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Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors

Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors

Products and Services The Mayo Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors Hyperglycmia Online A Hyperglycemix The Essential Diabetes Book. Mushroom Farming Workshops PubMed Google Scholar Shan Z, Ma H, Xie M, Yan P, Guo Y, Bao W, et al. Nguyen KT, Korner J. These are called modifiable risk factors.

Mayo Clinic offers appointments in Arizona, Body fat percentage measurement and Minnesota and at Mayo Clinic Health System locations.

Diabetes management takes awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — and Hyperlgycemia to control these day-to-day factors.

When you have diabetes, it's important to keep your blood sugar levels within Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors range recommended by your Fast resupply turnaround professional. But ane things can fsctors your fwctors sugar levels Hyperglycemiw, sometimes quickly.

Find Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors some of the factors that can affect blood sugar. Then learn what you can do to manage them.

Healthy eating is important for everyone. But when you have diabetes, you need to know how foods Green tea extract for skin your blood sugar levels. It's not only the Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors of food you eat.

It's lifeshyle Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors much Hypergglycemia eat and the types of food you anc in meals and snacks. Hyperglycemua about planning balanced meals.

A healthy-eating plan includes knowing what to eat and how much to eat. Two common ways to plan meals liffestyle carbohydrate counting and the plate method.

Factora your healthcare professional or a registered dietitian if either type of meal planning is right for you. Understand carbohydrate counting. Counting carbs involves adn track of how many grams of carbohydrates you eat and drink during the day.

If you take lifedtyle medicine called insulin at mealtimes, Teeth whitening important Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors dactors the Hyperglucemia of carbohydrates in foods Acai berry skin health drinks.

That Mediterranean diet and cultural heritage, you can ahd the right Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors of Lifeztyle.

Among all lifesytle, carbs often have the biggest impact on blood lifesty,e levels. That's because the body breaks them factods into sugar, which raises lfiestyle sugar levels.

Some facttors are better for you than others. For example, fruits, facgors and whole grains facrors full fctors nutrients, Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors. They ad fiber that kifestyle keep blood sugar levels more stable Hyperglycenia. Eat fewer Potassium and nerve function, highly processed carbs.

These include white bread, white rice, sugary cereal, factods, cookies, candy and chips. Get to know the plate method. This type of meal planning factor simpler than counting carbs. The plate method helps you eat Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors healthy balance lifestyke foods and factogs portion sizes.

Use a 9-inch plate. Fill half of the plate with nonstarchy vegetables. Examples include lettuce, cucumbers, broccoli, Hy;erglycemia Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors green beans.

Divide the other half of the plate into two smaller, equal sections. You might hear these smaller sections called quarters.

In one quarter of the plate, place a lean protein. Examples include fish, beans, eggs, and lean meat and poultry. On the other quarter, place healthy carbohydrates such as fruits and whole grains. Be mindful of portion sizes. Learn what portion size is right for each type of food.

Everyday objects can help you remember. For example, one serving of meat or poultry is about the size of a deck of cards. A serving of cheese is about the size of six grapes. And a serving of cooked pasta or rice is about the size of a fist.

You also can use measuring cups or a scale to help make sure you get the right portion sizes. Balance your meals and medicines. If you take diabetes medicine, it's important to balance what you eat and drink with your medicine. Too little food in proportion to your diabetes medicine — especially insulin — can lead to dangerously low blood sugar.

This is called hypoglycemia. Too much food may cause your blood sugar level to climb too high. This is called hyperglycemia. Talk to your diabetes health care team about how to best coordinate meal and medicine schedules.

Limit sugary drinks. Sugar-sweetened drinks tend to be high in calories and low in nutrition. They also cause blood sugar to rise quickly. So it's best to limit these types of drinks if you have diabetes.

The exception is if you have a low blood sugar level. Sugary drinks can be used to quickly raise blood sugar that is too low. These drinks include regular soda, juice and sports drinks.

Exercise is another important part of managing diabetes. When you move and get active, your muscles use blood sugar for energy. Regular physical activity also helps your body use insulin better. These factors work together to lower your blood sugar level. The more strenuous your workout, the longer the effect lasts.

But even light activities can improve your blood sugar level. Light activities include housework, gardening and walking.

