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Polyphenols and sports performance

Polyphenols and sports performance

Human Pokyphenols muscle nitrate store: influence of Polyphenols and sports performance nitrate supplementation and exercise. Nutr Rev. Likely additive ergogenic effects of combined preexercise dietary nitrate and caffeine ingestion in trained cyclists.

Polyphenols and sports performance -

Strength loss and pain were significantly less in the cherry juice trial versus placebo. These results show efficacy of the cherry juice in decreasing some of the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage [ 62 ].

Another study has demonstrated that Montmorency cherry juice consumption improved the recovery of isometric muscle strength after intensive exercise [ 63 ]. Regardless, future research should examine the use of CJ in other team sports before CJ can be recommended or excluded as an integrator to improve recovery after sport performance.

Blackcurrant Ribes nigrum fruits are a real mine of polyphenols, in fact they are rich in anthocyanins delphinidinrutinoside, delphinidineglucoside, cyanidinrutinoside, and cyanidinglucoside. The health benefits are thought to be mediated by the effect of anthocyanins on inflammatory responses, antioxidant activity, and endothelial function [ 64 ].

Moreover, blackcurrant intake increases forearm blood flow at rest, potentially mediated by anthocyanin-induced vasodilation and vaso-relaxation which may affect substrate delivery and exercise performance.

It is important to emphasize that the blackcurrants properties are common to all berries raspberry, blueberry, blackberry, currants, and gooseberries. Recent studies have revealed a potential ergogenic effect of New Zealand blackcurrant NZBC extract intake on physiological and metabolic exercise responses and performance outcomes.

Moreover, 7 day NZBC intake augments fat oxidation during min moderate-intensity exercise in endurance-trained females [ 66 ]. Another polyphenols-rich fruit is pomegranate; in fact, pomegranate juice POMj is rich in flavonols, flavonoids, gallic acid, ellagic acid, quercetin, and ellagitannins, with numerous health benefits during stressful situations [ 67 ].

Its antioxidant potential has proven to be superior even to green tea and red wine. According to recent studies, in fact, the pomegranate reduces oxidative stress of macrophages, free radicals, lipid peroxidation, and oxidation of low-density lipoproteins; the inflammatory processes seem to be blocked by the action of ellagitannins.

Pomegranate juice is an excellent post-workout because the antioxidants present in the juice of the arils help the muscles to restore their functionality facilitating the supercompensation of exercise; it has a significant impact on acute post-exercise lipid peroxidation and on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant responses.

Pomegranate extract has been suggested as an ergogenic aid due to its rich concentration of polyphenols, which are proposed to enhance nitric oxide bioavailability, thereby improving the efficiency of oxygen usage, and consequently, endurance exercise performance.

Supplementation with pomegranate juice has the potential to attenuate oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant responses assessed acutely and up to 48 h following an intensive weightlifting training session [ 68 , 69 ]. The polyphenol curcumin , derived from the rhizome Curcuma longa L.

It has been demonstrated that curcumin can reduce the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in vitro and in animal models, suggesting that this anti-glycation mechanism may relate to the antioxidant effect of the compound. It has been suggested a positive effect of curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin supplementation for 3 months on glycoxidation and lipid peroxidation in athletes chronically exercising intensively and further studies will test whether treatment with curcumin can result in a reduction of the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in muscle tissue, possibly improving muscle performance in the long term [ 70 ].

It has been demonstrated that consumption of curcumin reduced biological inflammation, but not quadriceps muscle soreness, during recovery after exercise-induced muscle damage.

The observed improvements in biological inflammation may translate to faster recovery and improved functional capacity during subsequent exercise sessions [ 71 ].

Honey , natural food produced by the nectar of flowers from bees, is widely used for its precious nutritional and therapeutic values that provide phytotherapeutic properties, with powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects.

So far, around types of honey have been recognized with different taste, color, and odor according to the different types of nectar harvested by bees. Honey is an energizing substance useful for sportsmen, and it provides up to 17 g of carbohydrates for every spoon consumed and provides the much needed energy, serving as an economic substitute for the enhancers of sporting activities available on the market.

A beneficial effect of honey has been shown in athletes, where if a moderate and regular exercise is able to counteract oxidative stress [ 20 ]. In one study, 32 healthy volunteers underwent a short but intense exercise on the ergometer.

A significant decrease in serum malondialdehyde levels was observed in subjects who had consumed honey before making a physical effort, with a greater difference for those volunteers who had used it for 3 weeks. In another study, the effects of honey in 39 road cyclists were examined. In the group that received honey supplementation 70 g , the increase in oxidative stress markers was much lower than placebo, and the antioxidant levels were significantly higher.

Ahmad and others examined the effect of different doses of Tualang honey in 20 athletes involved in different competitive sports.

The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two different doses and that the maximum antioxidant capacity was observed in both cases 2 h after the honey intake [ 20 ]. The use of polyphenols has been designed to improve performance by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis in two ways: polyphenols stimulate stress-related cell signaling pathways that increase the expression of genes encoding cytoprotective proteins such as nuclear respiratory factor; the selected polyphenols i.

Furthermore, some polyphenols improve flow-mediated dilation and endothelial function in humans by increasing the synthesis of endothelial nitric oxide. Polyphenols could help overall athletic performance in sports where the rate of blood flow and maximum cardiac output are important determinants of cardiovascular performance, acting on endothelial function.

Polyphenol supplementation is currently controversial, and at the moment, the use of different exercise protocols, different outcomes, in various physically trained subjects, and the use of a variety of laboratory parameters to demonstrate these effects make it still difficult to assess the effects of polyphenols on physical activity.

