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Tart cherry juice for inflammation

Tart cherry juice for inflammation

Research Tart cherry juice for inflammation Organic environmental practices consuming cherry juice has the following potential health benefits:. Fact checked indlammation Marcus Reeves is cherty experienced writer, publisher, and fact-checker. The current study examined the effects of 30 days of supplementing with MTC concentrate or freeze-dried powder on gut microbiome composition, inflammation, and glucose regulation. Use profiles to select personalised advertising. Healthy Cherry Recipes.

Shira Cohen is studying Nutrition at uuice School of Cherrry and Chedry Nutrition at McGill University, Tartt in Global Huice. If Tracking body water are suffering from Mineral-rich choices, muscle pain or inflammation, you may Fitness interested to Immune wellness tips that tart cherries may function in a fashion similar to cnerry like Aspirin and Ibuprofen.

It seems that the anthocyanins they contain innflammation the formation of certain Optimal water intake for athletes that are linked to pain and inflammation, much like aspirin. For people who enjoy going to the gym Tart cherry juice for inflammation lifting weights, there cherryy Grape Wine Pairing Suggestions evidence that drinking jhice approx.

The athletes who consumed the extract finished the race in jucie significantly chetry time minutes compared Grape Wine Pairing Suggestions Taart who Grape Wine Pairing Suggestions the placebo minutes. Fifteen minutes is quite a Pre-workout supplements difference!

Now, Grape Wine Pairing Suggestions, what about any possible benefit Grape Wine Pairing Suggestions fod who Tatt from inrlammation, Tart cherry juice for inflammation inflammation inflammaton the joints due to worn-down cartilage? When consuming the tart cherry juice there was Grape Wine Pairing Suggestions decrease in blood markers for osteoarthritis but cheerry decrease in inflanmation compared to inflammmation.

Another study looked Twrt the effect of CherryFlex, a commercial tart cherry supplement, on osteoarthritis of the knee. Tarh initial study with one inflzmmation containing mg anthocyanins found an inflam,ation in Budget meal planning symptoms compared with placebo.

Cheery follow-up study used Tarh the dosage but found no improvement Grape Wine Pairing Suggestions symptoms, inflammstion that tart cherry juice does not have any significant effect on osteoarthritis.

Gout is another form of inflammatory arthritis, usually experienced in the toe due to a buildup of uric acid. But there have been no studies carried out to examine this. Tart cherries can also have an effect on hypertension.

A small study with male subjects by Karen M Keane from Northumbria University published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that 60 mL of Montmorency cherry concentrate decreases systolic blood pressure two hours after ingestion. But it does not decrease diastolic blood pressure.

Unfortunately, there cannot be much enthusiasm for tart cherries having an effect on high blood pressure, high blood sugar or high LDL bad cholesterol.

SC Chai at the University of Delaware conducted a study on 34 overweight but otherwise healthy older men and women and found that consuming 16 ounces daily of tart cherry juice decreased LDL bad cholesterol compared to placebo but the difference was very small and was only seen when compared with subjects consuming a placebo with 45 g sugar daily.

There was no improvement in insulin resistance when compared with placebo. Keep in mind that tart cherry capsules contain little sugar while tart cherry juice contains about 25 grams of sugar per 8 oz serving. I really love to lift weights but I hate the muscle soreness that comes after.

I think I just may give tart cherry capsules a shot. Want to comment on this article? View it here on our Facebook page! McGill University Office for Science and Society Separating Sense from Nonsense.

Enter your keywords. Main navigation Home Our Articles Who We Are Public Lectures Dr. Joe's Books Media and Press Events Documentary Screening - "Virulent: The Vaccine War" Our History. Subscribe to the OSS Weekly Newsletter! Sign-Up Here. Tart cherries, which are a sour version of the cherries we commonly eat, have been advertised to do many things such as improve sleep, improve endurance, reduce systolic blood pressure, decrease uric acid, decrease muscle soreness and reduce inflammation.

But is there any evidence that tart cherry juice or extracts of tart cherries can really deliver these benefits? Shira Cohen, Student Contributor 1 Aug Student Contributors.

Add to calendar Facebook LinkedIn Tweet Widget. You Are When You Eat 17 Nov Can the Problems of the Future be Solved with Technology from the Past?

Size Matters With Blood Pressure Cuffs 15 Sep Kidneys: Crash-Course and Cash-Out 25 Aug Department and University Information Office for Science and Society McGill University Sherbrooke Street West Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8.

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: Tart cherry juice for inflammation

Sources of potential benefits Emerging research is showing inflammatuon tart cherry jhice may help you sleep better, reduce muscle soreness and relieve gout. Impact of tart Herbal Digestive Supplements juice on joint flexibility and pain in individuals with Grape Wine Pairing Suggestions knee Grape Wine Pairing Suggestions. Chai SC, Davis Fro, Zhang Juie, Zha L, Kirschner KF. David LA, Maurice CF, Carmody RN, Gootenberg DB, Button JE, Wolfe BE, et al. Tart cherries, also known as sour, dwarf, or Montmorency cherries, have become increasingly popular over the last couple of years. Tart cherry juice is rich in many vitamins, minerals, and beneficial plant compounds proven to offer a boost to your immune system. And weight gain can occur as a result of extra calories from drinking excessive amounts of juice and the added sugar found in many brands of tart cherry juice.
Health Benefits of Tart Cherry Juice

This possible connection was first formally studied in when, after eating a can of tart or yellow cherries a day, 12 arthritis and gout sufferers displayed lower blood levels of uric acid. Other research has indicated similar reductions in markers of joint pain after participants drank Doctors often use a blood test measuring C-reactive protein or CRP to foretell the development of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases in patients.

And an increase in CRP often comes along with a diagnosis of hypertension. Though actions like limiting sodium and eating more high-fiber foods are often nutritional recommendations for people with high blood pressure, "there are multiple studies showing reduced CRP with drinking tart cherry juice," McHugh says.

In one study, men with early hypertension who consumed 2 ounces of tart cherry juice concentrate reduced systolic blood pressure within 3 hours.

In another study, men and women with moderately elevated blood pressure who drank 2 ounces of tart cherry juice concentrate also significantly reduced systolic blood pressure. In another study, men and women who drank 16 ounces of tart cherry juice daily for 12 weeks had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol than those who drank a placebo.

When McHugh was first asked to study whether tart cherry juice affected exercise and muscle recovery, he was skeptical. We decided to repeat that study with tart cherry juice.

No one was more surprised by the results than I was," McHugh recalls. So, what makes tart cherries so good for your post-exercise muscles?

Inside those bright red orbs are more than 30 phytonutrients with anti-inflammatory or antioxidant effects. And what type of athletes may need tart cherry juice the most?

McHugh says it could be anyone, from teenagers to professional athletes and every workout warrior in between—but it depends on your schedule. If you have a training schedule that rotates the muscle groups you're working and incorporates rest days, McHugh says, there's no need to use tart cherry juice or any other intervention to accelerate recovery.

McHugh says, "However, if one has to compete or perform before having fully recovered from the prior performance, then interventions to accelerate muscle recovery are needed.

In many sports leagues, athletes need to play multiple games a week, involving high physical and physiological stress, plus a lot of travel with disrupted sleep. The seasons become a war of attrition with bodies breaking down slowly.

That's where a daily dose of a nutrient-dense drink like tart cherry juice could help. It could also be beneficial if you're facing an upcoming strenuous activity that is out of the norm. McHugh uses the example of a recreational skier. In McHugh's opinion, after having studied the impact of tart cherries in many different ways, he would recommend consistently using tart cherry juice because of accelerated recovery during a strenuous season or period of exercise.

He and Amidor also point out that the consistent factor across nearly all of these studies is the tart cherry juice benefit for inflammation improvements. But for heart health in particular, Amidor says not to lean too heavily on any one thing.

As McHugh points out, it's not just that we have strong evidence that we can benefit from tart cherry juice for arthritis, inflammation, pain relief, recovery, and sleep.

He adds, "In practice if taking the drink habitually, one bottle [8 ounces a day] may suffice. And what about eating, say a 1-cup serving of fresh or frozen tart cherries, or a ¼-cup serving of dried tart cherries, or taking a daily cherry extract supplement?

While you would gain some anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and melatonin effects from any of these forms, McHugh says you wouldn't get enough to reach the efficacious dose used in these studies. If the benefits of tart cherry juice intrigue you, the good news is that one or two 8-ounce servings a day isn't an outrageous amount.