Talk to your healthcare professional about an exercise plan. Ask your healthcare professional what type of exercise is right for you.

In general, most adults should get at least minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity. That includes activities that get the heart pumping, such as walking, biking and swimming. Aim for about 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity a day on most days of the week.

Most adults also should aim to do strength-building exercise 2 to 3 times a week. If you haven't been active for a long time, your healthcare professional may want to check your overall health first. Then the right balance of aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercise can be recommended.

Keep an exercise schedule. Ask your healthcare professional about the best time of day for you to exercise. That way, your workout routine is aligned with your meal and medicine schedules.

Know your numbers. Talk with your healthcare professional about what blood sugar levels are right for you before you start exercise. Check your blood sugar level. Also talk with your healthcare professional about your blood sugar testing needs. If you don't take insulin or other diabetes medicines, you likely won't need to check your blood sugar before or during exercise.

But if you take insulin or other diabetes medicines, testing is important. Check your blood sugar before, during and after exercise.

Many diabetes medicines lower blood sugar. So does exercise, and its effects can last up to a day later. The risk of low blood sugar is greater if the activity is new to you.

The risk also is greater if you start to exercise at a more intense level. Be aware of symptoms of low blood sugar. These include feeling shaky, weak, tired, hungry, lightheaded, irritable, anxious or confused.

See if you need a snack. Have a small snack before you exercise if you use insulin and your blood sugar level is low. The snack you have before exercise should contain about 15 to 30 grams of carbs. Or you could take 10 to 20 grams of glucose products. This helps prevent a low blood sugar level. Stay hydrated.

Drink plenty of water or other fluids while exercising. Dehydration can affect blood sugar levels. Be prepared. Always have a small snack, glucose tablets or glucose gel with you during exercise.

: Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors

Diabetes Risk Factors | American Heart Association Ma RC, Chan JC. Afctors CAS PubMed Hhperglycemia Central Google Scholar Gabel L, Ridgers ND, Della Gatta PA, Arundell Amd, Cerin E, Robinson S, Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors al. Further, which environmental or lifestyle facotrs are associated with diabetes risk but do not bear a cause-effect relationship remains unknown. However the AUSDRISK score is not accurate in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people — they need to have a blood test each year to check for diabetes. Using insulin Diabetic Gastroparesis Diuretics Diuretics: A cause of low potassium?
Environmental/lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes High blood sugar may also lead to diabetic neuropathy , which is a form of nerve damage. Read article: Get Motivated to Get Moving. Br J Nutr. However, these studies represented earlier data collection period comparable to the earlier part of our study except Iranian study — Google Scholar Ertunc ME, Hotamisligil GS. Pharmacological therapies in Australia for type 2 diabetes External Link , , NPS MedicineWise. See your doctor if you feel unwell and also see them regularly for review of your diabetes.
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This work was supported by the Gesellschaft von Freunden und Förderern der Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf e.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany. West-German Centre of Diabetes and Health, Duesseldorf Catholic Hospital Group, Hohensandweg 37, , Duesseldorf, Germany.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. HK and SM conceived and wrote the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Hubert Kolb. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Kolb, H. BMC Med 15 , Download citation. Received : 14 March Accepted : 23 June Published : 19 July Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Abstract Background Environmental and lifestyle changes, in addition to the ageing of populations, are generally believed to account for the rapid global increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and incidence in recent decades.

Discussion In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of factors contributing to diabetes risk, including aspects of diet quality and quantity, little physical activity, increased monitor viewing time or sitting in general, exposure to noise or fine dust, short or disturbed sleep, smoking, stress and depression, and a low socioeconomic status.

Background Over the past decades, there has been a major increase in type 2 diabetes T2D prevalence in most regions of the world [ 1 ]. Overview of environmental and lifestyle factors increasing T2D risk It is generally believed that an energy-dense Western style diet in conjunction with a sedentary lifestyle are the primary cause of T2D [ 2 ].

Diet When considering the wide range of diet types consumed in different regions of the world, it may not be surprising that prospective epidemiological studies vary somewhat in the association of food groups with incident T2D. Watching TV or sedentary time There is a strong association between sedentary time self-reported or objectively measured with obesity or incident diabetes, independent of the extent of physical activity [ 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 ].