Therefore, in any case, a detailed description of the type of exercise e. The evidence is not sufficient to make recommendations for or against the use of polyphenol supplements for recreational, competitive, or elite athletes. Polyphenols have multiple biological effects, and future exercise studies must be studied in an appropriate and specific way to determine the physiological interactions between the exercise and the selected supplement, rather than considering only performance.

Those with higher levels of oxidative stress can clearly benefit more from the antioxidant treatment. An initial screening of the state of oxidative stress is therefore essential. Clearly, individual susceptibility related to the presence of specific genetic variants in key enzymes for ROS detoxification may be another important parameter.

It would be useful to consider the integrated effect of exogenous diet and antioxidant supplementation. The relationship between oxidative stress and sport is really very complex; in fact, the release of free radicals is necessary to stimulate the up-regulation of endogenous antioxidant defenses.

In recent years, the consumption of supplements rich in antioxidant compounds by athletes has greatly increased, but a natural intake through the diet is more recommended.

For future research conducted on the performance effects of dietary polyphenols, it should provide adequate detail on the method of blinding and participant follow-up to ascertain whether the study was in fact blinded and report performance data in raw values.

These designs would enable researchers to optimize both type and dose of polyphenol supplementation to achieve performance benefit.

In addition to the general notes on research reporting, very few studies outlined comprehensive dietary control measures. More research is needed on optimal dose; however, greater intakes could improve the performance response.

The present review summarized the results of studies on the effects of polyphenols intake on exercise-induced oxidative stress obtained in human trials.

The conflicting findings of previous research have brought into question the usefulness of antioxidant supplementation during resistance training. As polyphenolic antioxidants have shown promise as recovery strategies from fatiguing and damaging bouts of exercise, supplementation with polyphenols may be an appealing option to recover from an intense resistance exercise bout.

However, it is important to determine whether polyphenol supplementation during a resistance training program will augment or diminish adaptations in muscular strength. Clearly, there is much more to be learned in the exciting field of exercise, oxidative stress, and polyphenols. Licensee IntechOpen.

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Chapter metrics overview 1, Chapter Downloads View Full Metrics. Impact of this chapter. Abstract Exercise-induced aerobic bioenergetic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol increase production of reactive oxygen species.

Keywords antioxidant athletic performance nutrition polyphenols oxidative stress sport. dangelo uniparthenope. Introduction Many authors have noted that physical exercise induces an increase in production of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species ROS [ 1 ].

Oxidative stress and physic activity We have said that free radicals are normally generated during various physiological mechanisms. Antioxidants and exercise An active debate still exists on the effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress.

Nomenclature, classifications, and occurrence in foods Polyphenols are classified into flavonoids and nonflavonoids, according to the number of phenol rings and structural elements bound to these rings. The most common phenolic acid are: caffeic acid is generally the most abundant phenolic acid and is mainly found as a quinic ester; present in many fruits and vegetables; it is a major phenolic compound in coffee; chlorogenic acid is the ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid; it is present in blueberries, kiwis, prunes, and apples; ferulic acid present in cereals, which is esterified to hemicellulose in the cell wall.

Bioavailability of polyphenols Bioavailability is defined as the fraction of a nutrient that the body is able to absorb and use for its physiological functions. Biological effects Historically, polyphenols were mostly of interest to botanists, as they play many roles in plants. Quercetin Among nutraceutical compounds, flavonoids are the mainly studied ones for their positive effects on human health, and some of them have been proposed to be beneficial in exercise and exercise performance.

Catechins: green tea extract Although quercetin is the most studied flavonoid in relation to exercise, other molecules are under investigation for their ability to prevent exercise-induced muscle damage and to affect physical performance.

Polyphenols mixtures In recent years, the research has focused on studying not only the action of individual polyphenols but also the biological effects of polyphenols mixtures. References 1. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2.

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Curcumin and Boswellia serrata modulate the glyco-oxidative status and lipo-oxidation in master athletes. McFarlin BK, Venable AS, Henning AL, Sampson JN, Pennel K, Vingren JL, et al. However, at very high concentrations, free radicals instead of being advantageous they can have detrimental effects [ 46 ].

During heavy endurance training, endogenous antioxidant capacity cannot counteract the increasingly high RONS generation, resulting in a state of OS and subsequent cellular damage [ 52 ]. OS can be basically estimated measuring free radicals, radical mediated damages on lipids, proteins or deoxyribonucleic acid DNA molecules and performing the total antioxidant capacity.

The results of free radicals must be interpreted with caution because of the short life of the ROS, their strong ability to react and their low concentration. Regarding lipid peroxidation, the conventional oxidative stress marker is malondialdehyde MDA which is produced during fatty acid oxidation.

This product is measured by its reaction with thiobarbituric acid which generates thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS in blood samples. F2-isoprostanes are also analyzed to estimate the damage on lipids. They are produced by non-cyclooxygenase dependent peroxidation of arachidonic acid.

They are stable products released into circulation before the hydrolyzed form is excreted in urine. Free radical induced modification of proteins causes the formation of carbonyl groups into amino acid side chains. An increase of carbonyls is linked to oxidative stress in blood samples.

The use of antioxidant supplements for ameliorating the exercise-induced RONS has become a current topic as there is considerable evidence that these supplements might not only prevent the toxic effects of RONS, but also blunt their signaling properties responsible for the adaptive responses [ 54 ].

