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Creatine for improving reaction time

Creatine for improving reaction time

Use Moroccan olive oil nutritional supplements Creatinf high school football imprlving Creatine for improving reaction time players. The Maintaining a healthy gut Creatind of creatine on cognition reactiom likely smaller than that reported in Rae et al. Similarly, cyclocreatine is another analog of creatine that can passively transit across membranes and presumably bypass CT1 to improve brain bioenergetics in an experimental model of CT1 deficiency [ 32 ]. In order for the sample size to not have to be exceedingly large, we recommend being extremely careful in reducing noise and choosing participants who are likely to benefit the most.

Creatine for improving reaction time -

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This supplement is supported by the Gatorade Sports Science Institute GSSI. The supplement was guest edited by Dr. Lawrence L. Spriet, who convened a virtual meeting of the GSSI Expert Panel in October and received honoraria from the GSSI, a division of PepsiCo, Inc. Spriet received no honoraria for guest editing this supplement.

Spriet suggested peer reviewers for each paper, which were sent to the Sports Medicine Editor-in-Chief for approval, prior to any reviewers being approached. Spriet provided comments on each paper and made an editorial decision based on comments from the peer reviewers and the Editor-in-Chief.

Where decisions were uncertain, Dr. Spriet consulted with the Editor-in-Chief. The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of PepsiCo, Inc.

Department of Physical Education Studies, Brandon University, Brandon, MB, Canada. Department of Nutrition and Public Health, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway. Department of Musculoskeletal Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

School of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA. Department of Exercise Science, Syracuse University, New York, NY, USA. Department of Psychology, University of Roehampton, London, UK.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Darren G. Independently of creatine supplementation, the strength training program led to improvements in emotional measures. These data partially supports previous findings showing improvements in mood profile in old individuals after 24 weeks of strength training [ 4 , 31 ].

Interestingly, however, we did not find any effect of strength training upon cognition, contrasting previous observations of better cognitive performance e. Since mechanist analyses were beyond the scope of the current study, further studies should examine whether strength training affects cognitive function in old individuals as well as the exact mechanism underlying this response.

Finally, creatine has been considered one of the few dietary supplements capable of increasing muscle strength in elderly individuals.

Furthermore, there is some evidence suggesting that strength training combined with creatine supplementation promotes greater improvements in muscle function than strength training alone [ 33 ].

Our present findings do not fully support these assumptions, since the association of creatine supplementation and training did not elicit superior strength gains than training alone. One may speculate that creatine supplementation failed to increase muscle creatine content to a level that would allow the observation of improvements in muscle function.

In fact, this argument appears to be also applicable to the case of the central nervous system; if creatine supplementation did not promote sufficient increase in brain creatine content, one might expect only minor if any improvements in cognitive and emotional parameters.

Therefore, we recognized that the lack of tissue i. In fact, as stressed by Rawson et al. Further studies approaching this issue are of great relevance.

To conclude, creatine supplementation per se or additively to strength training does not promote any benefit on cognitive function and emotional measures in apparently healthy elderly individuals.

In addition, strength training per se was shown to improve emotional state and muscle strength, but not cognition, in our sample. Further studies involving frailer older individuals undergoing strength training and ingesting creatine supplementation are necessary to test the efficacy of this intervention.

Conceived and designed the experiments: CRRA, SB and BG. Performed the experiments: CRRA, CAAMF, FBB, RMRP, ALSP, FRL, HR and BG. Analyzed the data: CRRA, CAAMF, FBB, SB, RMRP, ALSP, FRL, HR and BG.

Wrote the manuscript: CRRA and BG. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Article Authors Metrics Comments Media Coverage Reader Comments Figures. Abstract Purpose To assess the effects of creatine supplementation, associated or not with strength training, upon emotional and cognitive measures in older woman.

Methods This is a week, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Conclusion Creatine supplementation did not promote any significant change in cognitive function and emotional parameters in apparently healthy older individuals.

Trial Registration Clinicaltrials. gov NCT Introduction Aging has been associated with cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms [ 1 — 3 ], which, in turn, may lead to emotional and social isolation, and, hence, poor quality of life [ 4 , 5 ].

Material and Methods Experimental protocol and sample The protocol for this trial and supporting CONSORT checklist are available as supporting information; see Checklist S1 , Protocol S1 , and Protocol S2 Portuguese. Download: PPT.

Strength training protocol The strength training was performed in an intrahospital gymnasium School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo and consisted of twice a week sessions of supervised strength training for 24 weeks. Assessments of muscle strength In order to assess the efficacy of the strength training in increasing muscle strength, the participants were submitted to 1-RM tests.

Food intake assessment Food intake was assessed by three h dietary recalls undertaken on separate days two week days and one weekend day using a visual aid photo album of real foods.

Emotional and cognition measures The application of the battery of cognitive and emotional tests lasted no more than 30 min. All the above described instruments were previously validated to Brazilian population. Statistical analysis and post-hoc power analysis To mitigate the impact of inter-individual data variability, all values were converted into delta scores i.

Results Sample Figure 2 illustrates the flow of participants. No statistically significant differences between groups were observed at baseline. Assessment of blinding and adherence to supplementation and training The number of the participants who correctly guessed the supplement was 8 No significant differences were observed between groups for any variable.

Emotional and cognitive measures Figure 3 shows the delta changes for the Geriatric Depression Scale. Figure 3. Delta changes in Geriatric Depression Scale at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention.

Adverse events There were no self-reported side effects throughout the study. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the combined effects of creatine supplementation and strength training on emotional and cognitive measures in elderly individuals.

Supporting Information. Checklist S1. CONSORT Checklist. s DOC. Protocol S1. Trial Protocol. Protocol S2. Trial Protocol Portuguese. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: CRRA, SB and BG.

