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Psychological training adaptations

Psychological training adaptations

Article PubMed Google Scholar Neumann ND, Van Yperen NW, Psychological training adaptations JJ, Frencken W, Brink MS, Yraining KAPM, axaptations al. If Psychological training adaptations is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar Cornelissen VA, Smart NA.

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Moreover, di Fronso et al. studied perceived stress and psychobiological states, which are essentially related to emotional responses to a situational condition. Likewise, it should be noted that all these results have been obtained by partialling out the effects of the amount of physical activity IoQ participants engaged in before lockdown, which are seen to have a significant effect in all the subscales.

This means that the amount of physical activity is related to mental health outcomes, in tune with previous literature Schnohr et al. The current study is not without some strengths and limitations. Among its strengths, the study adopts a longitudinal approach to address the adaptability shown by athletes and sportsmen and women engaging in regular physical activity in an extreme and unusual environment such as the period of lockdown imposed due to the pandemic.

Although adaptation is a dynamic process, most pieces of research on the topic have analyzed the process from a cross-sectional approach Frederick and Loewenstein, ; Lucas et al.

Similarly, studies on the factors potentially underlying the differences among individuals during this adaptation process have usually been centered on personality and other inner traits, regardless of the role played by other possible influences Lucas et al.

As for the role of exercise in well-being Grant et al. Among its limitations, we did not find any main or interaction effects on the Depression subscale. However, the GHQ Depression subscale shows a low internal consistency, which could mean that we are missing some interesting effect due to this low reliability.

Furthermore, the study does not assess any personality dimensions or other factors such as social support, which have been shown to influence the adaptation process Cocking, ; Bartone et al.

Moreover, mental health outcomes have been used as a measure of adaptation. However, attending to the fact that the GHQ is usually applied to mental health screening, it may have failed to detect other subtle manifestations of lack of adaptation.

GHQ is a widely used instrument due to its psychometric properties and because it is an easy-to-administer scale, which might not prevent participants, particularly in a follow-up study, from giving up due to boredom and demand.

In any case, a number of participants abandoned the study and this may have biased the original sample. Even though there are sports that are played either indoors or outdoors in natural surroundings, others can be practiced both as indoor and outdoor games e.

In the same vein, there are individual sports that are practiced in groups e. Finally, it may have been of interest to keep the series ongoing. The study has implications relating to what sport psychologist practitioners and other health professionals may offer to athletes in stressful situations such as this.

For instance, it has shown that athletes, in general, tend toward a psychological adaptation to the stressful conditions they have to face, but there are important individual and group differences. This means that intervention programs can be designed to improve such psychological adaptation.

Health professionals may focus not only on mitigating the deleterious effects of canceling or restricting sports activities, but also on dimensions such as time management, personal growth, health habits, and general coping strategies to life events Andreato et al.

Moreover, promoting social links with coaches and peers that may explain the scarcity of other significantly different studies found on comparing individual vs. team sports di Fronso et al. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Subcomité de Ética. Facultad de Psicología. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. VR designed the study, supervised the data analysis, and wrote the first draft.

IS-I carried out the data analysis and contributed to the final manuscript. MB recruited athletes and proceeded with the different survey waves. GM contributed to the design of the study, supervised the data collection, and revised the final version.

All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Health Promot. Lesser, I. Specifically, the authors experimentally examined the role of sensation seeking and dispositional mindfulness on the stress response to a risk sport-specific stressor; the Heidelberg Risk Sport-Specific Stress Test HRSST—evaluated in the Research Topic in an additional paper by Frenkel, Laborde et al.

Their results indicate that high sensation seekers perceived the stressor as less stressful, but dispositional mindfulness did not predict anxiety. Where irrational beliefs and rumination can predispose one to threat, one construct that could be an important protective factor from the negative impact of psychological stress is resilience.

Hrozanova et al. reason that stress can deleteriously affect sleep, and that potentially mental resilience may protect individuals against the detrimental effects of stress on sleep.

In their study, the authors investigated the effects of mental resilience, emotional negative affect and cognitive worry reactions to stress, and perceived stress, on the sleep quality of junior athletes.