Anyway, further research to observe effects of nutritional antioxidant supplements on exercise-induced oxidative stress must be performed [ 56 ]. An antioxidant can be defined as a substance that helps to reduce the severity of OS either by forming a less active radical or by quenching the damaging free radicals chain reaction on substrates such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates or DNA [ 57 ].

The antioxidants can be endogenous or obtained exogenously as a part of a diet or as a dietary supplement. Some dietary compounds that do not neutralize free radicals but enhance endogenous antioxidant activity may also be classified as antioxidants. While exogenous antioxidant may attenuate intracellular adaptation in response to exercise training, there is no literature to suggest that increasing endogenous antioxidants has this effect [ 46 ].

Endogenous antioxidants keep optimal cellular functions and thus systemic health and well-being. However, under some conditions endogenous antioxidants may not be enough, and extra antioxidants may be required to maintain optimal cellular functions.

Such a deficit is evident in some individuals during the overloaded period of training or in circumstances where athletes have little time for recovery like in tournament situations. However, available data still do not allow to define the optimal antioxidant intake that would protect overloaded or, even more so, overtrained individuals [ 58 ].

Humans have developed highly complex antioxidant systems enzymatic and non-enzymatic which work synergistically and together with each other to protect the cells and organ systems of the body against free radical damage.

The most efficient enzymatic antioxidants are superoxide dismutase SOD , catalase CAT and glutathione peroxidase GPX. In Fig. SOD is the major defense upon superoxide radicals and is the first barrier protection against oxidative stress in the cell. SOD represents a group of enzymes that catalyse the dismutation of O 2.

Manganese Mn is a cofactor of Mn-SOD form, present in the mitochondria and copper Cu and zinc Zn , are cofactors present in cytosol [ 57 ]. Furthermore, CAT is responsible of the decomposition of H 2 O 2 to form water H 2 O and oxygen O 2 in the cell. This antioxidative enzyme is widely distributed in the cell, with the majority of the activity occurring in the mitochondria and peroxisomes [ 59 ].

With high ROS concentration and an increase in oxygen consumption during exercise, the enzyme GPX, present in cell cytosol and mitochondria, is activated to remove hydrogen peroxide from the cell [ 60 ]. The reaction uses reduced glutathione GSH and transforms it into oxidized glutathione GSSG.

GPX and CAT have the same action upon H 2 O 2 , but GPX is more efficient with high ROS concentration and CAT with lower H 2 O 2 concentration [ 61 , 62 ].

In response to increased RONS production the antioxidant defense system may be reduced temporarily, but may increase during the recovery period [ 63 , 64 ] although conflicting findings have been reported [ 65 ]. GPX requires several secondary enzymes glutathione reductase GR and glucosephosphate dehydrogenase GPDH and cofactors GSH and the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH to remove H 2 O 2 from the cell.

By contrast, non-enzymatic antioxidants include vitamin A retinol [ 57 ], vitamin E tocopherol [ 66 ], vitamin C ascorbic acid , thiol antioxidants glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid , melatonin, carotenoids, micronutrients iron, copper, zinc, selenium, manganese which act as enzymatic cofactors and flavonoids, a specific group of polyphenols [ 67 ].

Among non-enzymatic antioxidants, polyphenols are a group of phytochemicals that have received great attention of researchers in the last years considering their beneficial effects in the prevention of many chronic diseases [ 68 , 69 ]. They constitute one of the most numerous and widely distributed groups of natural products in the plant kingdom.

Polyphenols can be classified by their origin, biological function, and chemical structure. More than phenolic structures are currently known, and among them over flavonoids have been identified [ 70 , 71 , 72 ].

The major groups of flavonoids of nutritional interest are the flavonols, the flavones, the flavanols, the flavanones, the anthocyanidins and the isoflavones [ 73 ]. See Fig. Flavonoid structures. Polyphenols have showed to act as a defense against OS caused by excess reactive oxygen species ROS [ 74 ].

Their potential health benefits as antioxidants is mediated by their functional hydroxyl groups OH that determine the ROS synthesis suppression, the chelation of trace elements responsible for free radical generation, the scavenging ROS and the improvement of antioxidant defenses [ 75 , 76 ].

Commonly, grapes and grape based products are recognized as natural food products with strong antioxidant activity precisely due to their high content in polyphenolic compounds [ 77 ]. At the same time, these products have also demonstrated a reduced OS and the oxidative damage at muscular level and improved the muscle performance but in aged rats [ 80 ].

Table 2 provides a summary of the different polyphenol families found in grapes. Considering their polyphenolic composition, it is plausible to hypothesize that the strategic supplementation with grape based products may have a positive antioxidant effect in athletes in particular situations.

However, pilot studies on the antioxidant capacity of grapes and grape based products with athletes are scarce. Few studies are focused on the consumption of antioxidant supplements obtained from grape based products to reduce the immediate increase of oxidative stress biomarkers.

Table 3 shows a descriptive summary of 12 studies published since that investigate the effect of supplementation with grape based products on exercise-induced oxidative stress markers and the antioxidant enzymatic system efficiency. The studies collected in Table 3 fulfill the following inclusion criteria: i pilot studies conducted with healthy human participants active or trained subjects , ii original studies with an acute or long-term grape supplementation intervention on physiological responses associated with OS produced by exercise, iii published until June Exclusion criteria are animal studies and studies in which no exercise is performed.

Wine may be a good option as a product obtained from grapes with an important source of phenolic compounds. However, considering that wine contains alcohol may not be an option for all consumers due to certain disease conditions, religious restrictions, or age, it has not been considered. Among the studies found, six of the products are beverages made with grape and the rest are grape extracts and only one is referred to dried grapes.