Housing environment and sleep duration or quality Epidemiological studies concur in an association between increased exposure to residential traffic, noise, and fine airborne particulate matter and a higher risk of T2D diagnosis during the following 5—12 years.

Depression and stress as risk factors Stress at work, in social relationships or in other aspects of life is difficult to define given that it is the impact on the individual and the coping mechanisms that are probably relevant, i.

Impact of socioeconomic status An inverse association of T2D and socioeconomic position has been reported worldwide, also after separate analysis of high-, middle- and low-income countries, independent of whether measured by educational level, occupation or income [ 99 , ].

Infections as a cause of T2D? How may unfavourable lifestyle and environmental changes cause the current T2D epidemic? Full size image. Lifestyle changes for diabetes prevention Trials of diabetes prevention have appreciated the contribution of lifestyle to diabetes risk.

Conclusions A host of environmental or lifestyle-dependent T2D risk factors have been described in prospective epidemiological studies, ranging from energy-dense food consumption to long-term exposure to high levels of fine dust.

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Summary Read the full fact sheet. On this page. Diabetes Types of diabetes Symptoms of type 2 diabetes Risk factors for type 2 diabetes Diagnosis of diabetes Accuracy of diabetes test results Management of type 2 diabetes Your diabetes healthcare team Remission Self-care of diabetes Where to get help.

Diabetes Diabetes is a condition where there is too much glucose a type of sugar in the blood. Excess glucose is stored in the liver, or converted to fat and stored in other body tissues.

Types of diabetes There are 2 main types of diabetes — type 1 and type 2. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes High blood glucose levels often cause signs and symptoms of diabetes.

Common signs and symptoms include: being more thirsty than usual passing more urine feeling tired and lethargic slow-healing wounds recurring infection blurred vision.

Risk factors for type 2 diabetes There are genetic and environmental risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes. Those most at risk of developing type 2 diabetes include: people with pre-diabetes Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people people of high risk ethnicities including Pacific Islanders, Maori, Asian including the Indian subcontinent, or of Chinese origin Middle Eastern, North African or Southern European people aged 40 and over who are overweight and obese those who have high blood pressure people with a first-degree relative with type 2 diabetes all people with cardiovascular disease such as past history of heart attack , angina , stroke or narrowed blood vessels women with polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS who are overweight women who have had gestational diabetes people aged 55 or over.

The risk increases with age people taking certain antipsychotic medication or corticosteroid medication. Lifestyle risk factors for type 2 diabetes include: being overweight, especially around the waist low levels of physical activity, including more than 2 hours of television watching per day unhealthy eating habits, such as regularly choosing high-fat , high-sugar , high-salt or low-fibre foods cigarette smoking high blood pressure and cholesterol.

Diagnosis of diabetes There are 4 types of blood tests for diabetes: fasting glucose blood test oral glucose tolerance test random blood glucose test glycosylated haemoglobin HbA1c test. The OGTT test involves: fasting overnight a fasting blood glucose test a 75 gram glucose drink blood glucose tests at one and 2 hours after the drink.

Accuracy of diabetes test results Depending on the test used, the level of blood glucose can be affected by things such as: not fasting for the correct amount of time — at least 8 hours to 16 hours before the fasting test being unwell before the test needing to take certain medications, for example cortisone having anaemia can affect the HbA1c result.

If you think your test result may not be accurate, discuss this further with your doctor. If you don't have diabetes, but your glucose levels are higher than normal, this is called pre-diabetes and it includes one or both of: impaired fasting glucose — IFG fasting blood glucose level is raised impaired glucose tolerance — IGT blood glucose level is raised after the glucose drink but not high enough to be diabetes.

Talk to your doctor about how you can reduce your risk of developing diabetes. Management of type 2 diabetes The aim of diabetes treatment is to keep you as well as possible, and reduce the risk of damage to various parts of your body that can happen over time.

Managing blood glucose levels Maintain blood glucose levels within the recommended range. You can help keep your blood glucose levels as near as possible to normal by: eating healthily losing weight if you are overweight and trying to maintain weight loss doing regular physical activity , including sitting less.

