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Phytochemical screening and analysis

Phytochemical screening and analysis

The extracts screening filtered twice: first, with cotton wool, and second, Phytochemical screening and analysis a filter paper Whatman No. oleander leaf Fig. Transformation Cucumis Melo Transformation Musa Spp. Saponin, which was evaluated as negative in N.

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Liver damage is typically assessed by determining serum transaminases AST and ALT and measuring total proteins. Liver injury caused by hepatotoxic drugs can result in elevated AST, ALT, and total protein levels [ 74 , 75 ].

Hepatocellular damage could increase cell membrane permeability and then lead to the release of aminotransferases into the bloodstream [ 76 , 77 ]. Since no significant alterations were detected in serum levels of these three markers of liver function, and histopathological analyses of the livers from treated animals did not show tissue changes, the findings from the present study suggest that administration of the extracts from the selected plant species did not cause liver damage.

Renal function is usually assessed by serum creatinine and urea levels and histopathological analysis of the kidney tissues. Its impairment is shown by raised serum creatinine levels and urea [ 79 ]. Urea is a marker of acute renal dysfunction, the first acute marker following renal injury [ 80 ].

In this study, a significant increase in the level of urea was observed in the A. hockii treated group, suggesting a mild renal injury. This finding is also supported by the excessive urination observed from the same group.

In this study, mortality was registered from the A. coriaria treated group only, where one rat died. In spite of this general classification, signs of toxicity were detected in the organs from the A.

coriaria treated group and could be considered somewhat toxic. This is the first report of acute toxicity study of all the selected plant species to the best of our knowledge.

The selected medicinal plants have promising antimycobacterial activity, and low toxicity, except A. coriaria, which appears to be moderately toxic. The findings of this study justify the ethnopharmacological use of the plant parts of the selected plant species to treat tuberculosis and other diseases whose symptoms closely resemble tuberculosis.

Chronic toxicity studies of the selected plant species will be necessary to support their use further. Furthermore, all the selected plant species in this study are potential candidates for isolation and characterization to identify antimycobacterial compounds responsible for their activities. Ebong PE, Atangwho IJ, Eyong EU, Egbung GE.

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United Nations Publ Download references. We gratefully acknowledge Mr. Komakech Kevin from the Mycobacteriology Laboratory at the Department of Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda, for carrying out the antimycobacterial assay and Mr.

Mukwaya Joel from the department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Clinical and Complementary Medicine, College of Veterinary, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Uganda for his technical guidance during the acute toxicity tests. In addition, we thank Dr.

Morgan Andama from the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Muni University, for his technical support while running the statistical tests. This work was supported by the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst DAAD In-Country Scholarship, Uganda through a DAAD PhD Scholarship to Benson Oloya, Grant no.

The authors gratefully acknowledge the DAAD for the support. Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, P. Box , Kampala, Uganda. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Muni University, P. Box , Arua, Uganda.

Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Science, Makerere University, P. Department of Pharmacy, Clinical and Comparative Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. BO, JN and RB conceptualized the study. BO collected the plant samples, conducted phytochemical screening, participated in acute toxicity tests and analysis of the data, under the supervision of RB and JN.

WS supervised the antimycobacterial activity tests. MA supervised the acute toxicity tests and performed the histopathological examination of the vital organs. BO drafted the manuscript and RB, JN, WS, and MA critically reviewed it. RB was the overall supervisor of the project.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Benson Oloya. This study was conducted with approval from Gulu University Research Ethics Committee Application No. GUREC and Uganda National Council for Science and Technology No.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The detailed descriptions of the standard methods for preliminary phytochemical analysis, the microplate Alamar blue assay MABA protocol, and Figure S1 showing the observed efficacy of the extracts using the susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H 37 Rv.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material.

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Reprints and permissions. Oloya, B. et al. Phytochemical screening , antimycobacterial activity and acute toxicity of crude extracts of selected medicinal plant species used locally in the treatment of tuberculosis in Uganda.

Trop Med Health 50 , 16 Download citation. Received : 13 December Accepted : 03 February Published : 17 February Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Download ePub. Research Open access Published: 17 February Phytochemical screening , antimycobacterial activity and acute toxicity of crude extracts of selected medicinal plant species used locally in the treatment of tuberculosis in Uganda Benson Oloya ORCID: orcid.

Abstract Background Tuberculosis TB is one of the leading causes of death globally, and the rise in drug-resistant forms of TB has become a significant threat. Results The extracts contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, resins, cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, and coumarins.

Conclusion Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, resins, cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, and coumarins. Materials and methods Selection criteria The medicinal plant species considered in the present study were selected based on their high frequency of mention registered from three or more different ethnobotanical surveys reported in the literature for the treatment of TB.

Plant material Plant parts from Acacia hockii De Wild. Extraction process For organic extractions, the powdered plant part 60 g of each of the following: A. Antimycobacterial activity M. tuberculosis strains and preparation of inoculum Two experimental mycobacterial strains from a WHO proficiency testing panel were used: a fully susceptible laboratory strain H 37 Rv and a known MDR-TB strain.

Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration MBC The MIC and MBC of the crude extracts against both the susceptible H 37 Rv and MDR-TB strains were determined using microplate alamar blue assay MABA protocol with minor modifications [ 25 ].

Experimental animals Adult female Wistar albino rats aged 8—10 weeks were used for the acute toxicity study. Acute toxicity assay Acute toxicity study was performed in line with the OECD standard guidelines for using animals in scientific research, Guideline No.

Hematological analysis Blood samples were stored in EDTA tubes, and hematological analysis was performed using an automated hematology analyzer SYSMEX XN-L SN Biochemical analysis Dry tubes containing the collected blood samples were centrifuged at rpm for 15 min to obtain the serum.

Histopathological analysis The vital organs collected from the animals were washed with saline solution 0. Results Phytochemical constituents The extracts contained alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, resins, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, and coumarins Table 1.

Table 2 Mean MIC and MBC values of aqueous crude extracts of selected plant species on susceptible and MDR strains of M. tuberculosis Full size table. Table 4 General appearance and behavioral patterns of animals from the treated and Control group Full size table.

Showing the variation in mean body weights of animals with time. Full size image. Conclusions Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, resins, cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, and coumarins.

Availability of data and materials All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article. Abbreviations AIDS: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ANOVA: Analysis of variance DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus LD: Lethal dose. References WHO.

Lecture 4. Lecture 4 manal sabry. Identification test for animal and plant poison. Identification test for animal and plant poison Simranjit kaur. Qualitative test for proteins.

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pptx Pranita Sunar. Isolation, industrial production of phytoconstituents by Pooja Khanpara. Isolation, industrial production of phytoconstituents by Pooja Khanpara POOJA KHANPARA. Determination of Chemical Groups and Investigation of Anthelmintic, Cytotoxic Syed Masudur Rahman Dewan.

leptadenia reticulata. leptadenia reticulata Aastha arora. Isolation by pooja. Isolation by pooja POOJA KHANPARA. Aniline qualitative analysis. Aniline qualitative analysis Chanda Ranjan. Phytopharmaceuticals - By Dr. Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas coll Venkatesh venkatesh vinnu.

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pdf Francenel. Recently uploaded 20 Impression materials 2. Phytochemical screening 1. Phytochemical Screening of plants Dr. SINDHU K. SCHOLAR, DEPT. OF VPT, COVAS, Pookode. Qualitative analysis methods. The filtrates were used to test for the presence of carbohydrates. sulphuric acid from the side of the test tube.

Sulphuric acid. Add conc. sulphuric acid. Formation of a bluish green colour solution confirmed the presence of phytosterols. Detection of tannins: Take 0. Filter the above mixture Add few drops of 0.

Development of a brownish green or a blue-black colouration indicated the presence of tannins. Ferric chloride Test:. Detection of terpenoids: Salkowski test: Mix 2 ml of chloroform to extract solution carefully added conc.

Sulphuric acid 3 ml to form a layer. A reddish brown colouration of the interface indicated the presence of terpenoids. Detection of cardiac glycosides Keller-Killani test Add 1ml of conc. Treat the extract with 2 ml of glacial acetic acid containing one drop of ferric chloride solution.

Test for gums and mucilages Dilute small quantity of the ethanolic extract with water Add ruthenium red solution. A pink colour production showed the presence of gums and mucilages.

Spectroscopic determination. Determination of total flavonoids Kumaran A, Karunakaran R. Determination of total tannins Van-Burden T, Robinson W.

Determination of total saponins Obdoni B, Ochuko P. Steps Involved in the Extraction of Medicinal Plants 1. Size reduction 2. Extraction 3.

Like most Improve conversion rates plants Citrus ecreening contain scrsening secondary metabolites with great potentials. The aim Metabolism support vitamins this paper is to evaluate the phytochemicals by using quantitative and Phytochemical screening and analysis Pjytochemical of ethyl Allergen-free environment, ethanol, n -hexane and Resistance training adaptations extracts with analsyis help of standard techniques. The findings from quantification and phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, reducing sugars, Phenols, proteins, amino acids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, and glycosides. Further, the study findings revealed that ethanolic extract of fruit extract was found to have more constituents when compared with other extracts by quantitative method. Elemental analysis showed the presence of selenium 1. Chromatogram of flavonoid standards such as rutin, quercetin, gallic acid, hesperidin and ethanolic extract of Citrus paradisi showed the high amount of naringin. Hence the ethanolic extract of Citrus paradisi shows many compounds and may have been used in traditional medicine for prevention of several diseases. BMC Metabolism support vitamins and Alternative Puytochemical volume 10 Phytochemical screening and analysis, Article number: an Cite this Phytodhemical. Metrics details. Andd oxidative Leafy green weight loss related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. A lot of researches are going on worldwide directed towards finding natural antioxidants of plants origins. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant activities and to screen for phytochemical constituents of Helichrysum longifolium DC.

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