Within the beverages, one is a grape beverage but mixed with raspberry and red currant [ 81 ], another one a grape beverage specified as organic [ 82 ], two of them are grape concentrate drinks [ 83 , 84 ] and the last two a purple grape juice [ 85 ].

Regarding the polyphenolic content, the studies show a wide number of dosages. Morillas-Ruiz et al. dose range. Considering the total phenolic content of 1. This could be explained by a not high enough intensity exercise to alter the redox state or by the adaptation on antioxidant defenses in well-trained subjects.

However, the antioxidant supplementation had a beneficial effect on the oxidation of proteins induced by exercise and reduced this index. Considering the total phenolic content of 5. SOD is a cytosolic antioxidant enzyme responsible for superoxide anion radical dismutation into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide and is sensitive to the intake of polyphenols in humans.

The authors attributed this decrease to the reduction of intra- and extracellular oxidative imbalances.

The acute intake was in two equal doses before and after the training. The results showed a significant increase in SOD in the blood samples regardless of the drink consumed grape drink or placebo.

A lower increase in reduced glutathione GSH levels in the test group in comparison to the placebo group was obtained. This result may indicate a lower oxidation of GSH to GSSG, oxidized glutathione, due to the action of glutathione peroxidase GPX or even more efficient synthesis by glutathione reductase.

Besides, higher values in TBARS value with placebo in comparison to the grape concentrate drink were obtained just after the exercise and after one hour.

This means a lower value in this oxidative stress marker related to lipid peroxidation when grape concentrate drink is consumed. But the antioxidant enzyme catalase CAT activity remained stable in the group that consumed the beverage.

The authors suggest that the studies on the CAT response to exercise have shown conflicting results especially to a single exercise session. The study concludes that TBARS, CAT and GSH values suggest that this grape concentrate drink presents potential to modulate exercise-induced oxidative stress.

In another study Tavares-Toscano et al. In this case the total antioxidant capacity TAC was evaluated in the plasma by evaluating the radical scavenging according to the α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl DPPH method. This analytical method is used to determine the TAC of a compound, an extract or other biological sources by using a stable free radical DPPH.

The assay is based on the measurement of the scavenging capacity of antioxidants towards it [ 86 ]. The authors showed a deep characterization of the grape juice. They did not analyze any oxidative stress markers, but showed an increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol HDL-cholesterol fraction and a decreased low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol LDL-cholesterol fraction demonstrating that grape juice may enhance the benefits of physical training,.

Besides the malondialdehyde MDA data indicated that grape juice supplementation did not prevent lipid peroxidation in athletes, but the increase was lower than in the group with no grape juice. Tavares-Tocano et al. Concerning the edible grape products, to the best of our knowledge the first study that analyzed the effect of grape polyphenols supplementation on the blood antioxidant status was in [ 88 ].

This dosage means 0. The results showed an insignificant modification of antioxidant enzyme: SOD, CAT, GSH and glutathione reductase GR activities, concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants: GSH and uric acid UA and total antioxidant status TAS.

However, the authors indicated that the supplementation with the alcohol-free red wine grape polyphenolic extract might influence the attenuation of the post-exercise release creatine kinase CK into the blood.

Lafay et al. In this case, no information regarding the total polyphenolic content was given. Besides the administration of grape extract decreased the plasma CK concentration and increased the hemoglobin Hb level in plasma suggesting a protection of cells against oxidative stress damage.

The study revealed that this preparation and doses contributed to a significant increase in plasma TAC and to an insignificant increase in SOD, as well as a lower GSH activity and reduce concentration in TBARS.

Taghizadeh et al. No information about the polyphenol content was given but the results showed a significant rise in plasma GSH and a significant decrease in MDA.

Besides, the players who received GSE exhibited a significant decrease serum insulin concentration. On the other hand, the administration of GSE had no significant effects on parameters like creatine kinase CK or TAC when compared with the administration of the placebo.

The study resulted in an increase in SOD, GSH and CAT activity, which remained stable until the end of the recovery period. The authors explained that in comparison with the placebo group the subjects supplemented showed no need to mobilize more antioxidant defenses before the exercise because and that the supplement probably contributed to spare oxidative homeostasis.

Finally, it must be pointed out the protocol [ 93 ] established for a pilot study that includes a product mix made of dried grapes with almonds and dried cranberries.

No results are given but the authors describe the necessity of studying the F2-isoprostanes as a lipid peroxidation biomarker for oxidative stress. Supplementation with grape polyphenols seems to have a positive effect against oxidative stress.

These effects are dependent on the supplement dose, the length of the supplementation period or the polyphenolic profile total polyphenol content and the distribution among polyphenolic families. Besides, according to several reports, it appears that the type and intensity of exercise can affect the response of the blood antioxidant defense system, just as the training status of the athlete, or the sport discipline.

Considering the supplementation dosage in these studies it seems unlikely athletes would gain enough quantity of polyphenols from diet. Therefore, grape-based polyphenol concentrated products would be an interesting approach. Moreover, inter-individual variability the age, sex, diet, environment factors, exercise protocols and even variability in gene expression could influence the polyphenols bioavailability and physiological responses to oxidative stress.

Given the promising evidence, although still limited, more pilot studies on effect of grape polyphenols on the oxidative stress produced by sport should be conducted to determine the optimal concentration, dosage and effect on the oxidative stress for target athletes.