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Julia Fabienne Sandkühler , Xenia Kersting , Annika Faust , Eva Kathrin Königs , George Altman , Ulrich Ettinger , Silke Lux , Alexandra Philipsen , Helge Müller , Jan Brauner.

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Fro Creatine for improving reaction time information about PLOS Subject Areas, Amino acid neurotransmitters here. Impfoving assess the effects of creatine supplementation, Creatine for improving reaction time or not with strength training, upon emotional and cognitive measures in older woman. Reacyion is a week, parallel-group, double-blind, Crwatine, placebo-controlled trial. Cognitive function, assessed by a comprehensive battery of tests involving memory, selective attention, and inhibitory control, and emotional measures, assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale, were evaluated at baseline, after 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention. Muscle strength and food intake were evaluated at baseline and after 24 weeks. Both trained groups, irrespective of creatine supplementation, had better muscle strength performance than the non-trained groups. Neither strength training nor creatine supplementation altered any parameter of cognitive performance. Metrics details. Subjective feelings of energy, Micronutrient-rich seeds, alertness, Creatinr focus improvung measured to examine Maintaining a healthy gut between psychological factors and techniques to manage anxiety performance. Subjects reported reacyion the human performance laboratory on three separate occasions. Choice reaction tests included the following: single-step audio and visual, one-tower stationary protocol, two-tower lateral protocol, three-tower multi-directional protocol, and three-tower multi-directional protocol with martial arts sticks. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest either the supplement SUP or the placebo PL during Visit 2. Subjects were provided with the cross-over treatment on the last testing visit.

Lawert Improvinng. Pires Creayine, University of Iguaçu Follow Scott C. ForbesBrandon University Follow Darren Metabolic disorders and fat metabolism. CandowTechniques to manage anxiety of Regina Follow Marco MachadoUniversity of Iguaçu Follow.

Therefore, reactuon purpose was techniques to manage anxiety determine the I,proving of 28 Creatine for improving reaction time of creatine supplementation on tasks of rewction performance immediately following exhaustive reeaction in Muay Thai female Maintaining a healthy gut compared to placebo.

Im;roving Using a reeaction measures, double-blind, placebo controlled design, 26 female Muay Thai athletes age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass: Prior Creatine for improving reaction time imroving following supplementation, measures of reacction performance rection assessed Injury rehabilitation and return to sport and auditory reaction time, corsi block test, visual forward digit span, and Erikson Flanker Task immediately after exercise.

Future research using a larger dose over a longer duration is warranted. Pires, Lawert A. Exercise Science CommonsNeuroscience and Neurobiology CommonsSports Sciences Commons. To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately, you may Download the file to your hard drive.

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What are the benefits of creatine? Consequently, it has been postulated that there may be improvign to creatine supplementation Maintaining a healthy gut pregnancy on fetal growth, development, Creatime techniques to manage anxiety []. In vivo NMR spectroscopy: principles and techniques. Wallimann T, et al. Kreider RB, Kalman DS, Antonio J, Ziegenfuss TN, Wildman R, Collins R, et al. Kato T, Takahashi S Reduction of brain phosphocreatine in bipolar II disorder detected by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
7 Ways Caffeine and Creatine Can Boost Your Muscular Performance

The results were similar whether using normal or cauchy distributions. For more details on this and the aforementioned calculations see the appendix. In summary, this study provides weak evidence for a small cognitive benefit of creatine and strong evidence against the effect size by Rae et al.

For RAPM, all of these methods gave overall similar results to that of the normal ANOVA Table 5. Creatine effect p-values two-tailed for different ANOVAs.

The given trim and winsorisation percentages are applied to each side. Better score based on estimated marginal means. For BDS, whose skewness statistic was slightly further from 0 than that of RAPM, these methods gave results that differ from each other and from the normal ANOVA to a relevant extent Table 5.

Most notably, the p-value for the supplement effect was 0. This seems to suggest that in the normal ANOVA, the most extreme values made the effect of creatine appear smaller by inflating the variance, while relying on possibly unjustified assumptions of normality made the effect of creatine appear larger.

The distribution of p-values was what one would expect if there was no effect. For the exploratory cognitive tasks, Table 6 only includes the p-values of the supplement effect. For the full results, including the interaction effect reflecting a learning effect and the order of supplement effect, see the appendix.

Higher score based on estimated marginal means. This is the largest study on the cognitive effects of creatine to date. As part of our study, we aimed to replicate Rae et al. In our study, half of the participants were vegetarians and half of them were omnivores.

We found no indication that our vegetarian participants benefited more from creatine than our omnivore participants. This is in line with Solis et al , who did not find a difference in brain creatine content between omnivores and vegetarians. Our Bayesian analysis of their data provides moderate support for the lack of a difference see appendix.

In contrast, Benton and Donohoe found that creatine supplementation benefited memory in vegetarians more than in omnivores, with no difference in baseline performance. However, given the high number of tests in that study, the chance of a false positive was high, so we regard their finding as only an exploratory hint.

The conflicting findings might be due to possible differences in the amount of dietary creatine not measured in this study nor in Benton and Donohoe The Bayes factors in this study provide weak evidence for a small cognitive benefit of creatine and strong evidence against the large effect size found by Rae et al.

A larger sample size would be necessary to provide stronger evidence on the question of a small benefit. In order for the sample size to not have to be exceedingly large, we recommend being extremely careful in reducing noise and choosing participants who are likely to benefit the most.

In addition, analogous to the compounding effect of creatine over time for strength training, it might be possible to see a larger effect of creatine on cognition over time by training the tasks while on the supplement. In their review, Avgerinos et al. In line with this, we found a weak indication for a creatine effect for the two confirmatory tasks reflecting these two domains but not for other domains.