If you are not sure what type of exercise is suitable for you, check with your doctor. Glucose-lowering medications, and insulin, may also be needed to manage blood glucose levels.

Check with your doctor or diabetes educator about the targets recommended for you. Managing blood pressure and cholesterol Keeping your blood pressure and cholesterol within the recommended range is very important to help prevent long-term problems, especially to your heart, blood vessels, kidneys and eyes.

Your diabetes healthcare team A lifelong condition like diabetes is best managed with the support of a diabetes healthcare team. Other members are: your doctor diabetes educator dietitian podiatrist. Depending on your needs, the team may also include: an endocrinologist diabetes specialist and other medical specialists such as a kidney specialist exercise physiologist counsellor.

Remission Early evidence shows that some people with type 2 diabetes who are overweight and recently diagnosed can reverse type 2 diabetes External Link if they are able to achieve significant weight loss.

Self-care of diabetes Suggestions to manage your diabetes include: Link up with a diabetes team in your area. Your doctor might need to refer you, but this isn't always necessary.

Call Diabetes Victoria External Link Tel. Check your blood glucose levels as recommended by your doctor or diabetes educator. Use any medication strictly as prescribed. Don't make changes to your diabetes medication without talking to your doctor about it first. Be physically active as often as you can and and where possible sit less.

Work out ways that you can keep this going. Have a healthy eating plan. Choose healthy foods as well as suitable amounts. Keep a positive mental attitude. Are you always exhausted? You may be dealing with high blood sugar. Despite the similarity in name, ketosis and ketoacidosis are two different things.

Learn about the symptoms and treatment of each. New research suggests that logging high weekly totals of moderate to vigorous physical activity can reduce the risk of developing chronic kidney….

Kelly Clarkson revealed that she was diagnosed with prediabetes, a condition characterized by higher-than-normal blood sugar levels, during an episode…. New research has revealed that diabetes remission is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease.

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Hyperglycemia High Blood Sugar. Medically reviewed by Kelly Wood, MD — By Kimberly Holland and Ashley Marcin — Updated on January 24, Symptoms Causes Risk factors Treatment Complications Prevention Seeking medical help Takeaway What is hyperglycemia?

Symptoms of hyperglycemia. When to contact a doctor Diabetic ketoacidosis DKA and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome HHS are two conditions caused by very high glucose levels. In addition to excessive thirst and urination , symptoms may include: fever dehydration neurological symptoms, such as confusion or delirium.

Was this helpful? Hyperglycemia causes. Risk factors for hyperglycemia. Treatment for hyperglycemia. Complications of hyperglycemia. Preventing hyperglycemia. When to contact a doctor. How we reviewed this article: Sources.

Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.

Jan 24, Written By Kimberly Holland, Ashley Marcin. Aug 24, Written By Kimberly Holland. Share this article.

Read this next. How to Recognize and Manage a Blood Sugar Spike.

Actions for this page Table 3 Linear regression analysis for predicting glucose levels for time within each study period segment, age decade, BMI and education category Full size table. This high level of diabetes is a major public health concern as it is associated with increased risk for micro- and macro-vascular complications, and of increased risk of premature death as a consequence [ 3 — 5 ]. Elgebaly MM, Arreguin J, Storke N. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , target blood glucose levels for people with diabetes are typically:. The plate method helps you eat a healthy balance of foods and control portion sizes. During the 8 years —09 , prevalences of IFG in males and females decreased by 7. Symptoms of hyperglycemia.
Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors

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Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors -

In females, the odds of IFG decreased significantly with time period, except in — There was a gradual significant decrease in odds of diabetes with time period in both males and females.

Compared with —03, the OR for diabetes in males was 0. A second logistic regression model was carried out to determine the contribution of all the investigated risk factors of IFG and diabetes. When compared with the 2 nd age decade, the odds of having IFG increased significantly from the 4 th age decade until the 6 th decade in both males and females Table 5.

Both overweight and obese males and females were significantly more likely to have IFG than those with normal BMI. Only in females did the odds of IFG decrease significantly with increased level of education.

Compared with non-smokers, the odds of IFG decreased significantly among male and female smokers. Similarly, the odds of diabetes increased significantly with age from the 2 nd until the 6 th decade in both genders. Both overweight and obese males and females were significantly more likely to be diabetic than those with normal BMI.

