of maternal carbohydrate metabolism, and other nutrients in the diet of pregnant women. We hypothesized that, because of differences in the postprandial and postabsorptive maternal physiologic response, the glycemic index at one extreme would be associated with an increased risk of small-for-gestational-age births and at the other with increased fetal growth.

The Camden Study prospectively examines the effects of maternal nutrition and growth in generally healthy pregnant women from one of the poorest cities in the United States 9 , 10 , 22 , 23 , Camden, New Jersey.

Gravidas with serious nonobstetric problems e. The Institutional Review Board of the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey School of Medicine approved the study.

In this analysis, we focus on data from 1, delivered gravidas who enrolled in the study between August and October Socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, and dietary data were obtained by interview at entry to prenatal care and were updated at weeks 20 and 28 of gestation.

Food models as well as household and fast-food glasses, cups, and bowls were used to quantify portion size along with the use of specific dietary probes. Following a longstanding collaboration, dietary data were processed with databases from the Campbell Institute of Research and Technology Campbell Soup Company in Camden.

The value of the food glycemic index from published international tables 24 , 25 was assigned to the food items in our database using the white bread standard. Pregnancy has been reported not to alter the glycemic index of the foods that have been tested Following a method that has been described in the literature, glycemic index values were calculated for our data by multiplying the glycemic index for each food by the carbohydrate content and then dividing by the total carbohydrate intake for the day.

The sum of the resulting values was termed the dietary glycemic index by Wolever et al. The dietary glycemic index value based upon each of the three recalls was then averaged to give a mean value for each gravida over the course of her pregnancy. As a corollary, another measure derived from the dietary glycemic index, the glycemic load, was also calculated This involved multiplying the food glycemic index by the carbohydrate content, summing the values over all foods, and then averaging over all recalls as described above.

Pregravid weight was determined by recall at entry to prenatal care, and weight was measured at each visit using a beam balance scale. Height was measured at entry to prenatal care using a stadiometer. The total gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between the reported pregravid weight and the weight measured within 2 weeks before delivery; the rate of gestational weight gain was computed from the total weight gain and the duration of gestation.

The adequacy of gestational weight gain was also defined to within 2 completed weeks of delivery using published criteria that adjust weight gain for the duration of gestation A large-for-gestational-age fetus was defined by a birth weight for gestation above the 90th percentile of the standard described by Zhang and Bowes 32 , which adjusts for maternal parity, ethnicity, and fetal sex.

A small-for-gestational-age fetus was defined by birth weight for gestation below the 10th percentile of the same standard. Maternal plasma glucose and red cells for glycosylated hemoglobin were obtained by venipuncture between 24—28 weeks of gestation.

Plasma glucose levels were measured 1 hour after a g glucose-screening test to detect gestational diabetes, routinely conducted in Camden gravidas.

A total of 92 percent of the women provided a fasting sample, but fasting is not a requirement for either the glucose-screening test or the glycosylated hemoglobin. Samples were stored at —70°C until assayed. Glucose was measured with the glucose oxidase method Sigma Diagnostics, St.

Louis, Missouri and with glycosylated hemoglobin by turbidimetric immune inhibition Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, Indiana. The coefficient of variation within and between assays was less than 5 percent for each method. Linear regression was used to generate a dietary glycemic index adjusted for energy intake Dietary residuals from these regressions were further categorized into quintiles.

The significance of the linear trend was assessed across categories quintiles of the glycemic index using analysis of variance with 1 df. The chi-square statistic or overall F statistic from the analysis of variance was used to assess the relation between glycemic index quintiles and maternal background characteristics.

Potential confounding variables traditionally associated with infant birth weight or risk of small-for-gestational-age births e. Separate models were fit for infant birth weight and each pregnancy outcome or bio-marker of carbohydrate metabolism using multiple logistic regression or multiple linear regression.

In models of birth weight and pregnancy outcome, the highest quintile of the dietary glycemic index was compared with quintiles 1—4, and the lowest quintile of the dietary glycemic index was compared with quintiles 2—5.

Confounding was assessed by comparing crude and adjusted odds ratios or regression coefficients. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95 percent confidence intervals were computed from the logistic regression coefficients and their corresponding covariance matrices For the biomarkers of carbohydrate metabolism, we used the regression coefficients and the mean dietary glycemic index values from the highest quintile mean, We also expressed this difference as the percentage of change by dividing it by the mean concentration of the biomarker.

Little association was found between quintiles of the dietary glycemic index and variables such as maternal pregravid body mass index and the adequacy or rate of gestational weight gain.

Women in the lower quintiles of the dietary glycemic index tended to be somewhat older and were slightly more likely to be nulliparous and less likely to smoke heavily table 1. There was an overall ethnic difference in the dietary glycemic index for the group.

Energy intake was somewhat lower for women in both the highest and lowest dietary glycemic index quintiles table 2. With adjustment for energy, the dietary glycemic index was associated with other aspects of the maternal diet. There were significant trends for gravidas in the lower quintiles of the glycemic index to eat diets richer in carbohydrate, fiber, sucrose, and folate but lower in fat table 2.