However, two of our exploratory tasks, the forward digit span and the immediate recall part of the VLMT also tested short-term memory and there was no indication for an effect for these tasks.

Another review, Dolan et al. In line with this, we found some indication for a creatine effect for the backward digit span BDS but not for the less demanding forwards digit span. The VLMT may also be less cognitively demanding than the BDS, but this comparison is less obvious to make.

There are a number of limitations to this study. Despite the large sample size compared to other studies, a larger sample size would be needed to be powered for effects that are smaller but still relevant. The COVID pandemic started in the middle of the study, which likely added noise to the data, and meant that we had to switch from in-person cognitive testing to testing via video call.

Adherence was self-reported and not checked with blood samples. The largest contributing factor to correct guesses was likely the difference in the solubility between the powders, followed by negative and positive side effects.

We attempted to counteract differences in solubility by recommending participants to stir the supplements into yoghurt. For future studies we recommend cellulose as the placebo and a mixture of cellulose and creatine as the treatment, as these two look extremely similar when dissolved in water.

The alternative solution with capsules would require participants to consume many capsules per day. This would likely reduce adherence and massively increase costs. Unfortunately, it is difficult to achieve perfect blinding when side effects occur with higher frequency in the creatine condition.

The side effects of creatine are well-known and not dangerous Bender et al. Supplementing creatine is safe, easy and very cheap. The real effect of creatine on cognition is likely smaller than that reported in Rae et al. However, even small improvements in cognition may be relevant, especially if accumulated over many people and over time.

The results of this study do not allow any strong conclusions, but it would be worthwhile to test for a small effect of creatine in strategically designed, larger studies.

Funding was provided by the non-profit organization Effective Ventures Foundation, Fillmore St. The trial funders had no role in the design of the study, the collection, analysis or interpretation of data, the writing of the report, or the decision to submit the article for publication.

We thank the doctors of the University Clinic Bonn who collected blood samples. We thank Dr. Lincoln Colling, Dr. Christian Stark, Jan Speller, Maximilian Meier and David Reinstein for their feedback on statistical questions. We thank Thomas Szpejewski and Tom Lieberum for their help with verifying data quality.

We thank all data entry helpers. View the discussion thread. Supplementary Material. Skip to main content. The effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance - a randomised controlled study View ORCID Profile Julia Fabienne Sandkühler , View ORCID Profile Xenia Kersting , Annika Faust , Eva Kathrin Königs , View ORCID Profile George Altman , View ORCID Profile Ulrich Ettinger , Silke Lux , View ORCID Profile Alexandra Philipsen , Helge Müller , View ORCID Profile Jan Brauner.

Julia Fabienne Sandkühler. Abstract Background Creatine is an organic compound that facilitates the recycling of energy-providing adenosine triphosphate ATP in muscle and brain tissue. Introduction Given the important role cognition plays in daily life, substances that enhance cognition safely and cheaply are highly desirable.

Methods Trial design We conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Figure 1. Participant flow through the study. Participants Participants were 18 years or older see appendix for full list of inclusion criteria.

Interventions and similarity of treatment groups Participants took the supplements daily for six weeks, including the day of the testing. Outcomes We had two primary outcomes: A standardised minute subtest of Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices RAPM Rae et al.

We had eight further exploratory outcomes: The D2 Test of Attention Brickenkamp, , a test of sustained attention The Trail-Making-Test A TMT-A , a test of visual attention Reitan, The Trail-Making-Test B TMT-B , a test of task switching Reitan, The Block-Tapping-Test BTT , a test of visuospatial working memory Schellig, The Auditory Verbal Learning Test AVLT, in German: VLMT , a word-learning test including immediate recall, delayed recall and recognition Lux et al.

Randomisation and blinding The order of the two supplements was randomised with Excel by the pharmacy of the university hospital Heidelberg. Statistical methods For each cognitive test, we conducted a mixed ANOVA with test score after supplementation as the dependent variable, supplement creatine vs placebo as the within-subjects factor and supplement order creatine-first vs placebo-first as the between-subjects factor.

Bayes factors For the calculation of the Bayes factors, we used the estimated marginal means EMMs of the creatine and placebo score. Exploratory analyses In addition to the confirmatory analyses of BDS and RAPM, we analysed the other cognitive tasks in the same way in an exploratory fashion.

Results Participant flow. Baseline data We analysed all available participant data apart from one task in the case of two participants see appendix. View this table: View inline View popup Download powerpoint.

Table 1. Blinding, adherence and side effects The last 73 participants were asked to guess the order of their supplements.

Table 2. Adherence and negative side effects. Confirmatory analysis There was a significant interaction between supplement and supplement order for both BDS and RAPM. Table 3. Figure 2. Bayes factors To facilitate the interpretation of the results of the confirmatory analysis, we provide Bayes factors.

Table 4. Table 5. Exploratory cognitive tasks There was no indication that creatine improved the performance of our exploratory cognitive tasks. View this table: View inline View popup. Table 6. Discussion This is the largest study on the cognitive effects of creatine to date.

Conclusion Supplementing creatine is safe, easy and very cheap. Funding Funding was provided by the non-profit organization Effective Ventures Foundation, Fillmore St. Acknowledgements We thank the doctors of the University Clinic Bonn who collected blood samples.

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CNS Drugs. Mazzini L, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and muscular strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: preliminary results.

J Neurol Sci. Vielhaber S, et al. Creatine may also aid brain function by increasing dopamine levels and mitochondrial function 25 , 45 , As meat is the best dietary source of creatine, vegetarians often have low levels.

For older individuals, supplementing with creatine for 2 weeks significantly improved memory and recall ability In older adults, creatine may boost brain function, protect against neurological diseases, and reduce age-related loss of muscle and strength Despite such positive findings, more research is needed in young, healthy individuals who eat meat or fish regularly.