McHugh, Malachy et al. Kelley, Darshan et al. Yu, Ying et al. Simon, Vicky A. et al. Smith, Jennifer L. Davis, Kristina. Clifford, Tom. Consumption on Vascular Function in Men With Early Hypertension.

Davis, Kristina et al. Connolly, D. Use limited data to select advertising. Create profiles for personalised advertising. Use profiles to select personalised advertising.

Create profiles to personalise content. Use profiles to select personalised content. Measure advertising performance.

Measure content performance. Understand audiences through statistics or combinations of data from different sources. Develop and improve services. I really love to lift weights but I hate the muscle soreness that comes after. I think I just may give tart cherry capsules a shot.

Want to comment on this article? View it here on our Facebook page! McGill University Office for Science and Society Separating Sense from Nonsense. Enter your keywords. Main navigation Home Our Articles Who We Are Public Lectures Dr. Joe's Books Media and Press Events Documentary Screening - "Virulent: The Vaccine War" Our History.

Subscribe to the OSS Weekly Newsletter! Sign-Up Here. Tart cherries, which are a sour version of the cherries we commonly eat, have been advertised to do many things such as improve sleep, improve endurance, reduce systolic blood pressure, decrease uric acid, decrease muscle soreness and reduce inflammation.

But is there any evidence that tart cherry juice or extracts of tart cherries can really deliver these benefits? Shira Cohen, Student Contributor 1 Aug Student Contributors.

Add to calendar Facebook LinkedIn Tweet Widget. You Are When You Eat 17 Nov Can the Problems of the Future be Solved with Technology from the Past? Size Matters With Blood Pressure Cuffs 15 Sep Kidneys: Crash-Course and Cash-Out 25 Aug Department and University Information Office for Science and Society McGill University Sherbrooke Street West Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8.

Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram. McGill University Copyright © McGill University.

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A follow-up study used twice the dosage but found no improvement in symptoms, suggesting that tart cherry juice does not have any significant effect on osteoarthritis.

Gout is another form of inflammatory arthritis, usually experienced in the toe due to a buildup of uric acid. But there have been no studies carried out to examine this. Tart cherries can also have an effect on hypertension. A small study with male subjects by Karen M Keane from Northumbria University published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that 60 mL of Montmorency cherry concentrate decreases systolic blood pressure two hours after ingestion.

But it does not decrease diastolic blood pressure. Unfortunately, there cannot be much enthusiasm for tart cherries having an effect on high blood pressure, high blood sugar or high LDL bad cholesterol.

SC Chai at the University of Delaware conducted a study on 34 overweight but otherwise healthy older men and women and found that consuming 16 ounces daily of tart cherry juice decreased LDL bad cholesterol compared to placebo but the difference was very small and was only seen when compared with subjects consuming a placebo with 45 g sugar daily.

There was no improvement in insulin resistance when compared with placebo. Keep in mind that tart cherry capsules contain little sugar while tart cherry juice contains about 25 grams of sugar per 8 oz serving.

I really love to lift weights but I hate the muscle soreness that comes after. I think I just may give tart cherry capsules a shot.

Want to comment on this article? View it here on our Facebook page! McGill University Office for Science and Society Separating Sense from Nonsense. Enter your keywords. Main navigation Home Our Articles Who We Are Public Lectures Dr.

Joe's Books Media and Press Events Documentary Screening - "Virulent: The Vaccine War" Our History. Subscribe to the OSS Weekly Newsletter!

Sign-Up Here. Tart cherries, which are a sour version of the cherries we commonly eat, have been advertised to do many things such as improve sleep, improve endurance, reduce systolic blood pressure, decrease uric acid, decrease muscle soreness and reduce inflammation.

Louis MO. Reference range for CRP was 0. For microbiota changes, 12 participants per group were needed for an effect size of 1. For UA, CRP, and ESR 12 participants per group were needed for an effect size of 0. For glucose a sample size of 12 was needed for an effect size of 0.

Statistical analysis was completed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS; SPSS Linear mixed models were used to examine the main effects of time, and treatment, and the interaction effect time x treatment.

For microbiome composition, data was analyzed overall for change in OTUs between groups at baseline, 14 and 30 days. Different covariance structures were systematically fit to the data, and the one that minimized the Hurvich and Tsai's criterion was chosen for the final model.

Where a significant F ratio was observed, post-hoc comparisons with LSD-adjusted p -values were used to identify which pairs of means were significantly different.

Normality and homogeneity of variance of the residuals were checked using Q-Q plots, and scatter plots, respectively, and deemed plausible in each instance. Data are represented as mean ± SD. Finally, there were no significant changes in any bacteria phyla or species over time or between groups. OTU data can be seen in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Observed taxonomic units OTUs for A Bacteroides, B Firmicutes, C Actinobacteria, and D Proteobacteria at baseline and after 14 and 30 days of supplementation with placebo or Montmorency tart cherry MTC.

Correlations between the gut microbiome and other variables were mostly weak. Inflammatory marker data can be seen in Figure 4. Figure 4. Inflammatory markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate A , uric acid B , C-reactive protein C and tumor necrosis factor alpha D for each group at baseline and after 14 and 30 days of supplementation with placebo or Montmorency tart cherry MTC concentrate or capsules.

Similarly, 30 days post was significantly higher vs. baseline mean difference: Glucose regulation data can be seen in Figure 5. Figure 5. Glucose regulation markers including glycated albumin A , blood glucose B , and insulin C concentrations for each group at baseline and after 14 and 30 days of supplementation with placebo or Montmorency tart cherry MTC concentrate or capsules.

Typical dietary pattern analysis found that all participants were classified as normal for protein intake, 39 participants were classified as normal, 4 classified as high, and 8 classified as low for carbohydrate intake.

For fat, 36 were classified as normal and 15 were classified as high. For fiber, 16 participants were classified as normal, 11 were classified as high, and 24 were classified as low.

There was no significant difference between groups in any of the macronutrients analyzed from the 3 day food log in this study Table 2. Consumption of the top polyphenol containing foods were tracked weekly, results can be found in Supplemental data. Table 2. The current study examined the effects of 30 days of supplementing with MTC concentrate or freeze-dried powder on gut microbiome composition, inflammation, and glucose regulation.

We hypothesized that the polyphenols in tart cherry products would influence the gut microbiome composition, which would modulate changes in inflammatory markers and glucose regulation. However, we found no significant alterations in the gut microbiome, and no significant impact of MTC supplementation on inflammation or glucose regulation.

The relationship between polyphenols and the gut microbiome has been established, whereby the degradation of most polyphenols requires host microbes and these microbes in turn utilize the products produced from polyphenol degradation for energy.

This degradation of polyphenols often leads to greater bioavailability and biological activity 31 however this is dependent on the host microbiota composition Tart cherries are well-known to be high in polyphenols and two previous investigations have examined the impact of tart cherry supplementation on the composition of the gut microbiome with disparate findings.

Mayta-Apaza 11 investigated ingestion of 8 oz. MTC juice for 5 days in 10 participants. When comparing pre-to post-intervention microbiota, very little change was detected. However, the authors determined the need to divide participants into groups based on the baseline relative abundance of Bacteroides , either high or low.

In the high Bacteroides group, ingestion of tart cherry juice resulted in a sharp decline in Bacteroides and an increase in Firmicutes such as Ruminococcus, Clostridium, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus , while the opposite was seen in the low Bacteroides group, with an increase in Bacteroides and decreases in Firmicutes such as Streptococcus and Lachnospiraceae.

These changes may have been due to the underlying diets of the participants, as those in the low Bacteroides group consumed more carbohydrates, sugars, and fibers and the high polyphenol intake from the tart cherry juice resulted in increases in Bacteroides to facilitate breakdown of these polyphenols.

When we divided our participants into groups based on high or low baseline levels of Bacteroides , we noted significantly higher Bacteroides in the high vs. low group at baseline and over the 30 days and no change in Firmicute levels, in contrast to the finding of Mayta-Apaza.

However, we did not find any significant differences or changes in the other bacteria phyla or species, even if the groups were divided by their baseline Bacteroides levels.

Contrary to the findings of Mayta-Apaza, Lear 25 found no significant impact of 4 weeks supplementing with tart cherry concentrate on gut microbial composition. These authors noted their samples contained very low abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium , which should have been more abundant and found their collection and storage methods may have resulted in alterations in their abundances.