Results revealed that sleep quality was predicted by greater mental resilience sub-components Social Resources and Structured Style, and lower worry and perceived stress. suggest that close attention should be paid to athletes' abilities to manage worry and perceived stress, and that mental resilience could act as a protective factor preventing sleep deterioration.

Relevant to the notion of protective factors, some researchers have suggested that individual's histories of adversity may influence stress reactivity, an idea examined by Wadey et al. in their multi-study paper.

The authors draw upon prominent sport injury, and challenge and threat theory to examine whether preinjury adversity affects postinjury responses over a 5-year period. They found that injured athletes with moderate preinjury adversity experienced less negative psychological responses and used more problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies compared to low or high preinjury adversity groups.

In a follow-up study, Wadey et al. found that athletes with high preinjury adversities were excessively overwhelmed to the point that they were unable to cope with injury, while those with low preinjury adversities had not developed the coping abilities and resources needed to cope postinjury.

As previously stated in this editorial, adaptation to psychological stress is a biopsychosocial phenomenon, and thus, it is pleasing to see works included in the Research Topic that take a psychophysiological perspective on psychological stress.

MacDonald and Wetherell assessed competitive anxiety and salivary diurnal cortisol in elite rowers during two training and two competition weekends. They found that anxiety levels were significantly greater during the competition phase compared with training, and specifically that cognitive anxiety was greater on the day of competition compared with the preparation day.

They also found that the cortisol awakening response CAR magnitude was significantly reduced during the competition phase compared with training, with no differences between preparation and event days.

Importantly, the findings indicate maladaptive responding during a period where maximized functioning is critical, whereby reduced or blunted CARs are typical in chronically stressed populations.

Similarly examining acute psychophysiological responses, Guo et al. examined the impact of high and low coping self-efficacy CSE on the neural activity of athletes' cerebral cortex under acute psychological stress. Results indicate that high CSE athletes were better able to cope with the acute stressor, adjust their behaviors in a timely manner according to the results of their coping, and focus more on processing positive information, demonstrating significantly lower N1 amplitude and significantly shorter N1 latency, compared to low CSE athletes.

In contrast to MacDonald and Wetherell , and Guo et al. studied the longitudinal patterns of change in stress variables in the lead up to, during, and following the Invictus Games, in a cohort of wounded, injured, and sick military veterans.

In addition, the interactions between psychosocial variables and salivary biomarkers of stress, and how these relate to veterans' health, well-being, illness, and performance, was investigated.

Multilevel growth curve analyses revealed significant changes in growth trajectories of stress-related variables, with for example, anger and dejection emotions increasing, whilst challenge appraisals and excitement and happiness emotions decreased over the same timeframe.

Alongside additional self-report effects e. Collectively, the papers by MacDonald and Wetherell , Guo et al. There are a number of papers in the Research Topic that have significant theoretical and practical implications for adaptation to psychological stress in sport.

In addition, there are number of papers included in the Research Topic that expressly posit potential interventions for successful adaptation. In one study, Quinton et al. examined whether mastery imagery ability was associated with stress response changes to a competitive car racing stress task following an imagery intervention.

They also assessed the effects of different guided imagery content on pre-task cognitive and emotional responses. Based on the study results, the authors suggest that positive mastery imagery ability may act as a buffer against the stress effects of negative images.

Imagery featured as part of the intervention tested in the Olmedilla et al. paper, whereby a program based on cognitive-behavioral therapy was applied with youth soccer players. Pre to post-test data demonstrated that athletes improved their stress management, and enhanced the use of psychological resources and techniques.

One psychological intervention that has particular efficacy in endurance sports is action monitoring and this was explored by Vitali et al.

That is, to deal with discomfort, fatigue, and pain associated with endurance performance under pressure, athletes tend to direct attention to both internal e.

Thirty-two male participants completed a time-to-exhaustion running task on a treadmill. There was no difference in performance regardless of the type or level of action monitoring employed.

One technique for which research evidence has been growing is mindfulness, which is at the center of the study by Shannon et al. The authors posit that mindfulness training could be beneficial for athlete well-being, reducing stress, and increasing competence in mental health self-management.