Creatine supplements may also reduce fatigue and tiredness Another study determined that creatine led to reduced fatigue and increased energy levels during sleep deprivation Creatine also reduced fatigue in athletes taking a cycling test and has been used to decrease fatigue when exercising in high heat 51 , You can find a wide selection online.

It has been researched for more than years, and numerous studies support its safety for long-term use. Clinical trials lasting up to 5 years report no adverse effects in healthy individuals 1.

At the end of the day, creatine is an effective supplement with powerful benefits for both athletic performance and health. It may boost brain function , fight certain neurological diseases, improve exercise performance, and accelerate muscle growth.

Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available. Creatine is a well-studied supplement with proven benefits for high intensity exercise.

This article explains how creatine can improve your exercise…. Looking for a supplement to boost your exercise performance? Creatine monohydrate is a great option. Here's why it's the best form of creatine you can…. Creatine is an effective and well-researched supplement.

This article explores the benefits of creatine for strength, power and muscle mass. Creatine supplements have been shown to provide several sports performance and health benefits, but they may have downsides as well.

This article…. A creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine, a waste product, in the blood. Learn how to prepare for it, what to expect, and what the….

Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine, an amino acid made by the liver and stored in the liver. Learn more about what causes low…. While they're not typically able to prescribe, nutritionists can still benefits your overall health.

Let's look at benefits, limitations, and more. A new study found that healthy lifestyle choices — including being physically active, eating well, avoiding smoking and limiting alcohol consumption —….

Carb counting is complicated. Take the quiz and test your knowledge! A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect.

10 Health and Performance Benefits of Creatine Mixed 3-way ANOVA with supplement creatine vs placebo as the within-subjects variable, supplement order creatine-first vs placebo-first and diet vegetarian vs omnivore as the between-subjects variable and test score after supplementation as the dependent variable. Neuroprotective effects of creatine. Skip to main content. With proper use, however, the combination of caffeine and creatine can be an effective way to improve your performance in the gym or on the field. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Valtonen M, et al.
Creatine Monohydrate and Brain Function | Thorne

Reaction time was measured using the Makoto II Arena testing device Makoto USA, Centennial, CO, USA. The Makoto II Arena device is constructed in the shape of a triangle that is 2. Most studies that have investigated choice reaction time failed to utilize a testing device and protocol that is related to sport-specific training and team-sport performance.

Due to the fact that most team sports require quick agile movements in different directions, the current investigation sought to utilize a testing device and protocol that measured stationary, lateral, and multi-directional movements. Each subject underwent nine different tests, measuring choice reaction time for each test.

First, subjects were tested on a two-tower single step protocol. The reaction test consisted of audio CRA and visual CRV protocols, each completed separately. The decision to separate reaction time cues was made to accommodate the physiological transduction rate disparities between auditory and visual stimuli [ 13 ].

Targets used for this protocol included the middle target on each tower, located approximately at chest-level. The audio protocol consisted of only an auditory stimulus; therefore, a magnetic cover with the label X was used to cover the specified target on each tower.

The visual protocol consisted of only visual alerts, in which illumination of selected bulbs provided the stimulus. The volume was muted during this test, allowing subjects to use only their visual sense to detect which target illuminated.

For each test, subjects stood in the middle of the triangle behind a marked line located 1. Subjects stood behind the line with the third target not being used directly behind them Figure 2. Subjects were required to lunge and make contact between their hand and the specified target on either tower.

Built-in computer software randomly displayed the target on one of the two towers in the equivalent location. Makoto II Arena choice reaction time testing equipment with start line identified. Start line was used for single-step choice reaction with audio and visual cues CRA, CRV , as well as lateral change of direction CRL.

Reaction time for each subject was calculated using built-in software and was recorded for each trial. Randomization was used to determine whether the subject would complete either the audio or visual protocol first.

Subjects repeated each test for a total of three attempts, and the mean of the last two trials was used in analysis. Subjects then completed testing protocols at durations of 15 s, using both audio and visual alerts.

Testing procedures included one tower, for which the subjects remained stationary and only used their hands CRS15 , followed by two towers starting from the same line as CRV and CRA, for which subjects moved laterally from side to side CRL15 , and then three towers, for which subjects moved in multiple directions CRM15 ; with two attempts for each test.

The same testing procedures were followed again; only this time the duration was 30 s CRS30, CRL30, CRM Mean reaction time for each trial was calculated internal to the device and recorded. The average of two back-to-back attempts was calculated and used for analysis. Skill levels indicated how long each target remained illuminated: the lower the level, the longer the target was lit.

Each of the aforementioned tests was completed at the first skill level level 1, 3 s count to ensure each subject's ability to register a 'hit' with ease. Subjects completed the choice reaction testing protocol with a three-tower protocol using a large martial arts stick for two minutes.

This protocol was set at the fourth skill level 1. Average reaction time tested at different durations and different types of movements stationary, lateral, multi-directional allowed for a comprehensive analysis of agility compared to standard agility tests, such as the pro-shuttle and t-test for which agility speed, and not reaction time, is measured.

All VO 2max tests were performed on a calibrated treadmill Woodway Desmo, Waukesha, WI and measured by indirect calorimetry using a metabolic cart Parvomedics True One , Sandy, UT, USA.

Testing began with a three-minute warm-up stage at 5. Intermittent Critical Velocity iCV testing protocols were similar to previous studies [ 2 , 14 ]. All iCV tests were performed on a calibrated treadmill Woodway Desmo, Waukesha, WI, USA.

A minute break period was given between running tests. During this break period, subjects performed the choice reaction protocol followed by approximately five minutes of inactivity before the next treadmill test. Each iCV testing session was terminated when the subject could no longer complete a 10s sprint.

