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Flavonoids in herbal medicine

Flavonoids in herbal medicine

Lassègue, B. A Flavonoids in herbal medicine rich hherbal extract, CYSTUS, exerts anti inn virus activity in cell culture without toxic side effects or the tendency to induce viral resistance. Khalid, M. Export File: RIS for EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite. aureusand B.

Flavonoids in herbal medicine -

Omeje EO, Nworu SC, Osadebe PO, Onugwu L, Maurya R, Okafor SN, Proksch P In- vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 3-methoxy quercetin isolated from Nigerian mistletoe parasitic on Garcinia kola Heckel, Clusiaceae.

Trop J Pharm Res 16 5 — Ferreira RT, Coutinho MAS, Malvar DC, Costa EA, Florentino IF, Costa SS, Vanderlinde FA Mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-inflammatory activity of the main flavonoid from Kalanchoe pinnata.

Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med —8. Clara C, Matasyoh JC, Wagara IN, Nakavuma J Antifungal activity of flavonoids isolated from Monanthotaxis littoralis against mycotoxigenic fungi from maize.

Am J Chem Appl 1 4 — Rana AC, Gulliya B Chemistry and pharmacology of flavonoids- a review. Indian J Pharm Educ Res 53 1 — Ruiz-Cruz S, Chaparro-Hernández S, Hernández-Ruiz KL, Cira-Chávez LA, Estrada-Alvarado MI, Gassos Ortega LE, José de Jesús Ornelas-Paz J, MAL M Flavonoids: Important Biocompounds in Food.

Intech Open— Procházková D, Boušová I, Wilhelmová N Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of flavonoids. Kamlesh KN, Sivakumar T, Afroze A Antimicrobial Activity of Flavone Analogues.

J Appl Pharmacol 9 1 :1—9. Sandu M, Bîrsă LM, Bahrin LG Flavonoids — Small Molecules, High Hopes. Acta Chem Iasi 25 1 :6— Majewska M, Skrzycki M, Podsiad M, Czeczot H Evaluation of antioxidant potential of flavonoids: An in vitro study.

Acta Pol Pharm-Drug Res 68 4 — Kumar S, Pandey AK Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview. Sci World J:1— J Pharmacogn Nat Prod 4 1 — Martinez-Perez C, Ward C, Cook G, Mullen P, McPhail D, Harrison DJ, Langdon SP Novel flavonoids as anti-cancer agents: mechanisms of action and promise for their potential application in breast cancer.

Biochem Soc Trans 42 4 — Khan MAY, Mundasada SC, Ramadas D Antioxidant activity : root, leaves and fruits aqueous extracts of Muntingia Calabura. J Innov Pharm Biol Sci 2 4 — Wafa N, Sofiane G, Mouhamed K The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of flavonoids and tannins extracted from Phlomis bovei De Noé.

Eur J Exp Biol 6 3 — Phyther Res 24 9 — Khanna A, Maurya PK Role of tea catechins in prevention of aging and age-related disorders.

Tang [Humanitas Med] 2 1 Pawar SR, Jangam S, Waghmare S Anti-cancer herbal drugs: an overview. J Drug Deliv Ther 8 4 — Elnour AM, Penech F, Mesaik AM Four selected sudanese medicinal plants induce anticancer and cytotoxic effects in prostate cancer cell line.

Clin Med Biochem 3 2 :3—6. Roy A, Ahuja S, Bharadvaja N A review on medicinal plants against cancer anticancer activity of medicinal plants. J Plant Sci Agric Res 2 1 :1—5. Ragazzon PA, Iley J, Missailidis S Structure-activity studies of the binding of the flavonoid scaffold to DNA.

Anticancer Res — Pradhan D, Pradhan RK, Tripathy G, Pradhan S Inhibition of proteasome activity by the dietary flavonoid Quercetin associated with growth inhibition in cultured breast cancer cells and xenografts. J Young Pharm 7 3 — Cushnie TPT, Lamb AJ Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

Int J Antimicrob Agents — Srivastava S, Somasagara RR, Hegde M, Nishana M, Tadi SK, Srivastava M, Choudhary B, Raghavan SC Quercetin, a natural flavonoid interacts with DNA, arrests cell cycle and causes tumor regression by activating mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

Sci Rep — Lu J, Papp LV, Fang J, Rodriguez-Nieto S, Zhivotovsky B, Holmgren A Inhibition of mammalian thioredoxin reductase by some flavonoids: Implications for myricetin and quercetin anticancer activity. Cancer Res 66 8 — Stanisic D, Costa FA, Favaro FW, Tasic L, Seabra AB, Duran N Anticancer activities of hesperidin and hesperetin in vivo and their potentiality against bladder cancer.