Early data suggests that the microbiome can be altered with dietary intake strategies, such as exclusively plant or animal based diets 6. For example, 20 days of red wine consumption increased Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes 8 and 30 days consumption of a high polyphenol cocoa drink increased bifidobacterial and lactobacilli populations.

In our study, it is possible that MTC supplementation brought change in microbial composition that might have not been measured with our fecal sample collection times i. Further, Leeming et al. Therefore, future research should focus on detecting the sufficient time that bring the effective change in microbial composition from the intake of tart cherry supplementation.

It is also interesting to note that dietary intake of our participants did not seem to be a determining factor in whether or not the MTC supplementation altered microbial diversity, in contrast to Mayta-Apaza. While this likely determined whether a participant had high or low levels of Bacteroidetes at baseline, either the supplements did not provide enough of a stimulus for change, or the participant's dietary patterns were too influential to bring about change.

This might indicate a need for greater changes in diet, along with MTC supplementation, to see significant alterations in gut microbiome composition. When inflammation is present in the body, red blood cells stick to one another and this results in greater sedimentation rates.

While this is a non-specific marker of inflammation, it has been measured in two previous studies using tart cherry juice consumption 23 , The average values for ESR were well within the normal ranges for the test, indicating there was no measurable inflammation in our participants, which differs from the two previous studies.

Uric acid is produced in the body from the breakdown of purines, and if not metabolized itself, can accumulate resulting in pain and inflammation. There is significant interest in the use of tart cherries to reduce UA and the incidence of gout because much of the research indicates MTC concentrate 18 , MTC juice 22 , 23 and freeze-dried MTC decrease UA CRP is used as a marker for inflammation, typically used to predict cardiovascular disease risk.

However, because it is an essential marker of inflammation and elevated CRP has been noted in many inflammatory diseases 38 it can be a valuable tool for evaluating the impact of tart cherry on inflammation.

Equivocal findings have been noted with tart cherry supplementation and changes in CRP, potentially due to different lengths of supplementation and doses. Acute interventions with MTC juice or concentrate are equivocal. For example, Bell et al. However, Hillman and Uhranowsky 22 did not find a change in CRP during a 48 h intervention with either 30 or 60 ml MTC juice.

Two investigations that utilized sweet Bing cherries did find significant reductions in CRP both after 3 h 41 and 28 day These different results could be due to formulations, as sweet tart cherries are the only ones known to have anthocyanins in all portions of the fruit skin, flesh and pit , while tart cherries do not have anthocyanins in their flesh and very little in their pits, though tart cherries have higher antioxidant properties Another reason for differences between studies could be due to type of CRP measured inflammatory vs.

high-sensitivity or its reported low reproducibility Levels of CRP in our study are similar to other investigations who used healthy participants and MTC supplements and perhaps the lack of change in our study is due to this healthier population used.

Indeed studies utilizing participants with high baseline levels of CRP tend to find significant reductions supplementing 4—6 weeks with MTC supplementation 21 , TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates many body processes including inflammatory reactions by stimulating additional pro-inflammatory cells.

TNF-α is not typically present in healthy humans, but increased levels are often found in inflammatory bowel diseases, where it leads to pathological inflammation TNF-α in humans has been decreased 36 , 42 or unaffected by cherry ingestion 41 , 46 , 47 , and animal models demonstrate similar results 48 , TNF-α is positively associated with relative abundance of bacteria such as Ruminococcaceae, Blautia , and Lactobacillus 45 , however because we did not see a significant increase in these populations, we cannot speculate that this was the cause.

One study has found elevated TNF-α following ingestion of a Jerte Valley cherry-based product, which they speculated was caused by elevations in melatonin content 50 , however because we did not measure melatonin content, we cannot be sure what caused TNF-α to increase in our study.

Taken together, the results of this study indicate MTC supplementation in either concentrate or freeze-dried powder has little impact on inflammation in apparently healthy participants, which may in part be due to a lack of sufficient inflammation in participants to observe any effect of the supplements.

Cell-line work demonstrates MTC extract treatment leads to changes in key enzymes related to glucose regulation in diabetes, including alpha amylase This would result in slower peak glucose levels and a longer time for carbohydrate digestion, which may decrease average blood glucose over time.

Glucose regulation in the current study was assessed via measurement of glycated albumin, which is reflective of glycemia over a 2—3 week period 51 , as well as blood glucose and insulin levels. Glycated albumin and insulin were not significantly changed over time nor were they different between groups, however blood glucose levels steadily rose over the course of the study but were not different between groups.

This data is in line with the work by Lear 25 who found a decrease in insulin sensitivity decreased Matsuda index , with an increase in insulin and no decrease in blood glucose in those supplementing with MTC juice.

Additionally, Chai et al. Interestingly, a seven day intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome found a significant decline in blood glucose and an increase in insulin 53 , which suggests in the short-term, supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity, but this does not appear to translate to long-term benefits.

Finally, the difference in sugar composition between the juice and capsule groups were significantly different The current study hypothesized that the polyphenols in MTC products would influence the gut microbiome composition, which would modulate changes in inflammatory markers and glucose regulation.

These results may partially be due to the use of a healthy population, who did not have inflammatory conditions and thus future work may need to focus on clinical populations. Additionally, time point measurements for the gut microbiome may have missed changes in bacterial composition, therefore additional time course analysis with more frequent measurements may be necessary to see if MTC has any impact on gut microbial composition.

The datasets presented in this study can be found in online repositories. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Ohio University Institutional Review Board at Ohio University IRB protocol F AH and BC contributed to conception, design of the study, performed the statistical analysis, and wrote sections of the manuscript.

AH organized the database and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. The authors would like to thank Mr. Chris Brodsky and Ms. Olivia Trickett for their time and effort as research assistants for this project.

Additionally, thanks to Dr. William Broach of the Ohio University Genomics Facility for the processing of the fecal samples. Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, et al. Diabetes atlas: global estimates of diabetes prevalence for and projections for Diabetes Res Clin Pract.

doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Xiao JB, Högger P. Dietary polyphenols and type 2 diabetes: current insights and future perspectives.

Curr Med Chem. Gurung M, Li Z, You H, Rodrigues R, Jump DB, Morgun A, et al. Role of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology. Cardona F, Andrés-Lacueva C, Tulipani S, Tinahones FJ, Queipo-Ortuño MI. Benefits of polyphenols on gut microbiota and implications in human health.

J Nutr Biochem. Thursby E, Juge N. Introduction to the human gut microbiota. Biochem J. David LA, Maurice CF, Carmody RN, Gootenberg DB, Button JE, Wolfe BE, et al. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Tzounis X, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Vulevic J, Gibson GR, Kwik-Uribe C, Spencer JP.

Prebiotic evaluation of cocoa-derived flavanols in healthy humans by using a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. Queipo-Ortuño MI, Boto-Ordóñez M, Murri M, Gomez-Zumaquero JM, Clemente-Postigo M, Estruch R, et al.

Influence of red wine polyphenols and ethanol on the gut microbiota ecology and biochemical biomarkers.

Yamakoshi J, Tokutake S, Kikuchi M, Kubota Y, Konishi H, Mitsuoka T. Effect of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds on human fecal flora and fecal odor. Microb Ecol Health Dis.

CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Vendrame S, Guglielmetti S, Riso P, Arioli S, Klimis-Zacas D, Porrini M. Six-week consumption of a wild blueberry powder drink increases bifidobacteria in the human gut.

J Agric Food Chem. Mayta-Apaza AC, Pottgen E, De Bodt J, Papp N, Marasini D, Howard L, et al. Impact of tart cherries polyphenols on the human gut microbiota and phenolic metabolites in vitro and in vivo.

Kechagia M, Basoulis D, Konstantopoulou S, Dimitriadi D, Gyftopoulou K, Skarmoutsou N, et al. Health benefits of probiotics: a review. ISRN Nutr. Marchesi JR, Adams DH, Fava F, Hermes GDA, Hirschfield GM, Hold G, et al. The gut microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier.

Ou B, Bosak KN, Brickner PR, Iezzoni DG, Seymour EM. Processed tart cherry products-comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

J Food Sci. Aeberli I, Gerber PA, Hochuli M, Kohler S, Haile SR, Gouni-Berthold I, et al. Low to moderate sugar-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glucose and lipid metabolism and promotes inflammation in healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial.

Bruun JM, Maersk M, Belza A, Astrup A, Richelsen B. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks increases plasma levels of uric acid in overweight and obese subjects: a 6-month randomised controlled trial.