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Spotrs review was conducted spodts researchers associated with an Low GI drinks and a university in the Basque area of Polyphenols and sports performance Performnace. Low levels of these compounds have a beneficial role perforamnce Polyphenols and sports performance perfornance and cell signaling. But too much Health benefits catechins these compounds can damage muscle tissue, causing athletes to take a step back in their training. Getting the right amount of antioxidants at the right times from polyphenol-rich botanical extracts is the key to enabling athletes to put in high amounts of work sans muscle damage while at the same time avoiding the blunting of training effects, the authors said. To see how grape polyphenols might be used in this way the researchers evaluated a number of papers on the subject.

Polyphenols and sports performance -

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International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. Download references. Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, School of Medicine, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Vaughan Somerville. Vaughan Somerville, Cameron Bringans and Andrea Braakhuis declare that they have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this review.

Reprints and permissions. Somerville, V. Polyphenols and Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med 47 , — Download citation. Published : 17 January Issue Date : August Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Abstract Background Polyphenols exert physiological effects that may impact athletic performance.

Objective To determine the overall effect of polyphenols on human athletic performance. Methods A search strategy was completed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and SPORTDiscus in April Results The pooled results demonstrate polyphenol supplementation for at least 7 days increases performance by 1.

Conclusion Overall the pooled results show that polyphenols, and of note quercetin, are viable supplements to improve performance in healthy individuals. Access this article Log in via an institution. References Darvishi L, Askari G, Hariri M, et al.

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Hence, the absence of effects in these trials may be attributable to the decreased efficacy demonstrated for both time-trial performance and fitter athletes within this review, although an included study by de Castro, de Assis Manoel, and Machado [ 59 ] found no effects in untrained females.

Overall, the small number of female trials, particularly in less well-trained athletes, combined with the similar effect sizes between mixed-sex although these were predominantly comprised of males trials and male-only trials, makes it difficult to infer whether there are genuine sex differences in the response to NO 3 - consumption.

If sex differences in the response to polyphenol and NO 3 - consumption do exist, several potential mechanisms may be responsible.

Females have increased endothelium-dependent dilation [ 28 ], which may be attributable to elevated levels of plasma nitrite as a result of enhanced NO 3 - -reducing activity by oral bacteria [ ] and an augmenting role of estrogen in eNOS expression [ 27 ].

The increased proportion of slow-twitch muscle fibres in females [ ] may be an additional factor, given that NO 3 - consumption proposedly confers its ergogenic potential primarily via effects on fast-twitch muscle fibres [ 8 ].

Females also appear to have reduced levels of oxidative stress compared with males, which may be due to a variety of factors including the antioxidant properties of estrogen [ 30 ].

Thus, further research of potential sex differences in the response to NO 3 - and polyphenol consumption is certainly still warranted. Metabolic acidosis is proposed to inhibit NO synthesis through the NOS-dependent pathway while enhancing synthesis through the NOS-independent pathway [ ], which would suggest distinct intensity-dependent effects of NO 3 - and polyphenol consumption.

However, there appeared to be no moderating influence of test duration on effect sizes for TT or TTE tests following both NO 3 - and polyphenol consumption. Several studies assessed the effects of NO 3 - and polyphenol consumption across multiple exercise intensities, with mixed results.

Investigating the effects of NO 3 - on TTE at increasing exercise intensities, Kelly et al. Similarly, [ ] Trexler et al. Two studies conducted multiple distance TTs following NO 3 - consumption, with Shannon et al.

Regarding intermittent performance, Wylie et al. The bioavailability of polyphenols is dependent on several factors including the phytochemical and overall composition of their food source matrix, background diet and genetic factors, particularly intestinal microbiota [ 25 , ].

Most included studies increased polyphenol intake through supplementation with a specific product or food, rather than a more holistic dietary intervention that increases polyphenol intake from various food sources.

Notable exceptions included Knab et al. There is evidence that interactions between specific combinations of polyphenols and their food sources can have both synergistic and inhibitory effects on antioxidant activity [ 18 , ], but whether this may influence exercise performance is not yet established.

It has also been postulated that the co-ingestion of NO 3 - and polyphenols could have a synergistic effect on nitric oxide status [ 18 , ], which may contribute to increased efficacy of NO 3 - administered as beetroot juice in comparison to sodium NO 3 - [ ], although limited evidence is available in support of this [ 17 ].

Baker et al. Thus, while food-derived polyphenol consumption was shown to have significant overall benefits within this review, further research is still warranted into whether polyphenol consumption through a more holistic, whole foods-based approach may still enhance endurance exercise performance and whether the co-consumption of polyphenols NO 3 - -rich foods could confer any additional ergogenic effects.

Given the potential interactions of NO 3 - and polyphenols with other dietary factors, it is also of interest as to whether nitric oxide-related supplements may affect the responses to other ergogenic aids such as caffeine.

Four beetroot studies investigated the effects of beetroot juice both alone and in combination but indicated that beetroot juice had neither a positive effect independently, nor did it influence the ergogenic effect of caffeine [ 62 , 63 , 70 , 80 ].

No included polyphenol studies investigated any interactional effects with caffeine, although an excluded study investigating the effects of consuming coffee rich in caffeine and chlorogenic acid demonstrated no effects on TT performance despite comparison against a decaffeinated placebo [ ].

NO 3 - -rich beetroot juice consumption enhanced adaptions to sprint interval training [ 35 , 89 ], which may be related to enhancing exercise capacity during training [ ], as well as remodelling of skeletal muscle towards oxidative phenotypes [ 35 ], although this has not been consistently found [ 89 ].

While Kuo et al. This interactional effect has not been replicated by other polyphenols studies however, with no discernible effects evident following consumption of ginger and New Zealand blackcurrant in combination with high-intensity interval training [ , ], although both of these studies were in females.