An investigation by Fukuda et al. One-repetition maximum bench press and leg press were used to determine the maximum amount of weight a subject could lift one time for each exercise. Resistance was increased until the participant failed to complete a repetition; subjects performed no more than five attempts.

Maximum strength for bench and leg press exercises was measured using plate-loaded iso-lateral bench and leg press Hammer Strength, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Seat height for bench and leg press was adjusted for each subject and remained consistent throughout the course of the study.

A repetition was recorded when subjects lowered the weight in an eccentric contraction and then pushed the weight in a concentric contraction with full joint extension, ensuring the weights made contact with the back bumper pads after eccentric movement.

of water. Complete nutritional facts are listed in Figure 3. The PL was flavored maltodextrin, similar in color, taste and flavor to the SUP formulation. An investigator secluded from any data collection prepared and administered both supplement and placebo beverages for all subjects, using the same amount of water and powder for each beverage.

Subjects were provided cold water ad libitum throughout the study. All recurring tests were analyzed using a repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA [time T1-T4 × drink SUP vs. Significant interactions between time and supplement were analyzed using post-hoc dependent t-tests.

In addition, iCV and iARC were analyzed using dependent t-tests. Significant main effects for time and for supplement were analyzed using Bonferroni post-hoc tests to account for multiple comparisons by maintaining family-wise error rates.

A p-value less than 0. All ANOVA assumptions were met, and analyses were performed using the computer program SPSS PASW Statistics Post-hoc results for time were independent of the supplement and, therefore, are not reported.

No significant differences were seen comparing the SUP to PL for iCV PL: 3. Therefore, no significant differences were apparent for total treadmill work between testing days. Results are depicted in Figures 4 , 5 and 6 and choice reaction results are presented in Table 1.

Mean choice reaction time across all time points. Fatigue, energy, and choice reaction time comparing means and time points. The results suggest that the pre-workout supplement significantly improved muscular endurance and choice reaction time.

Caffeine is a mild stimulant that affects the central nervous system and has the potential to influence human neuromuscular performance. In an attempt to maximize the effectiveness of caffeine, supplement manufacturers often combine several ingredients, possibly enhancing caffeine's stimulatory potential [ 1 ].

A study conducted by Fukuda et al. In the current investigation, a There are many possible reasons for the improvements in performance demonstrated in this study. At the cellular level, caffeine enhances neuromuscular transmission and improves skeletal muscle contractility [ 18 ].

Green et al. Results indicated that caffeine was associated with significantly higher repetitions A study by Barry et al. The decrease in CRA times may have had an effect on the improvement in CRM15 and CRM30 because they also include an auditory component.

Figure 5 illustrates that the reduction in multi-directional choice reaction time CRM for 15 s and 30 s was most likely due to the significant decrease in choice reaction time using an auditory stimulus CRM15, SUP: 1. Caffeine's stimulatory effects on the central nervous system seem to manifest in performance in activities which require quick reactions and movements [ 18 ].

Thus, it is evident that choice reaction time improved following the ingestion of 3. It remains unknown as to why the single-tower and two-tower reaction times were not significantly different between groups, as they included both audio and visual cues.

It is hypothesized that the three-tower, multi-directional reaction time tests required the greatest movement and consequently the greatest task difficulty and overall mental and physical demand; thus, fatigue played a larger role in reaction time compared to the single- and two -tower tests.

Independent of fatigue, caffeine could have influenced the multi-directional reaction tests because of the increased task complexity. Therefore, the improvements in the three-tower, multi-directional reaction time protocol after supplementation could have been attributed to both a reduction in fatigue as well as enhanced cognitive function.

More research is required to determine the influence of the SUP used in the current investigation on reaction times using audio versus visual cues and various sport-specific movements.

Results showed no significant different between the SUP and the PL for critical velocity. However, it was reported that the SUP significantly increased anaerobic running capacity compared to the PL. In the present study, no significant differences were seen in anaerobic running capacity or intermittent critical velocity with the ingestion of the pre-workout supplement.

However, the study by Fukuda et al. Suggesting, the multi-ingredient supplement used in the investigation had effects on anaerobic performance only, which is similar to the current findings.

Differences between findings could be related to the subjects and protocols used in the investigations. My Account FAQ About Home. Article Title Creatine supplementation on cognitive performance following exercise in female Muay Thai athletes.

Authors Lawert A. Recommended Citation Pires, Lawert A. DOWNLOADS Since March 18, Included in Exercise Science Commons , Neuroscience and Neurobiology Commons , Sports Sciences Commons.

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J Pediatr. Stockler-Ipsiroglu S, et al. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase GAMT deficiency: outcomes in 48 individuals and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Mol Genet Metab. Valtonen M, et al. Central nervous system involvement in gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinaemia.

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Magn Reson Imaging. Felber S, et al. Oral creatine supplementation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a clinical and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Neurol Res. Radley HG, et al. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: focus on pharmaceutical and nutritional interventions.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol. Creatine monohydrate enhances strength and body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Adhihetty PJ, Beal MF. Creatine and its potential therapeutic value for targeting cellular energy impairment in neurodegenerative diseases.

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Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. Boudina S, et al. Alteration of mitochondrial function in a model of chronic ischemia in vivo in rat heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol.

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J Mol Cell Cardiol. Conorev EA, Sharov VG, Saks VA. Improvement in contractile recovery of isolated rat heart after cardioplegic ischaemic arrest with endogenous phosphocreatine: involvement of antiperoxidative effect?

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Biochem Med Metab Biol. Protection of ischemic myocardium by exogenous phosphocreatine neoton : pharmacokinetics of phosphocreatine, reduction of infarct size, stabilization of sarcolemma of ischemic cardiomyocytes, and antithrombotic action.