Indeed, their findings demonstrate that mindfulness training was directly related to positive changes in competence, resulting in indirect effects on mindfulness awareness, stress, and well-being, bringing into focus self-determination theory in athlete adaptation to psychological stress.

Controlled breathing is often an important part of mindfulness and Laborde et al. explored slow-paced breathing SPB in two experiments. Both experiments involved SPB done either before experiment 1 or after experiment 2 5 min of physical exercise burpees.

In both experiments, adaptation to psychological stress was investigated with a Stroop task, a measure of inhibition, which followed physical exercise. The results suggest that SPB realized before or after physical exercise has a positive effect regarding adaptation to psychological stress and specifically inhibition, however, the underlying mechanisms require further investigation.

Another burgeoning literature within sport is the research concerning self-compassion. Ceccarelli et al. investigated the influence of self-compassion on athletes' psychological and physiological responses when recalling a sport failure.

Athletes imagined past performance failure whilst a range of psychophysiological data were collected. Self-compassion positively predicted HRV reactivity and behavioral reactions, and negatively predicted maladaptive thoughts and negative affect.

The finding that self-compassion promoted adaptive physiological and psychological responses relative to a recalled sport failure may have implications for performance enhancement, recovery, and health outcomes.

An example of this can be seen in a review where Cunanan et al. This presumption, that the mechanisms underpinning physical training adaptation are sufficiently well understood to facilitate accurate training prescription, is pervasive within the literature.

Existing evidence, however, suggests that an identical training stimulus can lead to differing inter and intra-individual responses with regard to both magnitude and direction. Whilst this fact has been well documented in untrained or recreationally trained individuals, available evidence suggests that the same may be true in athletes [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ].

Yet, within much of the relevant training-specific published literature, this pervasive inter-individual response, the sources of it and their role are ignored [ 11 ]. Nevertheless, consideration of these factors remains largely absent from standard intervention studies [ 11 , 15 ].

This conventional perspective, however, appears in direct conflict with contemporary research, emerging across multiple domains. Notably, emerging research suggests that, in the context of biological outcomes, physical and non-physical influences cannot be disentangled [ 16 ]. A primary objective of training science is to assist coaches in devising training programmes and processes capable of optimally delivering positive performance outcomes [ 17 ].

Further, we also sought to determine whether coaches considered non-physical influences to be relevant and important drivers of training outcomes.

The survey utilised a purposive convenient sample due to the lack of a centralised coaching database needed for probability sampling. Participation was voluntary, and all those who took part were notified they could withdraw at any point. Due to the fundamental nature of the topics explored within the survey there were limited inclusion criteria of currently working with athletes as a coach, being at least 18 years old and being English literate.

With no agreed way to determine sample size for surveys, we established ours on the basis of similar studies leading to a minimum sample of [ 19 , 20 ]. The survey was available online through Microsoft Forms from November to February and was distributed via the authors social media accounts Twitter and Instagram.

This study used a cross-sectional study approach. After surveying the literature, it was determined that no prior survey asked questions that allowed for the exploration of topics that the authors were interested in.

Therefore, it was determined that a new survey would need to be created, with an initial survey being developed by the authors. Once an initial survey was established, recent surveys in the literature were consulted to determine best practice validation [ 21 , 22 ].

The purpose of this was to determine whether the survey properly reflected the relevant literature, and feedback from this process was then used to improve content and clarity. A second round of content analysis combined with piloting was performed on the updated survey specifically focussing on expression of concepts and clarity.

On the basis of this feedback, final alterations were made to further refine the survey. This merging was done due to issues around recruitment and retention of participants. At the outset it was determined that these separate topics would be merged into one survey but then be separated back out for analysis.

In part this was also considered necessary as it would not be possible to coherently cover all the topics in a single article. The authors felt that these circumstances met the criteria set out by the APA for separating a single dataset into multiple publications.

Within this article a subset of the data referring to questions focussing on the key drivers of physical training adaptation are presented. The questions discussed are available in the supplementary material but are also given below each figure in the results section. Ethical approval for the survey was obtained from the German Sport University Cologne ethics committee.