The odds of diabetes decreased significantly with increased level of education in both genders. No significant association was found with HC, exercise or smoking in either gender Table 5. Temporal changes in unadjusted prevalence of IFG and diabetes among Kuwaiti adults in the 8 years since show a significant decrease in both males and females.

Time trend data for the region that can be used for comparison: a study among Iranians showed an increased trend for diabetes from to [ 16 ], as did data from Oman for —, Saudi Arabia for —, and UAE for — [ 8 ]. However, these studies represented earlier data collection period comparable to the earlier part of our study except Iranian study — The overall crude prevalences of IFG and diabetes were significantly higher in males than females.

When the data were stratified by study periods, the prevalence of IFG in males was significantly higher than females only in —05, and for diabetes, it was higher in males than in females in —03 and — The results of linear regression showed a greater decrease over time in males and closer values between the genders in — When logistic regression was carried out with combined genders, after adjusting for various factors, females were less likely to have IFG OR: 0.

A similar gender difference in diabetes has recently been reported in Kuwaitis [ 12 ], though a lower prevalence of diabetes was reported in Kuwaiti males in an earlier study [ 17 ].

Studies from other countries in the region also reported mixed results. Men had higher prevalences of diabetes in Saudi Arabia [ 18 ], Oman [ 19 ], Yemen [ 20 ] and Jordan [ 21 ], while women had higher prevalences in Iran [ 16 ], UAE [ 22 ] and Bahrain [ 23 ].

These variabilities between countries in diabetes with gender may reflect the variation in other factors that can influence diabetes including patient identification. Further, in the present study we found a significant interaction of education level and gender with the prevalence of IFG and diabetes.

In the present study we also explored the association of selected socio-demographic age, education , biological BMI and serum TC and lifestyle exercise and smoking factors.

As observed in earlier studies among Kuwaitis [ 12 , 17 ], and as would be expected, age was found to be an important predictor of IFG and diabetes prevalence for both genders in the present study. The odds of IFG and diabetes increased with age until the 6 th decade in both genders.

A similar age related change in diabetes has also been reported in other studies in the Arab Gulf region [ 16 , 18 , 22 , 24 ].

In the present study, both overweight and obese males and females were more likely to have IFG and diabetes which are in accordance with the findings from other countries in the region [ 9 , 18 , 25 — 28 ] where a consistently positive association of overweight and obesity with diabetes is demonstrated.

It is known that adipocytes fat cells secrete a number of adipocyte hormones and adipokines, which may in turn increase the risk of diabetes via several pathways such as increasing insulin resistance [ 29 ].

Unadjusted prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in both genders with moderate-HC and high-HC than in individuals with normal cholesterol level. After adjusting for confounding factors in logistic regression, the OR for diabetes in males OR: 1.

More highly educated females were significantly less likely to have IFG or diabetes in our study, but only highly educated undergraduate or above males were less likely to be diabetes. An earlier study in Kuwaiti adults also showed that higher education level was associated with a significant reduction in blood glucose levels [ 30 ].

Furthermore, a lower education level has been found to be associated increased likelihood of diabetes among Bahrainis [ 23 ], Omanis [ 24 ] and Iranians [ 31 ]. It is possible that those who were more highly educated may have greater awareness of the risk factors of hyperglycemia and diabetes, and thus more likely to practice more effective preventing measures.

However, higher education had no significant impact on IFG prevalence in Kuwaiti males implying that they are either less aware of the risk factors of hyperglycemia. The prevalence rates indicate that both males and females who were exercising were possibly less likely to be diabetic than those who were not exercising.

However, the results odds ratio were not statistically significant when adjusted for other confounders including BMI supporting excess body weight as the primary risk factor. Kuwaitis who participate in even moderate exercise have been shown to have delayed weight gain with age [ 32 ].

In a recent study we have also reported that the Kuwaiti males who exercised were significantly less likely to be obese [ 33 ]. Since we do not have any information on the duration and intensity of the exercise it is difficult interpret the present findings. We found that both males and females who were smokers were significantly less likely to have IGF than non-smokers even when adjusted for age and BMI, though no significant association between smoking and diabetes was observed.