Eur J Clin Nutr. Comstock LE. Importance of glycans to the host-bacteroides mutualism in the mammalian intestine. Cell Host Microbe. Bell P, Gaze D, Davison G, George T, Scotter M. Howatson G. Montmorency tart cherry Prunus cerasus L concentrate lowers uric acid, independent of plasma cyanidinO-glucosiderutinoside.

J Funct Foods. Howatson G, McHugh MP, Hill JA, Brouner J, Jewell AP, Van Someren KA, et al. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running. Scand J Med Sci Sports. McCormick R, Peeling P, Binnie M, Dawson B, Sim M.

Effect of tart cherry juice on recovery and next day performance in well-trained Water Polo players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Schumacher HR, Pullman-Mooar S, Gupta SR, Dinnella JE, Kim R, McHugh MP. Randomized double-blind crossover study of the efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in treatment of osteoarthritis OA of the knee.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. Hillman AR, Uhranowsky K. Acute ingestion of montmorency tart cherry reduces serum uric acid but has no impact on high sensitivity C-reactive protein or oxidative capacity. Plant Foods Hum Nutr.

Martin KR, Coles KM. Curr Dev Nutr. Kent K, Charlton KE, Jenner A, Roodenrys S. Acute reduction in blood pressure following consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice may be dose-interval dependant: a pilot cross-over study. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Lear R, O'Leary M, O'Brien Andersen L, Holt CC, Stensvold CR, van der Giezen M, et al.

Tart cherry concentrate does not alter the gut microbiome, glycaemic control or systemic inflammation in a middle-aged population. Kirakosyan A, Gutierrez E, Ramos Solano B, Seymour EM, Bolling SF.

The inhibitory potential of Montmorency tart cherry on key enzymes relevant to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Food Chem. Desai T, Bottoms L, Roberts M.

The effects of montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation and FATMAX exercise on fat oxidation rates and cardio-metabolic markers in healthy humans.

Publication types

The datasets presented in this study can be found in online repositories. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Ohio University Institutional Review Board at Ohio University IRB protocol F AH and BC contributed to conception, design of the study, performed the statistical analysis, and wrote sections of the manuscript.

AH organized the database and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

The authors would like to thank Mr. Chris Brodsky and Ms. Olivia Trickett for their time and effort as research assistants for this project. Additionally, thanks to Dr. William Broach of the Ohio University Genomics Facility for the processing of the fecal samples.

Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, et al. Diabetes atlas: global estimates of diabetes prevalence for and projections for Diabetes Res Clin Pract.

doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Xiao JB, Högger P. Dietary polyphenols and type 2 diabetes: current insights and future perspectives.

Curr Med Chem. Gurung M, Li Z, You H, Rodrigues R, Jump DB, Morgun A, et al. Role of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology. Cardona F, Andrés-Lacueva C, Tulipani S, Tinahones FJ, Queipo-Ortuño MI. Benefits of polyphenols on gut microbiota and implications in human health.

J Nutr Biochem. Thursby E, Juge N. Introduction to the human gut microbiota. Biochem J. David LA, Maurice CF, Carmody RN, Gootenberg DB, Button JE, Wolfe BE, et al. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome.

Tzounis X, Rodriguez-Mateos A, Vulevic J, Gibson GR, Kwik-Uribe C, Spencer JP. Prebiotic evaluation of cocoa-derived flavanols in healthy humans by using a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study.

Am J Clin Nutr. Queipo-Ortuño MI, Boto-Ordóñez M, Murri M, Gomez-Zumaquero JM, Clemente-Postigo M, Estruch R, et al. Influence of red wine polyphenols and ethanol on the gut microbiota ecology and biochemical biomarkers.

Yamakoshi J, Tokutake S, Kikuchi M, Kubota Y, Konishi H, Mitsuoka T. Effect of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds on human fecal flora and fecal odor. Microb Ecol Health Dis. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Vendrame S, Guglielmetti S, Riso P, Arioli S, Klimis-Zacas D, Porrini M. Six-week consumption of a wild blueberry powder drink increases bifidobacteria in the human gut.

J Agric Food Chem. Mayta-Apaza AC, Pottgen E, De Bodt J, Papp N, Marasini D, Howard L, et al. Impact of tart cherries polyphenols on the human gut microbiota and phenolic metabolites in vitro and in vivo.

Kechagia M, Basoulis D, Konstantopoulou S, Dimitriadi D, Gyftopoulou K, Skarmoutsou N, et al. Health benefits of probiotics: a review. ISRN Nutr. Marchesi JR, Adams DH, Fava F, Hermes GDA, Hirschfield GM, Hold G, et al. The gut microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier.

Ou B, Bosak KN, Brickner PR, Iezzoni DG, Seymour EM. Processed tart cherry products-comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. J Food Sci. Aeberli I, Gerber PA, Hochuli M, Kohler S, Haile SR, Gouni-Berthold I, et al.

Low to moderate sugar-sweetened beverage consumption impairs glucose and lipid metabolism and promotes inflammation in healthy young men: a randomized controlled trial.

Bruun JM, Maersk M, Belza A, Astrup A, Richelsen B. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks increases plasma levels of uric acid in overweight and obese subjects: a 6-month randomised controlled trial.

Eur J Clin Nutr. Comstock LE. Importance of glycans to the host-bacteroides mutualism in the mammalian intestine. Cell Host Microbe. Bell P, Gaze D, Davison G, George T, Scotter M. Howatson G. Montmorency tart cherry Prunus cerasus L concentrate lowers uric acid, independent of plasma cyanidinO-glucosiderutinoside.

J Funct Foods. Howatson G, McHugh MP, Hill JA, Brouner J, Jewell AP, Van Someren KA, et al. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running. Scand J Med Sci Sports. McCormick R, Peeling P, Binnie M, Dawson B, Sim M.

Effect of tart cherry juice on recovery and next day performance in well-trained Water Polo players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Schumacher HR, Pullman-Mooar S, Gupta SR, Dinnella JE, Kim R, McHugh MP. Randomized double-blind crossover study of the efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in treatment of osteoarthritis OA of the knee.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. Hillman AR, Uhranowsky K. Acute ingestion of montmorency tart cherry reduces serum uric acid but has no impact on high sensitivity C-reactive protein or oxidative capacity. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. Martin KR, Coles KM. Curr Dev Nutr.

Kent K, Charlton KE, Jenner A, Roodenrys S. Acute reduction in blood pressure following consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice may be dose-interval dependant: a pilot cross-over study. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Lear R, O'Leary M, O'Brien Andersen L, Holt CC, Stensvold CR, van der Giezen M, et al.

Tart cherry concentrate does not alter the gut microbiome, glycaemic control or systemic inflammation in a middle-aged population. Kirakosyan A, Gutierrez E, Ramos Solano B, Seymour EM, Bolling SF.

The inhibitory potential of Montmorency tart cherry on key enzymes relevant to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Food Chem. Desai T, Bottoms L, Roberts M.

The effects of montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation and FATMAX exercise on fat oxidation rates and cardio-metabolic markers in healthy humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. Chai SC, Davis K, Wright RS, Kuczmarski MF, Zhang Z. Impact of tart cherry juice on systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

Food Funct. Sabou VR, O'Leary MF, Liu Y, Brown PN, Murch S, Bowtell JL. Review of analytical methods and reporting of the polyphenol content of tart cherry supplements in human supplementation studies investigating health and exercise performance effects: recommendations for good practice.

Front Nutr. Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.

Trošt K, Ulaszewska MM, Stanstrup J, Albanese D, De Filippo C, Tuohy KM, et al. Host: microbiome co-metabolic processing of dietary polyphenols - An acute, single blinded, cross-over study with different doses of apple polyphenols in healthy subjects.

Food Res Int. Possemiers S, Bolca S, Verstraete W, Heyerick A. The intestinal microbiome: a separate organ inside the body with the metabolic potential to influence the bioactivity of botanicals. Almonacid DE, Kraal L, Ossandon FJ, Budovskaya YV, Cardenas JP, Bik EM, et al.

PLoS ONE. Wu GD, Chen J, Hoffmann C, Bittinger K, Chen Y-Y, Keilbaugh SA, et al. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes. Leeming ER, Johnson AJ, Spector TD, Le Roy CI. Effect of diet on the gut microbiota: rethinking intervention duration.

Martin KR, Burrell L, Bopp J. Authentic tart cherry juice reduces markers of inflammation in overweight and obese subjects: a randomized, crossover pilot study. Schlesinger N. Pilot studies of cherry juice concentrate for gout flare prophylaxis.