Due to the use of convenient sampling, it was decided that we would only present descriptive statistics in the form of percentage responses, not means or standard deviations as we could not make any generalisations or inferences to the wider population [ 23 ]. Survey responses were exported to Microsoft Excel [ 24 ] and anonymised, missing data checks were performed and then the responses were analysed in comparison with the literature.

A partial summary of the data is presented in text, with the rest available in the supplementary material. On closing of the survey, responses had been collected of which agreed to complete the survey.

The demographic details of the participants can be seen in Table 1. Figure 1 shows responses to statements regarding inter-individuality of training adaptations.

Ninety-nine per cent of respondents indicated that non-physical factors influence physical training response. Data presented in Fig. Other responses can be found in the full dataset supplementary file 2.

When looking at the results supplementary file 2 it would seem that coaches working at different levels seem to weight factors differently, though given the limitations of non-probability sampling we cannot infer the reason for this in the current study.

Given that training research has embraced the use of the biomedical model, and therefore the primacy of the physical over non-physical, our aim was to survey coaches on their opinions of the importance of various factors that can impact the training process.

The results show that, whilst many of the coaches opinions were in alignment with the wider scientific literature, they are seemingly at odds with the bulk of training research due the prevailing methodological approach used.

Most participants agreed or strongly agreed that athletes with similar training experiences will respond differently to the same training protocol Fig. Nevertheless, very few training studies consider or report individual participant data.

Indeed most investigations treat individual variation as unavoidable but largely irrelevant noise and seek to minimise its effect through methodological and analytical techniques [ 26 , 27 ].

However, a recent study, starting from the premise that coaches are likely most interested in applications at an individual level, looked to examine the extent to which group-level results could be generalised to individual athletes [ 10 ].

After analysing two seasons worth of load and recovery data 11, observations , collected from 82 youth academy football players at a major league club Eredivisie league , the authors reported different correlations between load and recovery at both a group and individual level.

The importance of these results is that they suggest that group-based results do not generalise to individuals. Therefore, employing recommendations based on grouped responses is a suboptimal, or even erroneous, training prescription strategy.

As further illustration, Morin et al. Furthermore individualisation also effected the time for results to be realised post-intervention [ 8 ]. The adoption of the biomedical model as the basis for research within training theory means that physical training is the primary source for driving physical adaptation.

This opinion appears in line with the wider scientific literature illustrating that non-physical factors, such as psychological stress, can dramatically influence general health and physiological outcomes [ 28 ]. This poses a problem to the already described approach taken within a large part of the training specific literature as non-physical factors undoubtedly play a role and their effects cannot be separated from physical factors.

Belief in the plan can be thought of as a series of predictions about future events which are formed by an array of factors that include suggestion, observational learning, conditioning and personal relationships like those between coach and athlete [ 29 ].

This finding echoes research in medical contexts. Nevertheless, the perceived relevance of the coach—athlete relationship is not reflected in either conventional training research or theory [ 31 ]. It is interesting to note that life stress received a higher rating even though it could be considered a subset of psychological and emotional stress.

Regardless, both factors have been shown to have crucial and inseparable impact on the adaptation process [ 12 , 13 , 14 ]. An example of this can be seen in Stults-Kolehmainen et al. Specifically, higher levels of stress resulted in lower recovery curves and, conversely, lower levels of stress were associated with superior levels of recovery.

A more modern understanding is that stress no matter the source is mediated by the brain as it perceives whether an event is threatening and determines the appropriate behavioural and physiological response [ 34 ].

Nevertheless, when discussing how to plan a training session or programme, no non-physical factors, such as those highlighted in this survey, are considered. As illustration, previously the importance of the coach—athlete relationships has been suggested.

Jowett and Cockerill, for example, suggested that coach education programmes should not focus only on providing information relevant to physical, technical and tactical skills, but also provide education relating to the fostering of effective relationships with athletes [ 36 ].

A strict biomedical interpretation of training adaptation, which assumes a mechanistic, and therefore predictable, relationship between conducted training and physiological adaptation, is still pervasive within the literature [ 2 , 11 ].