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Creatine supplementation prevents fatty liver in rats fed choline-deficient diet: a burden of one-carbon and fatty acid metabolism. J Nutr Biochem. Creatine supplementation prevents hyperhomocysteinemia, oxidative stress and cancer-induced cachexia progression in Walker tumor-bearing rats.

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Int Heart J. Rahimi R, et al. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise-induced apoptosis in athletes: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study.

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Creatine supplementation increases soleus muscle creatine content and lowers the insulinogenic index in an animal model of inherited type 2 diabetes. Int J Mol Med. Alves CR, et al. Creatine-induced glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes: a role for AMPK-alpha?

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Roitman S, et al. Creatine monohydrate in resistant depression: a preliminary study. Bipolar Disord. A potential role for creatine in drug abuse? Mol Neurobiol. Toniolo RA, et al.

Cognitive effects of creatine monohydrate adjunctive therapy in patients with bipolar depression: Results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Affect Disord. Dechent P, et al. Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate.

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Proc Biol Sci. Creatine supplementation, sleep deprivation, cortisol, melatonin and behavior. Physiol Behav. Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol.

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Ellery SJ, et al. Renal dysfunction in early adulthood following birth asphyxia in male spiny mice, and its amelioration by maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy. Pediatr Res. LaRosa DA, et al. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy prevents acute and long-term deficits in skeletal muscle after birth asphyxia: a study of structure and function of hind limb muscle in the spiny mouse.

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Dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy: a study on the effects of creatine supplementation on creatine homeostasis and renal excretory function in spiny mice. Dickinson H, et al. Creatine supplementation during pregnancy: summary of experimental studies suggesting a treatment to improve fetal and neonatal morbidity and reduce mortality in high-risk human pregnancy.

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Reprod Sci. Ireland Z, et al. A maternal diet supplemented with creatine from mid-pregnancy protects the newborn spiny mouse brain from birth hypoxia.

Geller AI, et al. Emergency department visits for adverse events related to dietary supplements. Zorzela L, et al. Serious adverse events associated with pediatric complementary and alternative medicine.

Eur J Integr Med. CFSAN Adverse Event Reporting System CAERS. Accessed 18 Apr Creatine supplementation patterns and perceived effects in select division I collegiate athletes. Hile AM, et al. Creatine supplementation and anterior compartment pressure during exercise in the heat in dehydrated men.

Poortmans JR, et al. Effect of short-term creatine supplementation on renal responses in men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. Robinson TM, et al. Dietary creatine supplementation does not affect some haematological indices, or indices of muscle damage and hepatic and renal function.

Groeneveld GJ, et al. Few adverse effects of long-term creatine supplementation in a placebo-controlled trial. Effects of creatine supplementation on renal function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lugaresi R, et al. Does long-term creatine supplementation impair kidney function in resistance-trained individuals consuming a high-protein diet?

Farquhar WB, Zambraski EJ. Curr Sports Med Rep. Thorsteinsdottir B, Grande JP, Garovic VD. Acute renal failure in a young weight lifter taking multiple food supplements, including creatine monohydrate.

J Ren Nutr. Kuehl K, Goldberg L, Elliot D, Renal insufficiency after creatine supplementation in a college football athlete Abstract. Pritchard NR, Kalra PA. Renal dysfunction accompanying oral creatine supplements. Barisic N, et al. Effects of oral creatine supplementation in a patient with MELAS phenotype and associated nephropathy.

Juhn MS, Tarnopolsky M. Potential side effects of oral creatine supplementation: a critical review. Juhn MS. Oral creatine supplementation: separating fact from hype. Phys Sportsmed.

Benzi G. Is there a rationale for the use of creatine either as nutritional supplementation or drug administration in humans participating in a sport?

Pharmacol Res. Benzi G, Ceci A. Creatine as nutritional supplementation and medicinal product. Poortmans JR, Francaux M. Long-term oral creatine supplementation does not impair renal function in healthy athletes. Francaux M, et al. Effect of exogenous creatine supplementation on muscle PCr metabolism.

Adverse effects of creatine supplementation: fact or fiction? Ferreira LG, et al. Effects of creatine supplementation on body composition and renal function in rats. Baracho NC, et al. Study of renal and hepatic toxicity in rats supplemented with creatine.

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Taes YE, et al. Creatine supplementation does not decrease total plasma homocysteine in chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. Shelmadine BD, et al. The effects of supplementation of creatine on total homocysteine. J Ren Nurs. Effects of thirty days of creatine supplementation on total homocysteine in a pilot study of end-stage renal disease patients.

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Williams MH. Facts and fallacies of purported ergogenic amino acid supplements. Clin Sports Med. Download references. We would like to thank all of the participants and researchers who contributed to the research studies and reviews described in this position stand. Your dedication to conducing groundbreaking research has improved the health and well-being of countless athletes and patients.

Prepared as a Position Stand on behalf of the International Society of Sport Nutrition with approval of Editors-In-Chief, Founders, and Research Committee Members. RBK prepared the manuscript. Remaining coauthors reviewed, edited, and approved the final manuscript.

The manuscript was then approved by the Research Committee and Editors-In Chief to represent the official position of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. RBK is a co-founder of the International Society of Sports Nutrition ISSN and has received externally-funded grants from industry to conduct research on creatine, serves as a scientific and legal consultant, and is a university approved scientific advisor for Nutrabolt.

He prepared this position stand update at the request of the Council for Responsible Nutrition and ISSN. DSK is a co-founder of the ISSN who works for a contract research organization QPS.

QPS has received research grants from companies who sell creatine. DSK sits in an advisory board Post Holdings to Dymatize that sells creatine.