Controlling for maternal ethnicity and other potential confounding variables, we found that the dietary glycemic index was positively related to biomarkers of maternal carbohydrate metabolism during the third trimester table 3. These measures included levels of glycosylated hemoglobin mean, 5.

Both of these biomarkers increased with every unit increase in the dietary glycemic index. Using coefficients from the regression equations, we calculated expected levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin for gravidas in the lowest and highest quintiles of the dietary glycemic index.

The computations suggested a lower level of plasma glucose —4. Like plasma glucose, the dietary glycemic index influenced fetal growth table 4. After adjustment for the duration of gestation, a dietary glycemic index in the lowest quintile was associated with lower infant birth weight, a reduction of more than g.

After including other potential confounding variables along with gestational duration, we found that the birth weight difference increased to — g. Unlike with the low dietary glycemic index, there was no association between a diet that placed the mother in the highest quintile of the dietary glycemic index and the birth weight of her infant.

Like the relation between plasma glucose and fetal growth, women with a dietary glycemic index in the lowest quintile had approximately a twofold increased risk of bearing a growth-restricted infant table 5. This risk was not greatly altered by inclusion of other potential confounding variables maternal age, cigarettes smoked per day, prior history of low birth weight in the model.

We repeated the analyses utilizing the energy-adjusted glycemic load in lieu of the dietary glycemic index. From these data, we estimated a small difference in glycosylated hemoglobin between the highest and lowest quintiles of the glycemic load —0. Glucose, the major substrate for fetal growth, is transported across the placenta in proportion to its concentration in the maternal circulation and according to the rate of placental red blood flow.

Gluconeogenesis is virtually absent in the fetus so that the fetus obtains its glucose almost entirely from circulating levels in the mother Maternal glucose and other metabolic fuels thus provide the energy for fetal growth and facilitate the passage of nutrients from mother to fetus 1 — 4.

Circulating levels of glucose are produced by maternal metabolism from endogenous sources and also from the diet, principally from carbohydrate.

Not all carbohydrates raise blood glucose levels to the same extent. The glycemic response to carbohydrate depends upon the type that is consumed. The glycemic index is a qualitative measure that classifies the type of carbohydrate according to the metabolic response that it elicits.

The reference food used by researchers to determine tabled values for the food glycemic index is white bread or glucose 11 , White bread represents a more physiologic meal than glucose, although neither is the primary source of carbohydrate in populations that have been studied In addition, the glycemic index for a food may also be influenced by the method of processing and preparation, its fat, protein, and fiber content, as well as other factors.

Carbohydrates with a higher glycemic index are absorbed quickly and can raise blood glucose concentrations rapidly, whereas carbohydrates with a lower glycemic index break down more steadily and have a gradual glucose rise Consistent with this expectation, our data showed a positive relation between the maternal dietary glycemic index and biomarkers of maternal carbohydrate metabolism during pregnancy, including glycosylated hemoglobin, a measure of average plasma glucose over the past 2—3 months, and an acute measure, third trimester postload plasma glucose.

Calculations from these data suggested that plasma glucose was about 4 percent lower and that glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c was about 2 percent lower comparing the lowest and highest dietary glycemic index quintiles.

Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance, diets with a lower dietary glycemic index lowered postprandial glucose levels by about 4 percent Pregnant women on the aboriginal diet had lower glucose areas 3 hours after a mixed meal and a lower insulin response with advancing gestation than gravidas on the cafeteria diet Data from studies on the management of type 1 or type 2 diabetes that have been incorporated into a recent review of the glycemic index suggested that glycolysated hemoglobin or fructosamine fell by about 10 percent on average with a low glycemic index diet Salmeron et al.

In the present study of pregnant women, the glycemic load had a weaker relation with glycosylated hemoglobin computed as 0. The relation between the glycemic load and the glucose response depends upon the amount of carbohydrate as well as on the type.

The diets of Camden gravidas are rich in sugar, and approximately 50 percent of the carbohydrate that they eat comes from sugar table 2. However, simple sugars, including sucrose, have a lower glycemic index and elicit a lower blood glucose response than white bread and other starchy foods It is also possible that the slowed gastric emptying and colonic transit that characterize pregnancy 41 have altered the relation among the glycemic load, maternal glucose levels, and fetal growth.

Although one small study in diabetic gravidas suggested that pregnancy did not change the glycemic index of the eight foods that were tested, it did not examine the effects of the glycemic load on blood glucose Our observations are the first from a larger-scale observational study to report an increased risk of fetal growth restriction in association with a low maternal dietary glycemic index.

This finding supports the hypothesis that reduced fetal growth is associated with the maternal diet during pregnancy. As we observed during pregnancy and as others have observed in the nonpregnant state 12 , 43 , a low dietary glycemic index diet is associated with lower concentrations of glucose, and a high dietary glycemic index is associated with higher concentrations of plasma glucose.