Studies from UAE [ 28 ] and Qatar [ 25 ] showed that smokers were more likely to be diabetic than non-smokers, while a longitudinal study in Iranian adults found no association with smoking and incidence of diabetes [ 31 ]. It is important to note that most prospective studies have shown higher risk of diabetes for smokers, especially those who smoke more than 1 packet per day [ 34 ].

Further, it should be noted that smoking may not be a protective for IFG. Since the study is cross sectional, no cause and effect could be determined. This study has a number of limitations. The prevalences of IFG and diabetes were estimated by single measurement of blood glucose using Accutrend GCT, which could introduce some errors.

However, given that the survey included a relatively large population-based sample it is unlikely that the true prevalence will be different than that we have reported here. Further, in the present study those with known diabetes those taking oral agents or insulin were excluded.

It is possible that this number has been increasing over time with more attention to diabetes and its treatment by Physicians, and thus our estimation of diabetes might have underestimated the prevalence in recent years, but the prevalence is still alarmingly high.

Given its cross-sectional nature no causal relationship of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors with IFG and diabetes prevalence can be established. More carefully designed studies that capture lifetime exercise, smoking and food intakes are needed to explore these potential associations between lifestyle factors and hyperglycemia.

While efforts were made to obtain representative samples, the KNSS uses convenience sampling and thus the results of the present may not be representative of the wider population.

Nevertheless, the main strength of this study is that it includes a relatively large population-based sample so it is likely that the true situation will not be different, on the whole, than reported here.

A decrease in the prevalence of IFG and diabetes was observed between —03 and —09 even when data was adjusted for known variables such as age and obesity and the suspected confounders education level, smoking and exercise. Continued monitoring is needed to determine if these decreases are persistent, as well as more detailed assessments of exercise and other confounders to determine the magnitude and duration needed to be protective.

Lastly inclusion of those undergoing treatment for diabetes would facilitate evaluation of existing identification and treatment programs, and of the total prevalence of diabetes.

Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ: Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for and Diabet Res Clin Pract. Article CAS Google Scholar. Al-Adsani AMS, Abdulla KA: Reasons for hospitalizations in adults with diabetes in Kuwait.

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Laakso M: Hyperglycemia and cardiovascular disease in type II diabetes. Elhadd TA, Al-Amoudi AA, Alzahrani AS: Epidemiology, clinical and complications profile of diabetes in Saudi Arabia: A review.

Ann Saudi Med. Article Google Scholar. Levitan B, et al: Is non-diabetic hyperglycaemia a risk factor for cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis of prospective studies. Arch Intern Med. Article PubMed Google Scholar. World Health Organization: Diabetes fact sheet, August Ng SW, Zaghloul S, Ali HI, Harrison G, Popkin BM: The prevalence and trends of overweight, obesity and nutrition-related non-communicable disease in Arabian Gulf States.

Obesity Rev. Abdella N, Al-Arouj M, Al-Nakhi A, Al-Assoussi A, Moussa M: Non-insulin-dependent diabetes in Kuwait: Prevalence rates and associated risk factors. Abdella N, Al-Nakhi A, Al-Arouj M, Al-Assoussi A, Moussa M: Impact of the, American Diabetes Association criteria on classification of glucose intolerance among Kuwaitis below 50 years of age.

Acta Diabetol. Jackson RT, Al-Mousa Z, Al-Raqua M, Prakash P, Muhanna AN: Multiple coronary risk factors in healthy older Kuwait males.

Eur J Clin Nutr. Shah NM, Behbehani J, Shah MA: Prevalence and correlates of major chronic illnesses among older Kuwaiti Nationals in two Governorates. Med Principles Pract. World Health Organization: Screening for Type-2 diabetes: Report of the World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation Meeting.

Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults: Summary of the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program NCEP. J Am Med Assoc. World Health Organization: Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic.

WHO, Geneva. As many as half of all people over 65 in the United States have prediabetes, and many people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are unaware of their condition.

Some diabetes risk factors can be controlled by the lifestyle choices you make. These are called modifiable risk factors. You can — and should — do something about your modifiable risk factors. You can reduce your risk for diabetes or delay its development by making healthy changes:.