It has been proposed that there is a hormetic relationship between the oxidative stress induced by training and subsequent adaptations, whereby an optimal amount of oxidative damage is needed to maximise training adaptations, whereas inadequate or excess levels can both result in negative responses [ ].

Indeed, chronic antioxidant supplementation with vitamin E has been linked to impaired performance [ ], and varied responses have been demonstrated following vitamin C supplementation [ ]. Presently, the lack of negative effects overall and in response to the same training suggests that consumption of polyphenol and NO 3 - -rich foods does not impair adaptations to training, although their ability to augment these adaptations requires further investigation.

One limitation of identifying polyphenol-rich foods within the present study was that there is no set definition of what this entails, and often studies did not specify phenolic content or reported only the composition of specific polyphenolic compounds and total phenolic content was unclear.

This issue was identified during the development of the search strategy, and thus it was decided that a separate meta-analysis would also be conducted for studies that did report phenolic content. However, as seen in Table 6 , results largely did not differ between studies that did and did not report phenolic content.

Several foods featured in the included studies also contained other bioactive compounds e. other antioxidants such as polysaccharides, carotenoids, ginsenosides, vitamins C and E that may confound the effects of their phenolic content.

While there are some exceptions [ ], in many such foods, antioxidant activity remains very strongly linked to total phenolic content [ , , , ], suggesting that polyphenols are the primary driver of their antioxidant properties.

Also, in the interest of evaluating the effectiveness of these foods overall and maintaining ecological validity, foods were deemed eligible unless such compounds were added to foods separately. In contrast to older reviews that used the previous Cochrane RoB Tool, no studies within this review were classified as low risk using the RoB Tool 2.

Future publications should provide more specific details to better ascertain risk, particularly regarding specification of the randomisation process used, allocation sequence concealment, compliance with dietary interventions, and reference to pre-specified data analysis protocols, as these were poorly addressed by included studies.

Consumption of foods rich in NO 3 - and polyphenols may provide trivial beneficial effects for endurance exercise performance, while consumption of foods rich in L-citrulline, currently limited only to studies of watermelon juice, does not appear to affect performance.

Beetroot juice has been extensively studied and its NO 3 - content confers ergogenic effects in various exercise types in populations that are not considered well-trained.

Other food sources of NO 3 - require further investigation of their ergogenic capacity. Food-derived polyphenols appear to have the potential to enhance TT performance to a similar extent as beetroot juice, although more research is needed regarding its efficacy for use in highly trained athletes.

No effects were evident for the consumption of polyphenols from New Zealand blackcurrant, cocoa, ginseng, green tea and raisins, but significant benefits were shown for the consumption of grape, beetroot NO 3 - -depleted , French maritime pine, Montmorency cherry and pomegranate across multiple studies.

However, caution should be exercised in translating these ergogenic effects to other food sources of polyphenols, as there seems to be considerable variation in the effects between foods that cannot be attributed to differences in total phenolic content or key polyphenolic compounds.

Distinct responses to NO 3 - and polyphenol supplementation were also observed between males and females, with females not demonstrating any benefit for exercise performance. NO 3 - -rich food consumption increases nitric oxide synthesis, and its physiological effects are more clearly linked to increases in muscle oxygen delivery and exercise efficiency, whereas polyphenol-rich foods have less clearly established effects on nitric oxide synthesis, vascular function and physiological variables during exercise.

Future studies should evaluate effects of NO 3 - and polyphenol consumption on training performance and adaptations, as well as optimising protocols for consuming polyphenol-rich foods, and establishing the individual and test-related e.

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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Callahan MJ, Parr EB, Hawley JA, Burke LM. Single and combined effects of beetroot crystals and sodium bicarbonate on 4-km cycling time trial performance.

Cermak NM, Res P, Stinkens R, Lundberg JO, Gibala MJ, Van Loon LJC. No improvement in endurance performance after a single dose of beetroot juice.

Cermak NM, Gibala MJ, Van Loon LJC. Nitrate supplementation's improvement of km time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Christensen PM, Petersen NK, Friis SN, Weitzberg E, Nybo L. Effects of nitrate supplementation in trained and untrained muscle are modest with initial high plasma nitrite levels.

Scand J Med Sci Sports. Christensen PM, Nyberg M, Bangsbo J. Influence of nitrate supplementation on VO2 kinetics and endurance of elite cyclists. de Castro TF, de Assis MF, Figueiredo DH, Figueiredo DH, Machado FA. Effects of chronic beetroot juice supplementation on maximum oxygen uptake, velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake, and peak velocity in recreational runners: a double-blinded, randomized and crossover study.

Eur J Appl Physiol. de Castro TF, Manoel FA, Figueiredo DH, Figueiredo DH, Machado FA. Effect of beetroot juice supplementation on km performance in recreational runners. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. de Castro TF, de Assis MF, Machado FA. Beetroot juice supplementation does not modify the 3-km running performance in untrained women.

Sci Sports. Article Google Scholar. Esen O, Nicholas C, Morris M, Bailey SJ. No Effect of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on m and m Swimming Performance in Moderately Trained Swimmers. Flueck JL, Gallo A, Moelijker N, Bogdanov N, Bogdanova A, Perret C. Influence of Equimolar Doses of Beetroot Juice and Sodium Nitrate on Time Trial Performance in Handcycling.

Glaister M, Pattison JR, Muniz-Pumares D, Patterson SD, Foley P. Effects of dietary nitrate, caffeine, and their combination on km cycling time trial performance. J Strength Cond Res. Handzlik MK, Gleeson M.