Consistent with our findings on maternal plasma glucose, those of Scholl et al. However, we did not observe that gravidas eating a diet with a high dietary glycemic index had concomitant increases in birth weight and other measures of fetal growth, such as a large-for-gestational-age birth.

The influence of maternal plasma glucose on excessive fetal growth has been described in women with diabetes 4 , 7. High circulating concentrations of maternal glucose are associated with increased transport of glucose and other nutrients to the fetus.

Fetal insulin secretion is stimulated in order to prevent fetal hyperglycemia. Fetal insulin increases the storage of glucose and other nutrients and also acts as a growth factor for the fetus.

With increases in the supply of nutrients and the production of growth factors, the intrauterine growth rate is higher and the infant birth weight greater 4 , 7. Although high dietary glycemic index diets have been reported to raise postprandial glucose and insulin 12 , 43 , it seems plausible that young women who are not diabetic should secrete a sufficient amount of insulin to maintain blood glucose levels in the normal range.

Thus, there would be little extra maternal glucose for increased fetal growth. Some studies have suggested that a high dietary glycemic index may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases in later life 15 — We observed ethnic differences in the glycemic index and found that African Americans were more likely to eat a high dietary glycemic index diet than were other gravidas.

We and others have reported higher insulin and lower glucose concentrations among African-American girls and young women, pregnant and nonpregnant alike 22 , 44 , Ethnic differences in insulin and glucose could reflect the influence of a higher dietary glycemic index. Regular consumption of a high glycemic index diet is thought to initiate a cycle of hyperinsulinemia acute insulin resistance followed by increases in counter regulatory hormones, the release of free fatty acids and, as observed in many studies of African Americans, lower postprandial glucose concentrations.

During pregnancy, the lower postload levels of glucose in African-American gravidas are associated with 5—7 percent of the difference in fetal growth and infant birth weight between African Americans and Whites A cycle of high blood glucose and insulin followed by episodes of reactive hypoglycemia and increased insulin resistance may eventually boost the demand for the beta cells to secrete more insulin, augment insulin resistance, impair beta-cell function, and increase risk of type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases 39 , 43 , The observations from the present study are also consistent with those from an earlier report from Camden on adolescent pregnancy In that study, Lenders et al.

As Wolever et al. Sucrose table sugar has a glycemic index below those of white bread, rice, potatoes, and most breakfast cereals, and simple sugars such as those in milk products and fruit juices have a glycemic index below that of sucrose 24 , Consumption of a sugar-rich diet would by definition result in a lower dietary glycemic index with lower levels of maternal blood glucose 40 available for transmission to the fetus.

The effect of the dietary glycemic index on carbohydrate metabolism and fetal growth, however, is difficult to disentangle from the effect of regular exercise on the same outcomes Unlike Clapp, we found no influence of the dietary glycemic index on the maternal pregravid body mass index, rate of weight gain, or adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy in either the present study table 1 or our prior work on sugar-rich diets In summary, we found that the dietary glycemic index, a measure of the type of carbohydrate in the maternal diet, influences the outcome of pregnancy and has utility for predicting the maternal metabolic response during pregnancy.

Our results suggest that we should examine the diets of pregnant women to see if increasing the dietary glycemic index reduces the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth.

Conversely, a lower dietary glycemic index diet might also help to raise postprandial glucose levels among African Americans. In this ethnic group, lower concentrations of maternal plasma glucose possibly a reactive hypoglycemia in response to a high dietary glycemic index have been associated with lower infant birth weight.

This research was supported by grants HD and HD from the National Institutes of Health. The authors are indebted to the staffs at the Osborn Family Health Center, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, and St. John the Baptist Prenatal Care Center in Camden for access to patients.

Special thanks to Joan Murray for expert assistance with the nutrient and glycemic index databases, SaTonya Jones for laboratory assays, and Deborah Cruz for manuscript preparation.

Theresa O. Detox Support Supplements pregnancy, lower levels of maternal glucose before Natural ulcer healing methods during a Metabolism boosting weight loss supplements load have Carbohydraet associated with adn infant birth weight and an increased risk of small-for-gestational-age births. Metabopism lower incremental area under the glucose response curve defines a low glycemic diet. Thus, during pregnancy the maternal diet, as measured by the glycemic index, may influence fetal growth and infant birth weight. A total of 1, gravidas who enrolled in the Camden Study between August and October were followed prospectively during pregnancy. The dietary glycemic index was computed from three hour recalls in the course of pregnancy. Official websites use. Natural ulcer healing methods A. gov website belongs to glyvemic official government organization in African Mango seed liver health United States. metxbolism website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Glycemic index GI is a measure of how quickly a food can make your blood sugar glucose rise. Only foods that contain carbohydrates have a GI.

Author: Kataxe

2 thoughts on “Carbohydrate metabolism and glycemic index

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by