J Nanomed Nanotechnol 9 5. Ueda H, Yamazaki C, Yamazaki M A hydroxyl group of flavonoids affects oral anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of systemic tumor necrosis factor- α production. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68 1 — Nieminen R, Vuorela P, Heinonen M, Moilanen E Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids : genistein, kaempferol, quercetin, and daidzein inhibit STAT-1 and NF- κ B activations, whereas flavone, isorhamnetin, naringenin, and pelargonidin inhibit only NF-κB activation along with their inhibitory.

Mediat Inflamm — Gupta A, Chaphalkar SR Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities of flavonoids from medicinal plants.

J Herb Med Pharmacol 5 3 — Bai-Luh W, Jing-Ru W, Pao-Hui C, Chi-Feng H, Jih-Pyang W, Lin C Antiinflammatory Flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus and Artocarpus communis.

J Agric Food Chem — Serpa R, Franc EJG, Furlaneto-maia L, Andrade CGTJ, Diniz A, Furlaneto MC In vitro antifungal activity of the flavonoid baicalein against Candida species. J Med Microbiol — Kanwala Q, Hussain I, Siddiqui HL, Javaid A Antifungal activity of flavonoids isolated from mango Mangifera indica L.

Nat Prod Res 24 20 — Vimala G, Shoba FG A review on antiulcer activity of few indian medicinal plants. Int J Microbiol — Download references. The authors acknowledge the efforts of Dr. Eduard Mas Claret, a research fellow at the Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, the UK, for reviewing the manuscript.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Nigerian Army College of Education, PMB, Ilorin, Kwara, , Nigeria. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

This research was designed by AE and HDJ. AE wrote the manuscript under the supervision of HDJ. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Abiche Ekalu. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Reprints and permissions. Ekalu, A.

Flavonoids: isolation, characterization, and health benefits. Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 9 , 45 Download citation. Received : 31 March Accepted : 30 June Published : 29 September Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all SpringerOpen articles Search. Download PDF. Review Open access Published: 29 September Flavonoids: isolation, characterization, and health benefits Abiche Ekalu ORCID: orcid.

Abstract Background The unique and vast pharmacological activities of flavonoids have made them of research interest. Main text The medicinal values of plant-based flavonoids that this literature review tends to summarize the pharmacological activities of these secondary metabolites from 22 selected plant families.

Conclusion The pharmacological activities of flavonoids from the various sources reviewed in this study show that the secondary metabolites could provide a scaffold for the development of potent anti-cancer drugs in the future.

Biosynthetic pathway of flavonoid. Full size image. Table 1 Sources of flavonoids [ 28 ] Full size table. Table 2 Classification of flavonoids [ 29 ] Full size table. The basic skeleton of flavonoids and their various classes.

Table 3 Characteristic chemical shifts for flavonoids [ 29 ] Full size table. Table 4 UV absorption ranges for flavonoids [ 29 ] Full size table. Scheme 1.

Table 5 Isolation, characterization, and health benefits of flavonoids Full size table. Representation of the activities of the flavonoids. Chemical structures of flavonoids with health benefits. Availability of data and materials The search was by using keywords such as flavonoids.

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Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the efforts of Dr. Funding None. Author information Authors and Affiliations Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Nigerian Army College of Education, PMB, Ilorin, Kwara, , Nigeria Abiche Ekalu Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria James Dama Habila Authors Abiche Ekalu View author publications.

mono, di, tri, and polymeric structures Conjugates ie. whether bound to a sugar unit or hydroxyl group Their major role in plants is to function as growth regulators, and protect the plant from UV radiation by scavenging free radicals produced by the photosynthetic electron transport system. Condensed tannins In the body they have a wide range of actions and many medicinal uses.

Hawthorne Calendula off. A place for all things herbal medicine Created and maintained with love by Dr. Marisa Marciano, ND. Donations Donations. Get my new book here! The 2nd Edition of my herbal reference is here! Subscribe Subscribed. Ajith TA, Janardhanan KK: Indian medicinl mushrooms as a source of antioxidant and antitumor agents.

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Download references. Centre for Complementary Medicine Research, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag , Penrith South DC, NSW, , Australia. School of Science and Health, University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag , Penrith South DC, NSW, , Australia.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Sundar Rao Koyyalamudi. SRK, SCJ and CK designed the study and wrote the manuscript. PD, SCJ, SRK and SL performed the experiments. PD, SRK, SCJ, CK, and SL analysed the data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and permissions. Diaz, P. et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants and fungi containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

Chin Med 7 , 26 Download citation. Received : 18 July Accepted : 23 November Published : 24 November Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative.

Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Abstract Background This study aims to determine the relationship between the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the thirteen herbs and two fungi extracts, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents.

Methods Antioxidant activities were evaluated by four assays: an antioxidant activity assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a DPPH 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl assay to assess free radical scavenging, an assay assessing ferrous ions or iron II chelating ability, and a ferric reducing antioxidant power FRAP assay.

Results A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activities and the total phenolic and flavonoid content of the plant extracts was found. Conclusion The selected herbs could be a rich source of antioxidants and free radical scavenging compounds.

Flavinoids Siva S. ISSN Print : X ISSN Online Flavlnoids DOI: Abstract: In Micronutrient deficiency prevention Flavonoids in herbal medicine herbaal, we have mentioned the nerbal roles of some Flavonoids in herbal medicine the most important herbal plants medicine containing flavonoids and phytochemicals with antiviral activities. All relevant information was searched by using the terms, influenza, phytochemicals, SARS, SARSCov- 2, flavonoids, and traditional medicinal plants uses, from reliable databases, such as PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. The most important medicinal herbs which contain flavonoids with antiviral activities are Limonium densiflorum, Oroxylum indicum, Tribulus terrestris L.

Flavonoids in herbal medicine -

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Open Chem — Bigoniya P, Singh K Original article ulcer protective potential of standardized hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from Citrus sinensis. Brazilian J Pharmacogn — Gamal-Eldeen AM, Kawashty SA, Ibrahim LF, Shabana MM, El-Negoumy SI Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive properties of aerial parts of Vicia sativa and its flavonoids.

J Nat Remedies 4 1 — Hu J, Ma W, Li N, Wang K Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory flavonoids from the flowers of Chuju , a medical cultivar of Chrysanthemum Morifolim Ramat.

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Eduard Mas Claret, a research fellow at the Department of Chemistry, University of Surrey, the UK, for reviewing the manuscript. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Nigerian Army College of Education, PMB, Ilorin, Kwara, , Nigeria.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. This research was designed by AE and HDJ. AE wrote the manuscript under the supervision of HDJ. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Abstract: Abstract: In this mini-review article, we have mentioned the key roles of some of the most important herbal plants medicine containing flavonoids and phytochemicals with antiviral activities.

The Synthetic Methods, Structures, and Properties of the Ca-C σ Bond Organocalcium Containing Compounds. Mini-Reviews in Organic Chemistry Editor-in-Chief: Siva S. The optical density of each well was measured at nm by a microplate reader. A sandwich ELISA method was used as described previously [ 22 ] to determine the TNF-α concentration.

The capture antibody was used with 0. TNF-α was detected using a biotinylated secondary antibody and an avidin peroxidase conjugate with TMB as the detection reagent. After 30 min, the reaction was stopped by 2 M sulfuric acid and the absorbance was measured at nm.

The results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation SD , calculated from duplicate determinations and the linear relationship was visually determined. The significance of differences among groups of data were determined with one-way analysis of variance ANOVA by using statistical software SPSS The yield of the water extracts The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts was measured using the F-C reagent and aluminium chloride methods, respectively.

The highest phenolic content was found in C. bonariensis H argyi H7: brevicornum H vulgaris H9: grandiflora H 5. In the other herbs the total phenolic content ranged The flavonoid content varied greatly from 9.

The highest flavonoid content was found in A. genistelloides H1: alba H8: A : Hot water extracts. B : Ethanol extracts. The flavonoid content of the herbs was in the range The highest flavonoid content was found in L. gracile H alkekengi H2: baicalensis H militaris H Phenolics and flavonoids neutralize free radicals by donating a hydrogen atom or an electron, and chelate metal ions [ 24 ].

The antioxidant activities of the water and ethanol extracts in this study were evaluated using an antioxidant assay for scavenging activity with S. cerevisiae , a DPPH free radical scavenging assay, an assay assessing the iron II chelating ability, and a FRAP assay.