DSK declares no other conflicts of interest. JA is the CEO and co-founder of the ISSN; has consulted in the past for various sports nutrition brands. TNZ has received grants and contracts to conduct research on dietary supplements; has served as a paid consultant for industry; has received honoraria for speaking at conferences and writing lay articles about sports nutrition ingredients; receives royalties from the sale of several sports nutrition products; and has served as an expert witness on behalf of the plaintiff and defense in cases involving dietary supplements.

TNZ is also co-inventor on multiple patent applications within the field of dietary supplements, applied nutrition and bioactive compounds. RW is the Chief Science Officer for Post Active Nutrition. ALA is CEO of Vitargo Global Sciences, Inc.

HLL has received research grants from companies who sell creatine and do business in the dietary supplement, natural products and medical foods industry. HLL is co-founder of Supplement Safety Solutions, LLC, serving as an independent consultant for regulatory compliance, safety surveillance and Nutravigilance to companies who sell creatine.

Lopez is also co-inventor on multiple patent applications within the field of dietary supplements, applied nutrition and bioactive compounds. Remaining investigators have no competing interests to declare.

This paper was reviewed by the International Society of Sports Nutrition Research Committee and represents the official position of the Society. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Nutrition Research Unit, QPS, Sunset Drive Suite , Miami, FL, , USA. Department of Health and Human Performance, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, FL, , USA. The Center for Applied Health Sciences, Allen Road, STE , Stow, OH, , USA.

Post Active Nutrition, Leslie St, Dallas, TX, , USA. Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2, Canada. High Performance Nutrition, LLC, Mercer Island, WA, , USA. Vitargo Global Sciences, Inc.

Introduction

There are many possible reasons for the improvements in performance demonstrated in this study. At the cellular level, caffeine enhances neuromuscular transmission and improves skeletal muscle contractility [ 18 ].

Green et al. Results indicated that caffeine was associated with significantly higher repetitions A study by Barry et al.

The decrease in CRA times may have had an effect on the improvement in CRM15 and CRM30 because they also include an auditory component. Figure 5 illustrates that the reduction in multi-directional choice reaction time CRM for 15 s and 30 s was most likely due to the significant decrease in choice reaction time using an auditory stimulus CRM15, SUP: 1.

Caffeine's stimulatory effects on the central nervous system seem to manifest in performance in activities which require quick reactions and movements [ 18 ].

Thus, it is evident that choice reaction time improved following the ingestion of 3. It remains unknown as to why the single-tower and two-tower reaction times were not significantly different between groups, as they included both audio and visual cues.

It is hypothesized that the three-tower, multi-directional reaction time tests required the greatest movement and consequently the greatest task difficulty and overall mental and physical demand; thus, fatigue played a larger role in reaction time compared to the single- and two -tower tests.

Independent of fatigue, caffeine could have influenced the multi-directional reaction tests because of the increased task complexity. Therefore, the improvements in the three-tower, multi-directional reaction time protocol after supplementation could have been attributed to both a reduction in fatigue as well as enhanced cognitive function.

More research is required to determine the influence of the SUP used in the current investigation on reaction times using audio versus visual cues and various sport-specific movements. Results showed no significant different between the SUP and the PL for critical velocity.

However, it was reported that the SUP significantly increased anaerobic running capacity compared to the PL. In the present study, no significant differences were seen in anaerobic running capacity or intermittent critical velocity with the ingestion of the pre-workout supplement.

However, the study by Fukuda et al. Suggesting, the multi-ingredient supplement used in the investigation had effects on anaerobic performance only, which is similar to the current findings. Differences between findings could be related to the subjects and protocols used in the investigations.

More research is needed regarding continuous anaerobic running capacity, critical velocity, and pre-workout supplements containing similar ingredients to those found in the SUP. The SUP treatment decreased fatigue, increased energy, and improved choice reaction time CRM These data suggest that at time point three T3 , around 95 min into the exercise protocol, as the subjects began to fatigue, the SUP caused a delay in fatigue and an increase in energy as evidenced by significantly faster choice reaction times CRM Therefore, it appears that a single scoop 2 doses of the SUP taken 20 min prior to exercise or training could allow for more total work with a higher quality faster reactions of work.

Additionally, across all choice reaction time tests, mean values were faster for the SUP compared to the PL during time points two, three, and four with the exception of CRL15 at time point four, where the means were the same.

At time point one; 20 min after ingestion, before any other exercises were completed, the SUP produced faster reactions in only four of the eight reaction tests. These findings suggest that the SUP began to effect performance only after the first round of testing, suggesting the largest factor related to improved performance was the ability of the SUP to delay fatigue and maintain high levels of energy.

Some limitations of this investigation were the use of lower percentages of speed at VO 2max to measure iCV and iARC compared to other investigations [ 14 ], which could have reduced the ability to find significant changes in anaerobic running performance, although it is more likely that a single dose of the SUP had little or no effect on iCV or iARC because creatine and beta alanine both require loading or prolonged use to see performance benefits, particularly in iCV or iARC.

Also, the fact that the SUP had multiple ingredients makes it impossible to identify which specific ingredients contributed to improved performance.

In theory, a significant increase in muscle carnosine could result in an increase in muscle buffering capacity [ 22 ], translating to improvements in anaerobic running capacities by decreasing the accumulation of hydrogen ions.

In the present study, no significant differences were seen in anaerobic running capacity and intermittent critical velocity with the one-time ingestion of the pre-workout supplement.

Creatine and beta-alanine both require loading periods of several weeks to positively influence exercise performance.

As a result, the only active ingredients likely to influence performance in this investigation were caffeine and B-vitamins. Study limitations also relate to the characteristics of the subjects who participated in the current investigation.

While the men were recreationally-trained with strength values in the 75 th and 90 th percentile ACSM guidelines for bench and leg press 1RM and VO 2max values in the 60 th percentile, the SUP may not have the same effects in men who are more anaerobically- or aerobically-trained.