J Arthritis. Dhingra R, Gona P, Nam B-H, D'Agostino RB, Wilson PWF, Benjamin EJ, et al. Reactive protein, inflammatory conditions and cardiovascular disease risk.

Am J Med. Lynn A, Mathew S, Moore CT, Russell J, Robinson E, Soumpasi V, et al. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr Dordr Neth. Dodier T, Anderson KL, Bothwell J, Hermann J, Lucas EA, Smith BJUS. Montmorency tart cherry juice decreases bone resorption in women aged years.

Jacob RA, Spinozzi GM, Simon VA, Kelley DS, Prior RL, Hess-Pierce B, et al. Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women. J Nutr. Kelley DS, Adkins Y, Reddy A, Woodhouse LR, Mackey BE, Erickson KL. Sweet bing cherries lower circulating concentrations of markers for chronic inflammatory diseases in healthy humans.

Chaovanalikit A, Wrolstad RE. Anthocyanin and polyphenolic composition of fresh and processed cherries. Chrismas B, Taylor L, Smith A, Pemberton P, Siegler JC, Midgley AW. Reproducibility of measurement techniques used for creatine kinase, interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein determination over a 48 h period in males and females.

Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. Mendes V, Galvão I, Vieira AT. Mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influences cytokine production and modulates host inflammatory responses.

J Interferon Cytokine Res. Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, Goodenough C, O'Connor A, Simbo S, et al. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males. Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, O'Connor A, Goodenough C, Simbo S, et al.

Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on acute endurance exercise performance in aerobically trained individuals.

Martin KR, Wooden A. Tart cherry juice induces differential dose-dependent effects on apoptosis, but not cellular proliferation, in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

J Med Food. Seymour EM, Lewis SK, Urcuyo-Llanes DE, Tanone II, Kirakosyan A, Kaufman PB, et al. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet. Garrido M, González-Gómez D, Lozano M, Barriga C, Paredes SD, Rodríguez AB, et al.

Jerte valley cherry product provides beneficial effects on sleep quality. Influence on aging. J Nutr Health Aging. Wright LA-C, Hirsch IB. Metrics beyond hemoglobin A1C in diabetes management: time in range, hypoglycemia, and other parameters.

Diabetes Technol Ther. Kimble R, Keane KM, Lodge JK, Howatson G. The influence of tart cherry Prunus cerasus , cv montmorency concentrate supplementation for 3 months on cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged adults: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Desai T, Roberts M, Bottoms L.

Effects of short-term continuous Montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation in participants with metabolic syndrome. Eur J Nutr. Citation: Hillman AR and Chrismas BCR Thirty Days of Montmorency Tart Cherry Supplementation Has No Effect on Gut Microbiome Composition, Inflammation, or Glycemic Control in Healthy Adults.

Received: 29 June ; Accepted: 19 August ; Published: 16 September Copyright © Hillman and Chrismas. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY.

The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Hillman, hillman ohio. Polyphenols and their Impact on Human Health And Performance: Plant Power. Open supplemental data Export citation EndNote Reference Manager Simple TEXT file BibTex.

Check for updates. ORIGINAL RESEARCH article. Thirty Days of Montmorency Tart Cherry Supplementation Has No Effect on Gut Microbiome Composition, Inflammation, or Glycemic Control in Healthy Adults Angela R.

Chrismas 2. Introduction A considerable amount of research has focused on the use of foods and supplements containing anthocyanins and polyphenols to reduce disease risk by mitigating inflammation and improving blood glucose regulation.

Materials and Methods Participants This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Ohio University IRB F and written informed consent was obtained from each respondent prior to entering the study.

Figure 1. CONSORT diagram for the study. Table 1. Participant demographics. Figure 2. Testing Schematic. x PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. x CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

His writing has appeared in The New York Times, Playboy, The Washington Post, and Rolling Stone, among other publications. His book Somebody Scream: Rap Music's Rise to Prominence in the Aftershock of Black Power was nominated for a Zora Neale Hurston Award. He is an adjunct instructor at New York University, where he teaches writing and communications.

Marcus received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. You may have seen tart cherry juice tucked in among the coconut water and sports recovery drinks at your grocery store.

But, if you haven't bought a bottle yet, now may be the time to get one and drink the ruby red juice, especially if you want to improve your sleep. An astonishing amount of research shows tart cherry juice benefits your health in critical ways.

Maybe you've overlooked tart cherry juice in the past. Or perhaps you were skeptical, thinking, "What is tart cherry juice good for anyway? Before diving into tart cherry juice benefits, you may wonder how tart cherry juice tastes.

It's pretty tart, yes, but also sweet. It's somewhat reminiscent of drinking an unfiltered red wine, with a bold richness and some slight sediment at the bottom.

But in this case, you drink it chilled, and the sweetness provides balance. Some even say it tastes like cherry pie. Because of the tartness, you'll sometimes find extra sugar added to tart cherry juice, so keep an eye on labels.

One of the most experienced researchers on the topic of what tart cherries can do for you is Malachy McHugh, Ph. Does tart cherry juice help you sleep? That's the question professional athletes asked McHugh after they started drinking it.

That observation led to multiple studies showing a positive connection between regular use of tart cherry juice and longer, better rest with less insomnia. Tart cherries are one of the few food sources that contain a significant amount of melatonin, and "the presumption was that the high levels of melatonin in tart cherries were a sleep aid," McHugh says.

While studies did show that tart cherries increased melatonin levels in humans, McHugh points out that tart cherries also have an anti-inflammatory effect, which could be another reason the crimson juice can help you catch some Zs.

So how much do you need to drink to get tart cherry juice benefits for sleep? In one study, participants drank the juice in the morning and one to two hours before bed for two weeks. In another study, participants consumed the juice daily for one week. And what about the natural sugar content in tart cherry juice?

Might it be counterproductive to good sleep? Meyer and McHugh say no. People suffering from joint pain, osteoarthritis , or gout may benefit from tart cherries. In fact, using tart cherry juice for gout and arthritis relief is a word-of-mouth remedy that dates back nearly a century, as many pain sufferers have cited feeling less acute pain after eating canned tart cherries or drinking tart cherry juice.

This possible connection was first formally studied in when, after eating a can of tart or yellow cherries a day, 12 arthritis and gout sufferers displayed lower blood levels of uric acid.

Other research has indicated similar reductions in markers of joint pain after participants drank Doctors often use a blood test measuring C-reactive protein or CRP to foretell the development of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases in patients. And an increase in CRP often comes along with a diagnosis of hypertension.

Though actions like limiting sodium and eating more high-fiber foods are often nutritional recommendations for people with high blood pressure, "there are multiple studies showing reduced CRP with drinking tart cherry juice," McHugh says.

In one study, men with early hypertension who consumed 2 ounces of tart cherry juice concentrate reduced systolic blood pressure within 3 hours. In another study, men and women with moderately elevated blood pressure who drank 2 ounces of tart cherry juice concentrate also significantly reduced systolic blood pressure.

In another study, men and women who drank 16 ounces of tart cherry juice daily for 12 weeks had significantly lower systolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol than those who drank a placebo. When McHugh was first asked to study whether tart cherry juice affected exercise and muscle recovery, he was skeptical.

We decided to repeat that study with tart cherry juice. No one was more surprised by the results than I was," McHugh recalls. So, what makes tart cherries so good for your post-exercise muscles?

Inside those bright red orbs are more than 30 phytonutrients with anti-inflammatory or antioxidant effects. And what type of athletes may need tart cherry juice the most? McHugh says it could be anyone, from teenagers to professional athletes and every workout warrior in between—but it depends on your schedule.

If you have a training schedule that rotates the muscle groups you're working and incorporates rest days, McHugh says, there's no need to use tart cherry juice or any other intervention to accelerate recovery. McHugh says, "However, if one has to compete or perform before having fully recovered from the prior performance, then interventions to accelerate muscle recovery are needed.

In many sports leagues, athletes need to play multiple games a week, involving high physical and physiological stress, plus a lot of travel with disrupted sleep.

The seasons become a war of attrition with bodies breaking down slowly. That's where a daily dose of a nutrient-dense drink like tart cherry juice could help. It could also be beneficial if you're facing an upcoming strenuous activity that is out of the norm.