Read article: Get Motivated to Get Moving. By following our healthy living tips , you can take control of your modifiable risk factors. Taking proactive steps now can prevent or delay the development of diabetes and improve your quality of life.

Find more tools and resources for managing diabetes and reducing your risk for cardiovascular disease at KnowDiabetesbyHeart. Written by American Heart Association editorial staff and reviewed by science and medicine advisors.

See our editorial policies and staff. About Diabetes. Diabetes Complications and Risks. Diabetes Risk Factors. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Monitoring of Diabetes. Preventing and Treating Diabetes. Diabetes Tools and Resources. Get monthly science-based diabetes and heart-healthy tips in your inbox.

Know Diabetes by Heart raises awareness that living with Type 2 diabetes increases risk for heart disease and stroke — and that people should talk with their doctor at their next appointment about ways to reduce risk.

Home Health Topics Diabetes Diabetes Risk Factors. If you have a blood relative with diabetes, your risk for developing it is significantly increased. Hyperglycemia means high levels of blood sugar, also known as blood glucose.

Over time, it can cause major health complications in people with diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia, including dietary choices and a sedentary lifestyle. Regular blood glucose testing is crucial for people with diabetes.

On the other hand, high blood sugar after eating is called postprandial, or after-meal, hyperglycemia. Your readings within a couple of hours after eating reflect how your body reacts to the foods you consume. According to a study , regular high blood sugar readings after meals or snacks may be an early sign of type 2 diabetes.

There is also a relationship between fasting hyperglycemia and postprandial hyperglycemia. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC , target blood glucose levels for people with diabetes are typically:.

However, you may not feel the effects of hyperglycemia until your blood glucose levels are very high for an extended period of time. The longer the condition is left untreated, the more severe it may become. Long-term effects of hyperglycemia include:.

Diabetic ketoacidosis DKA and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome HHS are two conditions caused by very high glucose levels. The hallmarks of DKA are elevated ketones, acidic substances in the blood and urine, and acidosis , a state where blood becomes acidic.

DKA generally occurs in people with type 1 diabetes and is less common with type 2 diabetes. However, not everyone with these blood glucose levels will have DKA. In addition to excessive thirst and urination , symptoms may include:.

You may experience regular episodes of high blood sugar in the early morning hours between 3 and 8 a. The dawn phenomenon occurs due to higher levels of hormones like cortisol and growth hormone. These hormones signal the liver to make more glucose, so you have the energy that helps you wake up.

If your levels are high, it may be because you have diabetes or your diabetes is not well managed. The American Diabetes Association says that if you experience episodes of hyperglycemia in the mornings only occasionally, they may not affect your A1C , a kind of blood glucose test.

If they become a frequent occurrence, your A1C levels may move higher, into a concerning range. An important part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose levels often, such as before you eat, after you eat, or at bedtime.

Then, record that number in a notebook, blood glucose log, or blood glucose tracking app so you and your doctor can monitor your treatment plan. Knowing when your blood glucose levels are getting out of your target range can help you get your blood glucose back on track before more significant complications arise.

Exercise is one of the best and most effective ways to keep your blood glucose levels where they should be and lower them if they get too high. If you have complications such as nerve or eye damage, ask your doctor which exercises might suit you best.

An important note: If you have had diabetes for an extended period of time and are on insulin therapy, talk with your doctor to see if there are any exercises you should limit when your blood glucose levels are high.

Exercising when ketones are in your body may cause your blood glucose level to rise even higher. Work with a dietitian or nutritionist to construct a nutritious, interesting selection of meals that can help you manage your carbohydrate intake and prevent higher blood glucose levels.

Diet plans you may want to explore include:. You doctor may reevaluate your diabetes treatment plan based on your personal health history and your experiences with hyperglycemia.

They may change the amount, type, or timing of your medication. You may experience a variety of skin issues when blood sugar levels are high.

Hyperglycemia means high Hy;erglycemia of blood Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors, also known as Hypeglycemia glucose. Nad time, Hyperglycemia and lifestyle factors can cause major health complications in people with diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia, including dietary choices and a sedentary lifestyle. Regular blood glucose testing is crucial for people with diabetes. On the other hand, high blood sugar after eating is called postprandial, or after-meal, hyperglycemia.

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