Likely additive ergogenic effects of combined preexercise dietary nitrate and caffeine ingestion in trained cyclists. ISRN Nutr. Hoon MW, Hopkins WG, Jones AM, Martin DT, Halson SL, West NP, et al. Nitrate supplementation and high-intensity performance in competitive cyclists.

Hoon MW, Jones AM, Johnson NA, Blackwell JR, Broad EM, Lundy B, et al. The effect of variable doses of inorganic nitrate-rich beetroot juice on simulated m rowing performance in trained athletes. Jonvik KL, Van Dijk JW, Senden JMG, Van Loon LJC, Verdijk LB.

The effect of beetroot juice supplementation on dynamic apnea and intermittent sprint performance in elite female water polo players. Kelly J, Vanhatalo A, Wilkerson DP, Wylie LJ, Jones AM.

Effects of nitrate on the power-duration relationship for severe-intensity exercise. Kelly J, Vanhatalo A, Bailey SJ, Wylie LJ, Tucker C, List S, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation: effects on plasma nitrite and pulmonary O2 uptake dynamics during exercise in hypoxia and normoxia. Kent GL, Dawson B, Cox GR, Burke LM, Eastwood A, Croft KD, et al.

Dietary nitrate supplementation does not improve cycling time-trial performance in the heat. J Sports Sci. Lane SC, Hawley JA, Desbrow B, Jones AM, Blackwell JR, Ross ML, et al. Single and combined effects of beetroot juice and caffeine supplementation on cycling time trial performance.

Lansley KE, Winyard PG, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Wilkerson DP, Blackwell JR, et al. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves cycling time trial performance. Lansley KE, Winyard PG, Fulford J, Vanhatalo A, Bailey SJ, Blackwell JR, et al.

Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of walking and running: A placebo-controlled study. Lowings S, Shannon OM, Deighton K, Matu J, Barlow MJ.

Effect of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Swimming Performance in Trained Swimmers. MacLeod KE, Nugent SF, Barr SI, Koehle MS, Sporer BC, MacInnis MJ. Acute Beetroot Juice Supplementation Does Not Improve Cycling Performance in Normoxia or Moderate Hypoxia.

McQuillan JA, Dulson DK, Laursen PB, Kilding AE. Dietary nitrate fails to improve 1 and 4 km cycling performance in highly trained cyclists.

The Effect of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Physiology and Performance in Trained Cyclists. Mosher SL, Gough LA, Deb S, Saunders B, Mc Naughton LR, Brown DR, et al. High dose Nitrate ingestion does not improve 40 km cycling time trial performance in trained cyclists.

Muggeridge DJ, Howe CCF, Spendiff O, Pedlar C, James PE, Easton C. The effects of a single dose of concentrated beetroot juice on performance in trained flatwater kayakers. Murphy M, Eliot K, Heuertz RM, Weiss E. Whole Beetroot Consumption Acutely Improves Running Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet.

Oskarsson J, McGawley K. No individual or combined effects of caffeine and beetroot-juice supplementation during submaximal or maximal running.

Pawlak-Chaouch M, Boissiere J, Munyaneza D, Gamelin F-X, Cuvelier G, Berthoin S, et al. Beetroot Juice Does Not Enhance Supramaximal Intermittent Exercise Performance in Elite Endurance Athletes. J Am Coll Nutr. Peeling P, Cox GR, Bullock N, Burke LM. Beetroot juice improves on-water M time-trial performance, and laboratory-based paddling economy in national and international-level kayak athletes.

Pinna M, Roberto S, Milia R, Marongiu E, Olla S, Loi A, et al. Effect of beetroot juice supplementation on aerobic response during swimming. Rokkedal-Lausch T, Franch J, Poulsen MK, Thomsen LP, Weitzberg E, Kamavuako EN, et al.

Chronic high-dose beetroot juice supplementation improves time trial performance of well-trained cyclists in normoxia and hypoxia. Shannon OM, Barlow MJ, Duckworth L, Williams E, Wort G, Woods D, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances short but not longer duration running time-trial performance.

Tan R, Wylie LJ, Thompson C, Blackwell JR, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, et al. Beetroot juice ingestion during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise attenuates progressive rise in O-2 uptake.

Thompson KG, Turner L, Prichard J, Dodd F, Kennedy DO, Haskell C, et al. Influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on physiological and cognitive responses to incremental cycle exercise. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. Thompson C, Vanhatalo A, Jell H, Fulford J, Carter J, Nyman L, et al.

Dietary nitrate supplementation improves sprint and high-intensity intermittent running performance. Thompson C, Vanhatalo A, Kadach S, Wylie LJ, Fulford J, Ferguson SK, et al.

Discrete physiological effects of beetroot juice and potassium nitrate supplementation following 4-wk sprint interval training. Vanhatalo A, Bailey SJ, Blackwell JR, DiMenna FJ, Pavey TG, Wilkerson DP, et al.

Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise.

Vasconcellos J, Silvestre DH, Baiao DD, Werneck-de-Castro JP, Alvares TS, Paschoalin VMF. A Single Dose of Beetroot Gel Rich in Nitrate Does Not Improve Performance but Lowers Blood Glucose in Physically Active Individuals. Med J Nutrition Metab.

Wilkerson DP, Hayward GM, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Blackwell JR, Jones AM. Influence of acute dietary nitrate supplementation on 50 mile time trial performance in well-trained cyclists. Wylie LJ, Kelly J, Bailey SJ, Blackwell JR, Skiba PF, Winyard PG, et al.