Most of the water and ethanol extracts fourteen samples out of fifteen displayed significant antioxidant activity as measured by the DPPH method. The results from the antioxidant assay suggested that the water extracts showed higher activity than the ethanol extracts in general. The percentage inhibitions of the free radical DPPH were in the range 7.

chinensis H5 , T. capilipes H6 and P. The highest inhibition of DPPH activity was found in the ethanol extract of L. The free radical scavenging activities were very low in the ethanol extracts of C. militaris H 4.

grandiflora H 2. The herbs displayed antioxidant activities owing to a combination of their total phenolic and flavonoid content as reported in other studies [ 6 , 10 ]. Iron is the chief peroxidant and is able to generate lipid peroxidation through the Fenton reaction or by accelerating the dissociation of lipid hydroperoxides to their respective peroxy and alkoxy radicals [ 25 ].

The water extracts of A. argyi H7 , P. vulgaris H9 , L. gracile H10 and E. brevicornum H14 exhibited The highest percentage chelating capacity of the ethanol extracts was found in L.

Seu calvatia H4: capilipes H6: Flavonoid and phenolic compounds are known to act as antioxidants, radical scavengers and metal chelators [ 27 ]. These extracts have appreciable amounts of flavonoid and phenolic compounds that may contribute to their chelating ability.

A wide variation was observed. The water extract of P. vulgaris H9 showed the highest FRAP CPE grandiflora H13 showed the lowest FRAP CPE 2. The FRAP of the ethanol extracts was in the range 3. FRAP was significant in some of the water and ethanol extracts owing to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and a similar trend is observed for many other plant extracts that have been studied [ 28 ].

The reducing properties are generally associated with compounds that can donate hydrogen atoms to free radicals and convert them into stable non-reactive molecules [ 29 ].

NO is an important intracellular and intercellular regulator of multiple biological functions, including macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, neurotransmission and smooth muscle relaxation [ 30 , 31 ].

Overexpression of NO has been associated with oxidative stress [ 32 , 33 ] and with the pathophysiology of various diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, autoimmune disease and chronic inflammation [ 34 , 35 ]. It has also been shown that the production of TNF-α is crucial for the synergistic induction of NO synthesis in IFN-γ- and LPS-stimulated macrophages [ 36 , 37 ].

The cell toxicity of the plant extracts was determined by MTT assay. vulgaris H9 and E. brevicornum H Therefore the water extracts of these plants exhibited low toxicity. The role of TNF-α production was suggested for the antitumor activity of phenols and flavonoids [ 38 ], but the underlying mechanisms by which different flavonoid and phenolic compounds affect TNF-α and NO production are to be investigated.

Effect of water extracts of herbs on LPS-stimulated macrophage production of NO and TNF-α, and cell viability. A : Cell viability. B : NO production. C : TNF-α production.

The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were correlated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the herb extracts.

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As Flavonoids in herbal medicine common Flavonoiids basis of various cardiovascular diseases, the Flavonoics and mortality of Flavonoids in herbal medicine Flqvonoids have increased FFlavonoids recent herbsl. Unfortunately, there Flavonoids in herbal medicine still many problems in the treatment of AS, and meeicine prevention and treatment Artichoke main courses the disease is mesicine ideal. Up to now, the occurrence and development of AS can roughly include endothelial cell dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, inflammation, foam cell production, and neoangiogenesis. Among them, endothelial dysfunction, as an early event of AS, plays a particularly important role in promoting the development of AS. In addition, oxidative stress occurs throughout the causes of endothelial dysfunction. Some previous studies have shown that flavonoids derived from herbal medicines are typical secondary metabolites. Due to its structural presence of multiple active hydroxyl groups, it is able to exert antioxidant activity in diseases. Flavonoids in herbal medicine Flavonoids Flavonoirs bioflavonoids ; from the Latin ln flavus jedicine, meaning yellow, their color in nature are a class Flaonoids Flavonoids in herbal medicine Muscle to fat ratio metabolites found in plants, Medicind thus commonly consumed in the diets Flavonoids in herbal medicine humans. Chemically, flavonoids have on general structure of a Flavonolds Flavonoids in herbal medicine, which consists of Flavonoids in herbal medicine phenyl rings A and Flavonoids in herbal medicine and a heterocyclic ring C, the ring containing the embedded oxygen. According to the IUPAC nomenclature, [3] [4] they can be classified into:. The three flavonoid classes above are all ketone -containing compounds and as such, anthoxanthins flavones and flavonols. The terms flavonoid and bioflavonoid have also been more loosely used to describe non-ketone polyhydroxy polyphenol compounds, which are more specifically termed flavanoids. The three cycles or heterocycles in the flavonoid backbone are generally called ring A, B, and C. In the s, Albert Szent-Györgyi and other scientists discovered that Vitamin C alone was not as effective at preventing scurvy as the crude yellow extract from oranges, lemons or paprika.

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