Nevertheless, this survey suggests that many practising coaches may hold contrary beliefs given the rated importance of multiple non-physical factors. Therefore, it might be beneficial for future studies to look to other research paradigms that integrate these factors. An example of this could be the biopsychosocial model [ 3 ].

It has gained increasing acceptance in medicine due to its acknowledgement of the integrated role of physiological, psychological and social factors in health. From a methodological perspective given the inter-individual difference in response to training stimuli, studies should report individual responses, either within the study results or as appendices available to the interested reader [ 37 , 38 ].

Furthermore, to remain practically relevant, training science should collate, consider and, where appropriate, integrate the perspectives of practitioners who plan and deliver athletic training plans. Despite this there are limitations that need to be addressed.

As previously mentioned, probability sampling was not used in this study, which carries certain limitations with it such as not being able to make statistical inferences and therefore generalise the results from the current sample to the entire coaching population or specific subpopulations [ 19 , 39 ].

It is worth noting, though, that the bar is quite high for statistical inferences to be made [ 40 ]. Due to its exploratory nature, further work is needed.

With no surveys discussing these topics, the questions were specifically customised. This brings both strengths and weaknesses. Whilst bespoke questions provided novel insights, some questions could be strengthened by an increase in detail or follow-up questions.

These would be worthwhile pursuing in future research. Similarly, and inevitably, despite striving for clear expression, some questions may have been misinterpreted [ 39 ].

Finally, this survey was advertised and delivered in English only, and was subsequently unduly biased towards English-speaking participants. Whether and how coaches integrate non-physical training influences into coaching practice and training plans remains undocumented.

Similarly, given the neglect of non-physical factors within the physical training literature, it would be interesting to understand how coaches came to hold these perspectives. Notably, and perhaps surprisingly, amongst coaches surveyed less than a third explicitly rated physical training as the most important factor in determining sports performance.

While there was an almost universal belief that non-physical factors exert an influence on physical training response, there was no consensus on the relative importance of each specific non-physical factor.

In fact, within the training-specific literature it is difficult to find a study that documents, or even acknowledges, the potential role of non-physical influences in the context of training adaptation.

Currently, the science seems mired in a strict biomedical conceptualisation of training theory. Many coaches, in contrast, believe non-physical influences effect training adaptations. Nevertheless, this belief remains largely undocumented within the literature and poorly expressed and explained within current training theory.

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A psychological adaptation is Psychological training adaptations functional, trainlng or behavioral adaptayions that benefits Psychological training adaptations organism Psycbological its Psychologocal. Psychological adaptations fall under the scope of Axaptations psychological mechanisms EPMsadzptations however, EPMs refer adaptationss a less restricted Minerals for immunity. Psychological adaptations include only the trainig traits that increase the fitness Pschological an organism, while EPMs refer to Psychological training adaptations psychological mechanism that developed through the processes of evolution. It can be difficult to tell whether a trait is vestigial or not, so some literature is more lenient and refers to vestigial traits as adaptations, even though they may no longer have adaptive functionality. For example, xenophobic attitudes and behaviors, some have claimed, appear to have certain EPM influences relating to disease aversion, [3] however, in many environments these behaviors will have a detrimental effect on a person's fitness. The principles of psychological adaptation rely on Darwin's theory of evolution and are important to the fields of evolutionary psychologybiologyand cognitive science. Charles Darwin proposed his theory of evolution in On the Origin of Species Psychological training adaptations Getty Traininng "], "filter": Psycholoigcal "nextExceptions": "img, blockquote, div", "nextContainsExceptions": "img, adxptations, a. btn, Psycholoogical. Endurance athletes, particularly trail and ultrarunners, participate in Psychological training adaptations sport that Fiber optic system integration both physical capacity and mental resilience. Conquering distances over Psycholovical terrains requires a strong body and a well-prepared mind. One of the critical elements that often escapes the attention of many runners is the time course of adaptations—the process by which the body gradually changes and gets stronger, in response to training stimuli. After all, these changes are precisely the outcomes we seek through training. By comprehending the stages of adaptation and how they align with training strategies, athletes can approach their training with more intentionality.

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