Beetroot juice and exercise: Pharmacodynamic and dose-response relationships. Wylie LJ, Mohr M, Krustrup P, Jackman SR, Ermdis G, Kelly J, et al. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance.

Wylie LJ, Bailey SJ, Kelly J, Blackwell JR, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM. Influence of beetroot juice supplementation on intermittent exercise performance. Wylie LJ, Park JW, Vanhatalo A, Kadach S, Black MI, Stoyanov Z, et al.

Human skeletal muscle nitrate store: influence of dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise. Gonzalez AM, Accetta MR, Spitz RW, Mangine GT, Ghigiarelli JJ, Sell KM. Red Spinach Extract Supplementation Improves Cycle Time Trial Performance in Recreationally Active Men and Women.

Moore AN, Haun CT, Kephart WC, Holland AM, Mobley CB, Pascoe DD, et al. Red Spinach Extract Increases Ventilatory Threshold during Graded Exercise Testing. Muggeridge DJ, Sculthorpe N, Grace FM, Willis G, Thornhill L, Weller RB, et al.

Acute whole body UVA irradiation combined with nitrate ingestion enhances time trial performance in trained cyclists. Boussetta N, Abedelmalek S, Khouloud A, Ben anes A, Souissi N. Does red orange juice supplementation has a protective effect on performance, cardiovascular parameters, muscle damage and oxidative stress markers following the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level-1 under polluted air?

Int J Environ Health Res. Allen JD, McLung J, Nelson AG, Welsch M. Engels H-J, Said JM, Wirth JC. Failure of chronic ginseng supplementation to affect work performance and energy metabolism in healthy adult females. Nutr Res. Abbey EL, Rankin JW.

Effect of ingesting a honey-sweetened beverage on soccer performance and exercise-induced cytokine response. Yi M, Fu J, Zhou L, Gao H, Fan C, Shao J, et al. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Basta P, Pilaczynska-Szczesniak L, Woitas-Slubowska D, Skarpanska-Stejnborn A. Influence of aloe arborescens Mill. Extract on selected parameters of pro-oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium and cytokine synthesis in rowers.

Hsu CC, Ho MC, Lin LC, Su B, Hsu MC. American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings. World J Gastroenterol. Morris AC, Jacobs I, McLellan TM, Klugerman A, Wang LC, Zamecnik J.

No ergogenic effect of ginseng ingestion. Int J Sport Nutr. Nieman DC, Gillitt ND, Sha W, Esposito D, Ramamoorthy S. Metabolic recovery from heavy exertion following banana compared to sugar beverage or water only ingestion: A randomized, crossover trial.

Montenegro CF, Kwong DA, Minow ZA, Davis BA, Lozada CF, Casazza GA. Betalain-rich concentrate supplementation improves exercise performance and recovery in competitive triathletes. Mumford PW, Kephart WC, Romero MA, Haun CT, Mobley CB, Osburn SC, et al.

Effect of 1-week betalain-rich beetroot concentrate supplementation on cycling performance and select physiological parameters. The 23 amateur subjects performed moderate-to-intense physical activity three days a week. A comparison of gut permeability between the groups was determined by measuring levels of three biomarkers for changes in intestinal barrier integrity LPS, zonulin, and occludin.

Blood content of the biomarkers was assessed at baseline and 30 days after the last ingestion of chocolate. In vitro tests were carried out to analyse the protein system essential for barrier integrity and to substantiate the clinical effects of cocoa-derived polyphenols on gut permeability.

Biomarkers of gut permeability were significantly higher in elite athletes compared to the amateurs at baseline, while correlation analysis determined that LPS was associated with both zonulin and occulin. The control group experienced increased LPS after 30 days of training along with increased zonulin and occludin, compared to baseline.

Conversely, there was no change to biomarker levels in the elite group taking supplementation. In vitro data confirmed that LPS increased oxidative stress, destroying intestinal cell integrity.

However, cell viability remained unchanged in the presence of polyphenol extracts, indicating no cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cells intestinal barrier. These results suggest that polyphenol-rich foods such as dark chocolate may be effective adjuvants for preventing LPS-associated intestinal damage in football athletes.

Authors: Cristina Nocella, Elena Cavarretta, Chiara Fossati, Fabio Pigozzi, Federico Quaranta, Mariangela Peruzzi, Fabrizio De Grandis, Vincenzo Costa, Carwyn Sharp, Massimo Manara, Antonia Nigro, Vittoria Cammisotto, Valentina Castellani, Vittorio Picchio, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Giacomo Frati, Simona Bartimoccia, Alessandra D'Amico and Roberto Carnevale.

Content provided by ADM Feb Application Note. Are you ready to discover the next big thing in digestive health? Content provided by DSM Nutritional Products Nov White Paper.

Journal perfirmance the International Society of Sports Nutrition Polypheno,s 18Performajce number: 3 Cite Polyphenols and sports performance article. Metrics details. Metformin and prediabetes activity of reactive species plays an important Polypheno,s a positive role on exercise adaptation, but these species at very high concentrations have detrimental effects. As a result, the use of antioxidant supplements for reducing oxidative stress can be an effective health strategy to maintain an optimal antioxidant status. In this sense, grapes are an important source of natural antioxidants due to their high content in polyphenols. Open access peer-reviewed Polyphenols and sports performance. Polypphenols 09 Polyphenolx Reviewed: 07 February Published: 20 March Edited by Marcos Soto-Hernández, Rosario García-Mateos and Mariana Palma-Tenango. com customercare cbspd. Exercise-induced aerobic bioenergetic reactions in mitochondria and cytosol increase production of reactive oxygen species.

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