4 Tart Cherry Juice Benefits That Will Have You Drinking It Daily

In general, tart cherry juice is well tolerated with the majority of people having mild or no side effects. Some studies have noted that a few participants experienced:. It should be mentioned that drinking large amounts of tart cherry juice daily adds a considerable amount of sugar to your diet.

People with diabetes should also drink cherry juice in moderation as the amount of sugar in 8 ounces of juice can raise blood sugar levels. An alternative to tart cherry juice is tart cherry capsules.

One brand, called Cherry Flex, uses the skin and the pulp of the Montmorency cherry. The over-the-counter product has less sugar than cherry juice and is also available as a paste for people who have trouble swallowing pills. Tart cherry juice, typically from Montmorency cherries, is rich in plant-based compounds called anthocyanins and polyphenols.

Both compounds are thought to have potent anti-inflammatory effects that may benefit people with arthritis and gout. While research is limited, some studies have shown that drinking tart cherry juice may reduce symptoms associated with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout.

Tart cherry juice is generally safe to consume, although some people may experience side effects. Cherry juice is not meant to be a replacement for traditional medical therapies for gout or arthritis. Always speak with your healthcare provider before making any changes to your diet or treatment plan.

Kelley DS, Adkins Y, Laugero KD. A review of the health benefits of cherries. Li D, Wang P, Luo Y, Zhao M, Chen F. Health benefits of anthocyanins and molecular mechanisms: update from recent decade. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Kuehl KS, Elliot DL, Sleigh AE, Smith JL. Efficacy of tart cherry juice to reduce inflammation biomarkers among women with inflammatory osteoarthritis OA.

J Food Stud. Schumacher HR, Pullman-Mooar S, Gupta SR, Dinnella JE, Kim R, McHugh MP. Randomized double-blind crossover study of the efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in treatment of osteoarthritis OA of the knee.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. Moon N, Effiong L, Song L, Gardner TR, Soung DY. Tart cherry prevents bone loss through inhibition of RANKL in TNF-overexpressing mice. Zhang Y, Neogi T, Chen C, Chaisson C, Hunter DJ, Choi HK.

Cherry consumption and decreased risk of recurrent gout attacks. Arthritis Rheum. Martin KR, Coles KM. Curr Dev Nutr. Chen PE, Liu CY, Chien WH, Chien CW, Tung TH. Effectiveness of cherries in reducing uric acid and gout: a systematic review.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Stamp LK, Chapman P, Frampton C, et al. These cells occur naturally in our bodies and also come from exposure to various hazards, such as pollution, cigarette smoke and other harmful chemicals. Antioxidants are also the main reason that professional athletes have even been known to sing the praises of tart cherry juice.

They believe it may soothe muscle pain and help reduce inflammation following workouts. Tart cherries also contain both melatonin — a hormone produced by the brain that controls our sleep-wake cycle — and tryptophan — a protein that helps the body produce melatonin.

So, more research is needed to determine if these health claims can be applied to the population as a whole. Gout is a type of arthritis inflammation caused by a high level of uric acid in the blood.

It results in severe pain in one or more joints — usually in the big toe. However, regular use of anti-inflammatory drugs can lead to kidney failure, heart and stomach problems.

Montmorency cherry juice may be a healthier substitute. The runners consumed 10½ ounces of Montmorency cherry juice twice a day for seven days prior to the race and then drank that amount every eight hours on race day.

None of the study participants were taking any other pain relievers. The juice used in the study was provided by Cherrish Inc. There was no outside funding for the study.

Tart cherry juice for inflammation -

SC Chai at the University of Delaware conducted a study on 34 overweight but otherwise healthy older men and women and found that consuming 16 ounces daily of tart cherry juice decreased LDL bad cholesterol compared to placebo but the difference was very small and was only seen when compared with subjects consuming a placebo with 45 g sugar daily.

There was no improvement in insulin resistance when compared with placebo. Keep in mind that tart cherry capsules contain little sugar while tart cherry juice contains about 25 grams of sugar per 8 oz serving. I really love to lift weights but I hate the muscle soreness that comes after.

I think I just may give tart cherry capsules a shot. Want to comment on this article? View it here on our Facebook page! McGill University Office for Science and Society Separating Sense from Nonsense. Enter your keywords. Main navigation Home Our Articles Who We Are Public Lectures Dr.

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Sign-Up Here. Tart cherries, which are a sour version of the cherries we commonly eat, have been advertised to do many things such as improve sleep, improve endurance, reduce systolic blood pressure, decrease uric acid, decrease muscle soreness and reduce inflammation.

But is there any evidence that tart cherry juice or extracts of tart cherries can really deliver these benefits? Shira Cohen, Student Contributor 1 Aug Student Contributors.

Add to calendar Facebook LinkedIn Tweet Widget. You Are When You Eat 17 Nov Can the Problems of the Future be Solved with Technology from the Past? Size Matters With Blood Pressure Cuffs 15 Sep Kidneys: Crash-Course and Cash-Out 25 Aug Globally the incidence of type 2 diabetes is rising and is predicted to rise to nearly million by 2, 1.

Evidence suggests a diet high in polyphenols and or supplementation with polyphenol-containing supplements can improve risk of developing type 2 diabetes 2 , which may be in part be due to the gut microbiota 3.

Polyphenols are often found in fruits, spices and herbs, vegetables, and drinks. The microbiota are known to metabolize many polyphenols, altering their bioavailability 4 , providing energy and metabolites to surrounding enterocytes, and decreasing systemic inflammation 5.

While the gut microbiota of adults is typically constant, changes have been observed from dietary interventions 6 , including with polyphenol supplementation.

A variety of polyphenol containing substances have been investigated for their role in modulating the microbiota, including cocoa, red wine, powdered blueberries, grape seed extract, and tart cherries, with mixed findings. For example, 4 weeks of supplementing with a high-cocoa flavanol supplement increased bifidobacterial and lactobacilli population, while also decreasing C-reactive protein levels, which was primarily driven by the increased lactobacilli counts 7.

Similar findings have been found with red wine consumption for 4 weeks, with increases in bifidobacterial counts driving a decrease in C-reactive protein 8. These authors also found red wine ingestion increased Bacteroides counts. Yamakoshi et al.

This study is particularly interesting, because the authors concluded that the added fiber and high polyphenol content of the powdered supplement led to selective increases in Bifidobacterium 10 , which may also occur with freeze-dried powdered Montmorency tart cherry MTC supplementation.

However, a more recent study investigating MTC concentrate supplementation for 30 days failed to find any changes in bacteria counts. These authors also noted very low levels of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacilli spp. at baseline, which may have led to the lack of significant change.

However, Mayta-Apaza found only 5 days of supplementing with MTC concentrate increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes in those who had low Bacteroidetes counts at baseline The significance of these changes lies in the fact that Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus are both known to be probiotics, with a plethora of health benefits 12 , while many species of Bacteroidetes are important for digestion and a decrease in their relative abundance along with increases in Firmicutes has been seen in obesity Clearly there are equivocal findings in the literature related to gut microbiome changes with MTC that need further exploration given the potential health impacts.

In addition, results of polyphenol supplementation studies are equivocal and assessing different formulations is warranted. MTC concentrate and freeze-dried powder are known to have high levels of proanthocyanidins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity Unfortunately, there has been no comparison between formulations of tart cherry supplements freeze-dried powder, concentrate, juice, whole on inflammation and the gut microbiome in vivo.

Furthermore, the addition of the skins in freeze-dried cherry powder supplements would increase fiber content and provide polysaccharides as an energy source to Bacteroides While studies of tart cherry have been equivocal on changes in markers of inflammation with variable findings for changes in uric acid 18 — 23 , and C-reactive protein 19 — 22 , 24 , 25 , investigating the role the gut microbiome may have in modulating the inflammatory response is warranted.

In terms of glucose regulation, MTC extract treatment has been shown to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate digestion activity, while increasing translocation of glucose transporters, thus improving insulin sensitivity in an in-vitro model However, the published human investigations of MTC and glucose regulation in healthy populations have been equivocal.

For example, Lear 25 found no change in fasting glucose or insulin, but the Matsuda index, a marker of insulin sensitivity, decreased after 30 days of supplementation, while Desai 27 found no change in glucose and Chai 28 actually found an increase in glucose and decrease in insulin levels after MTC supplementation.

Given these equivocal findings on changes in inflammation and glucose regulation with MTC supplementation, further investigation is warranted. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 30 days of supplementing with MTC concentrate or freeze-dried powder on the gut microbiome, inflammation, and glucose regulation.

We hypothesized that the polyphenols in the MTC products would influence the gut microbiome composition, which would modulate changes in inflammatory markers and glucose regulation.

This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Ohio University IRB F and written informed consent was obtained from each respondent prior to entering the study. Inclusion criteria included being aged 18—50 years, not pregnant, not diabetic, with no unresolved infections or diseases diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory or autoimmune disease , and non-smokers.

Participants were also free from prescribed anti-inflammatory and corticosteroid use for at least 2 months and had not taken antibiotics within the last year.

See Figure 1 for the CONSORT diagram of recruitment and retention and Table 1 for participant demographics. This study was a double-blind randomized control study. Participants completed five total visits for this study.

The first visit was to obtain informed consent and explain the procedures thoroughly. The remaining four visits were scheduled for blood draw, blood pressure assessment Omron HEM , body composition assessment Bioelectrical impedance, InBody USA , and fecal sample collection.

These occurred in the morning after a 10 h fast at baseline, and after 7, 14, and 30 days of supplementation. See Figure 2 for testing schematic. MTC juice was prepared by diluting 1 fluid ounce of concentrate King Orchards, Traverse City, MI with 7 fluid ounces of filtered water in accordance with manufacturer instructions.

The placebo was a visually similar carbohydrate- and calorie-matched placebo beverage. Participants were provided with 14, ml 8 oz. bottles of juice per week for 4 weeks.

They were instructed to keep the juice refrigerated until consumption, to shake well at consumption, and to drink two bottles per day, ~8 h apart and not within an hour of exercise. Each bottle of MTC juice contained 77 kcal, 18 g carbohydrate and 0 g fiber and the equivalent of 0. MTC capsules King Orchards, Traverse City, MI contained mg of freeze-dried tart cherries, while placebo capsules contained mg cornstarch.

Participants were provided with an undisclosed number of capsules and instructed to take two capsules with breakfast each day and to return unused capsules at their next visit. Each MTC capsule contained 1. Each placebo capsule contained 1. Independent lab analysis of anthocyanins via high-performance liquid chromatography and total polyphenols via Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy Certified Laboratories, Mellville, NY showed MTC juice provided mg anthocyanins and mg total polyphenols per ml bottle while MTC capsules provided mg anthocyanins and mg total polyphenols per capsule.

These values are within the ranges reported by previous studies using MTC products Doses were in accordance with previous literature and to ensure similar levels of polyphenols and anthocyanins between formulations. Two capsules were taken at the same time of day rather than spread out for easier compliance.

Following the consent visit and prior to their baseline blood draw, participants completed a 12 month food frequency questionnaire FFQ that included portion sizes Dietary History Questionnaire DHQ III, National Cancer Institute to determine typical dietary patterns i.

In addition to the FFQ, between the 14 and 30 day visits, participants completed a 3 day food record for 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day, tracking food and beverage intake along with portion sizes. Participants recorded their data in Food Prodigy, a companion program to the Food Processor Nutrition Analysis software ESHA Research.

Data from the 3 days was then exported from the Food Processor Nutrition Analysis program as an excel file for each participant.

Finally, every 7 days during the course of the study participants completed an online survey regarding their exercise and dietary habits for the previous 7 days as well as the frequency of their intake of alcohol, anti-inflammatory medications, and the top polyphenol containing foods.

Samples were transported to the lab on ice Utek, Sonoco ThermoSafe, Arlington Heights, IL in a thermal insulated tote Hopkins Medical Products Caledonia, MI. DNA was extracted from fecal samples using the Qiagen DNeasy PowerSoil kit Qiagen, per manufacturer's instructions.

Isolated genomic DNA was amplified using custom designed primers targeting the 16s rDNA V3-V4 regions with Kapa Biosystems HiFi HotStart ReadyMix Roche, KK Amplified products were checked for the correct size using the Agilent Bioanalyzer on a DNA chip Agilent, Each amplified product was dual indexed using Illumina Nextera XT v2 indices Illumina, FCX according to manufacturer's instructions.

Prepared libraries were checked for correct sizing and overall quality using the Agilent Bioanalyzer on a DNA chip Agilent, Libraries were quantified using a Qubit 3.

Sequencing reads were downloaded from the BaseSpace server in FASTQ format. Reads were demultiplexed and adaptors removed. Operational Taxonomic Units OTUs were generated using QIIME 2. Species richness and diversity were calculated with the Shannon index and Pielou's evenness Supplementary Figure.

Venous blood samples were collected from an antecubital vein into Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA and serum separator tubes SST immediately before and after 7, 14, and 30 days of supplementation. One milliliter of EDTA blood was used to quantify erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR by the Westegren method Sedi-Rate, Globe Scientific, Inc.

The remaining EDTA blood was stored at 4°C until centrifugation. Two milliliter serum were sent to an outside facility Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Remaining serum samples were assayed in house in duplicate for TNF-a BMSHS, Invitrogen, ThermoFisher Scientific, Vienna, Austria , insulin Catalog , Crystal Chem, Elk Grove, IL , glucose Item P, Eton Bioscience, San Diego, CA , and glycated albumin Catalog IT, G-Biosciences, St.

Louis MO. Reference range for CRP was 0. For microbiota changes, 12 participants per group were needed for an effect size of 1. For UA, CRP, and ESR 12 participants per group were needed for an effect size of 0. For glucose a sample size of 12 was needed for an effect size of 0. Statistical analysis was completed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS; SPSS Linear mixed models were used to examine the main effects of time, and treatment, and the interaction effect time x treatment.

For microbiome composition, data was analyzed overall for change in OTUs between groups at baseline, 14 and 30 days. Different covariance structures were systematically fit to the data, and the one that minimized the Hurvich and Tsai's criterion was chosen for the final model.

Where a significant F ratio was observed, post-hoc comparisons with LSD-adjusted p -values were used to identify which pairs of means were significantly different. Normality and homogeneity of variance of the residuals were checked using Q-Q plots, and scatter plots, respectively, and deemed plausible in each instance.

Data are represented as mean ± SD. Finally, there were no significant changes in any bacteria phyla or species over time or between groups. OTU data can be seen in Figure 3. Figure 3. Observed taxonomic units OTUs for A Bacteroides, B Firmicutes, C Actinobacteria, and D Proteobacteria at baseline and after 14 and 30 days of supplementation with placebo or Montmorency tart cherry MTC.

Correlations between the gut microbiome and other variables were mostly weak. Inflammatory marker data can be seen in Figure 4. Figure 4. Inflammatory markers including erythrocyte sedimentation rate A , uric acid B , C-reactive protein C and tumor necrosis factor alpha D for each group at baseline and after 14 and 30 days of supplementation with placebo or Montmorency tart cherry MTC concentrate or capsules.

Similarly, 30 days post was significantly higher vs. baseline mean difference: Glucose regulation data can be seen in Figure 5. Figure 5. Glucose regulation markers including glycated albumin A , blood glucose B , and insulin C concentrations for each group at baseline and after 14 and 30 days of supplementation with placebo or Montmorency tart cherry MTC concentrate or capsules.

Typical dietary pattern analysis found that all participants were classified as normal for protein intake, 39 participants were classified as normal, 4 classified as high, and 8 classified as low for carbohydrate intake.

For fat, 36 were classified as normal and 15 were classified as high. For fiber, 16 participants were classified as normal, 11 were classified as high, and 24 were classified as low. There was no significant difference between groups in any of the macronutrients analyzed from the 3 day food log in this study Table 2.

Consumption of the top polyphenol containing foods were tracked weekly, results can be found in Supplemental data. Table 2. The current study examined the effects of 30 days of supplementing with MTC concentrate or freeze-dried powder on gut microbiome composition, inflammation, and glucose regulation.

We hypothesized that the polyphenols in tart cherry products would influence the gut microbiome composition, which would modulate changes in inflammatory markers and glucose regulation.

However, we found no significant alterations in the gut microbiome, and no significant impact of MTC supplementation on inflammation or glucose regulation. The relationship between polyphenols and the gut microbiome has been established, whereby the degradation of most polyphenols requires host microbes and these microbes in turn utilize the products produced from polyphenol degradation for energy.

This degradation of polyphenols often leads to greater bioavailability and biological activity 31 however this is dependent on the host microbiota composition Tart cherries are well-known to be high in polyphenols and two previous investigations have examined the impact of tart cherry supplementation on the composition of the gut microbiome with disparate findings.

Mayta-Apaza 11 investigated ingestion of 8 oz. MTC juice for 5 days in 10 participants. When comparing pre-to post-intervention microbiota, very little change was detected.

However, the authors determined the need to divide participants into groups based on the baseline relative abundance of Bacteroides , either high or low. In the high Bacteroides group, ingestion of tart cherry juice resulted in a sharp decline in Bacteroides and an increase in Firmicutes such as Ruminococcus, Clostridium, Streptococcus and Lactobacillus , while the opposite was seen in the low Bacteroides group, with an increase in Bacteroides and decreases in Firmicutes such as Streptococcus and Lachnospiraceae.

These changes may have been due to the underlying diets of the participants, as those in the low Bacteroides group consumed more carbohydrates, sugars, and fibers and the high polyphenol intake from the tart cherry juice resulted in increases in Bacteroides to facilitate breakdown of these polyphenols.

When we divided our participants into groups based on high or low baseline levels of Bacteroides , we noted significantly higher Bacteroides in the high vs. low group at baseline and over the 30 days and no change in Firmicute levels, in contrast to the finding of Mayta-Apaza.

However, we did not find any significant differences or changes in the other bacteria phyla or species, even if the groups were divided by their baseline Bacteroides levels.

Contrary to the findings of Mayta-Apaza, Lear 25 found no significant impact of 4 weeks supplementing with tart cherry concentrate on gut microbial composition.

These authors noted their samples contained very low abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium , which should have been more abundant and found their collection and storage methods may have resulted in alterations in their abundances.

Early data suggests that the microbiome can be altered with dietary intake strategies, such as exclusively plant or animal based diets 6. For example, 20 days of red wine consumption increased Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes 8 and 30 days consumption of a high polyphenol cocoa drink increased bifidobacterial and lactobacilli populations.

In our study, it is possible that MTC supplementation brought change in microbial composition that might have not been measured with our fecal sample collection times i. Further, Leeming et al. Therefore, future research should focus on detecting the sufficient time that bring the effective change in microbial composition from the intake of tart cherry supplementation.

It is also interesting to note that dietary intake of our participants did not seem to be a determining factor in whether or not the MTC supplementation altered microbial diversity, in contrast to Mayta-Apaza. While this likely determined whether a participant had high or low levels of Bacteroidetes at baseline, either the supplements did not provide enough of a stimulus for change, or the participant's dietary patterns were too influential to bring about change.

This might indicate a need for greater changes in diet, along with MTC supplementation, to see significant alterations in gut microbiome composition. When inflammation is present in the body, red blood cells stick to one another and this results in greater sedimentation rates.

While this is a non-specific marker of inflammation, it has been measured in two previous studies using tart cherry juice consumption 23 , The average values for ESR were well within the normal ranges for the test, indicating there was no measurable inflammation in our participants, which differs from the two previous studies.

Uric acid is produced in the body from the breakdown of purines, and if not metabolized itself, can accumulate resulting in pain and inflammation.

There is significant interest in the use of tart cherries to reduce UA and the incidence of gout because much of the research indicates MTC concentrate 18 , MTC juice 22 , 23 and freeze-dried MTC decrease UA CRP is used as a marker for inflammation, typically used to predict cardiovascular disease risk.

However, because it is an essential marker of inflammation and elevated CRP has been noted in many inflammatory diseases 38 it can be a valuable tool for evaluating the impact of tart cherry on inflammation. Equivocal findings have been noted with tart cherry supplementation and changes in CRP, potentially due to different lengths of supplementation and doses.

Acute interventions with MTC juice or concentrate are equivocal. For example, Bell et al. However, Hillman and Uhranowsky 22 did not find a change in CRP during a 48 h intervention with either 30 or 60 ml MTC juice.

Two investigations that utilized sweet Bing cherries did find significant reductions in CRP both after 3 h 41 and 28 day These different results could be due to formulations, as sweet tart cherries are the only ones known to have anthocyanins in all portions of the fruit skin, flesh and pit , while tart cherries do not have anthocyanins in their flesh and very little in their pits, though tart cherries have higher antioxidant properties Another reason for differences between studies could be due to type of CRP measured inflammatory vs.

high-sensitivity or its reported low reproducibility Levels of CRP in our study are similar to other investigations who used healthy participants and MTC supplements and perhaps the lack of change in our study is due to this healthier population used.

Indeed studies utilizing participants with high baseline levels of CRP tend to find significant reductions supplementing 4—6 weeks with MTC supplementation 21 , TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that regulates many body processes including inflammatory reactions by stimulating additional pro-inflammatory cells.

TNF-α is not typically present in healthy humans, but increased levels are often found in inflammatory bowel diseases, where it leads to pathological inflammation TNF-α in humans has been decreased 36 , 42 or unaffected by cherry ingestion 41 , 46 , 47 , and animal models demonstrate similar results 48 , TNF-α is positively associated with relative abundance of bacteria such as Ruminococcaceae, Blautia , and Lactobacillus 45 , however because we did not see a significant increase in these populations, we cannot speculate that this was the cause.

One study has found elevated TNF-α following ingestion of a Jerte Valley cherry-based product, which they speculated was caused by elevations in melatonin content 50 , however because we did not measure melatonin content, we cannot be sure what caused TNF-α to increase in our study.

Taken together, the results of this study indicate MTC supplementation in either concentrate or freeze-dried powder has little impact on inflammation in apparently healthy participants, which may in part be due to a lack of sufficient inflammation in participants to observe any effect of the supplements.

Cell-line work demonstrates MTC extract treatment leads to changes in key enzymes related to glucose regulation in diabetes, including alpha amylase This would result in slower peak glucose levels and a longer time for carbohydrate digestion, which may decrease average blood glucose over time.

Glucose regulation in the current study was assessed via measurement of glycated albumin, which is reflective of glycemia over a 2—3 week period 51 , as well as blood glucose and insulin levels.

Glycated albumin and insulin were not significantly changed over time nor were they different between groups, however blood glucose levels steadily rose over the course of the study but were not different between groups.

This data is in line with the work by Lear 25 who found a decrease in insulin sensitivity decreased Matsuda index , with an increase in insulin and no decrease in blood glucose in those supplementing with MTC juice.

Additionally, Chai et al. Interestingly, a seven day intervention in patients with metabolic syndrome found a significant decline in blood glucose and an increase in insulin 53 , which suggests in the short-term, supplementation may improve insulin sensitivity, but this does not appear to translate to long-term benefits.

Finally, the difference in sugar composition between the juice and capsule groups were significantly different The current study hypothesized that the polyphenols in MTC products would influence the gut microbiome composition, which would modulate changes in inflammatory markers and glucose regulation.

These results may partially be due to the use of a healthy population, who did not have inflammatory conditions and thus future work may need to focus on clinical populations. Additionally, time point measurements for the gut microbiome may have missed changes in bacterial composition, therefore additional time course analysis with more frequent measurements may be necessary to see if MTC has any impact on gut microbial composition.

The datasets presented in this study can be found in online repositories. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Ohio University Institutional Review Board at Ohio University IRB protocol F AH and BC contributed to conception, design of the study, performed the statistical analysis, and wrote sections of the manuscript.

AH organized the database and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

The authors would like to thank Mr. Chris Brodsky and Ms. Olivia Trickett for their time and effort as research assistants for this project. Additionally, thanks to Dr. William Broach of the Ohio University Genomics Facility for the processing of the fecal samples.

Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, et al. Diabetes atlas: global estimates of diabetes prevalence for and projections for Diabetes Res Clin Pract.

It may reduce inflammation related to gor and gout. Inflammatioon Tart cherry juice for inflammation, some studies suggest that inflammayion juice could Tart cherry juice for inflammation benefits as a Increase energy and endurance treatment for arthritisor Tqrt inflammation, and gouta type infalmmation arthritis that niflammation Tart cherry juice for inflammation the big toe. Cherries fo a rich source of polyphenolsnaturally-occurring plant-based compounds that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They are also a good source of dietary fiber and are considered low on the glycemic index. There are many different varieties of cherries, but the two main types are sweet and tart. Montmorency cherries are a tart variety commonly studied for their health benefits, while Bing cherries are a popular sweet cherry variety. Both sweet and tart cherries are high in polyphenols, but tart varieties are by far the richer source. Tart cherry juice for inflammation

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3 thoughts on “Tart cherry juice for inflammation

  1. Entschuldigen Sie, was ich jetzt in die Diskussionen nicht teilnehmen kann - es gibt keine freie Zeit. Ich werde befreit werden - unbedingt werde ich die Meinung in dieser Frage aussprechen.

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