Nonetheless, the subjects in the current study should represent a large population of active men who regularly exercise. In addition, two-day food logs indicated subjects consumed an average of Results also support that the SUP may reduce both feelings of fatigue and actual fatigue, which can result in performance increases in both muscular endurance and reaction time.

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Download references. We would like to thank all of the men who participated and MusclePharm, Inc. for supplying the products and funding the investigation. Department of Sports Fitness and Health, Human performance and body composition laboratory, United States Sports Academy, 1 Academy Drive, Daphne, AL, , USA.

Department of Health and Exercise Science, Metabolic and body composition laboratory, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA. College of Medicine, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, USA.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Table 1 shows the main baseline characteristics of the participants. The number of the participants who correctly guessed the supplement was 8 The adherence to the strength training was There were no self-reported adverse events throughout the trial.

Table 2. Food intake at baseline and after 24 weeks of intervention. Both the trained groups i. Figure 3 shows the delta changes for the Geriatric Depression Scale. The data regarding cognitive performance are presented in Table 3.

No significant differences were observed for any of the variables throughout the intervention data at 12 week are not shown. Table 3. Cognitive performance at baseline and after 24 weeks of intervention.

The between-group differences remained exactly the same. No differences were found between the trained groups i. There were no self-reported side effects throughout the study.

Clinical evaluations did not reveal adverse events related to creatine supplementation or strength training. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the combined effects of creatine supplementation and strength training on emotional and cognitive measures in elderly individuals.

Our main findings are as follows: i creatine supplementation per se or additively to strength training does not promote any benefit on selected aspects of cognitive function and emotional state; and ii strength training per se is able to improve emotional measures, but not cognitive function.

A high turnover of ATP is necessary to match the fluctuating energetic demand in the brain. In this respect, the phosphorylcreatine system has been thought to have a pivotal role to normal cerebral metabolism [ 41 ].

In fact, changes in brain energy metabolism, neuronal plasticity, and cellular resiliency are associated with the pathogenesis of depressive disorders [ 20 , 22 , 42 — 45 ]. Moreover, evidence indicates that brain bioenergetics and cell survival pathways are potential therapeutic targets for long-term clinical relief and symptom remission [ 46 — 49 ].

In this context, creatine supplementation has emerged as a potential dietary intervention capable of buffering metabolic processes, thereby preventing energy exhaustion and neuronal death.

Interestingly, there is a large body of literature showing that alterations in brain creatine and phosphorylcreatine levels are associated with depression [ 17 — 22 ].

Furthermore, preliminary findings suggested that creatine supplementation improves depressive symptoms in humans [ 15 , 16 ]. For instance, patients with treatment-resistant depression [ 15 ] or post-traumatic stress disorders associated or not with comorbid depression [ 16 ] supplemented with creatine monohydrate for 4 weeks reported elevated mood on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

Conversely, in the current study, creatine supplementation, combined or not with strength training, failed to improve emotional measures in elderly individuals. The possible explanation for these conflicting findings may rely in differences among studied populations.

Whilst creatine supplementation has been shown to be effective in ameliorating symptoms in patients with diagnosed refractory depression [ 15 ] or other severe psychiatric disorders [ 16 ], it is possible that this dietary supplement has limited if any effect in apparently mental healthy elderly individuals.

Importantly, we performed a post-hoc sensitivity analysis excluding the subjects with the Geriatric Depression Scale score of 0 and did not find any significant effect of creatine supplementation, which partially suggests that a "ceiling effect" was not responsible for the absence of beneficial effect of this dietary supplement in this study.

However, as only 6 subjects had Geriatric Depression Scale scores higher than 6 which is the cut-off point to suggest depression , we were unable to evaluate the effects of creatine in "more depressed" participants, thus warranting further studies with depressive older subjects.

Further to the speculation that creatine supplementation could exert any effect on emotional state, we also hypothesized that this dietary supplement could promote beneficial effects upon cognitive function.

In fact, previous studies showed that supplementation can improve selected aspects of cognitive performance in young individuals [ 13 ] as well as in elderly people [ 50 ].

Furthermore, creatine intake was also shown to alleviate mental fatigue induced by stressor stimulus, such as mathematical calculus [ 13 ] and sleep deprivation [ 14 ].

Additionally, a recent study demonstrated that in vegetarians, but not in omnivorous, creatine supplementation improved memory. Moreover, both vegetarians and meat eaters experienced decreased variability in the responses to a choice reaction-time task [ 51 ].

However, in the current study, creatine supplementation was unable to promote any significant improvement in several aspects of cognitive function. Although it is difficult to reconcile these conflicting findings, a few explanations do exist. Overall, the most important effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function have been seen either under i stressing conditions, such as sleep deprivation, exhausting exercise and mental fatigue [ 13 , 14 ] or ii vegetarian diet, which might lead to partial depletion in brain creatine content [ 52 ].

Therefore, it is possible to speculate that creatine supplementation does not benefit cognitive function in healthy individuals not subjected to stressing conditions.

Additional studies with elderly subjects with mild or severe cognitive impairment should be performed. Moreover, an overview of the literature [ 33 ] points to other factors that may be also responsible for the divergent results with respect to the creatine effects on cognition, including the variation in the follow-up period of supplementation i.

Independently of creatine supplementation, the strength training program led to improvements in emotional measures. These data partially supports previous findings showing improvements in mood profile in old individuals after 24 weeks of strength training [ 4 , 31 ].

Interestingly, however, we did not find any effect of strength training upon cognition, contrasting previous observations of better cognitive performance e.

Since mechanist analyses were beyond the scope of the current study, further studies should examine whether strength training affects cognitive function in old individuals as well as the exact mechanism underlying this response.

Finally, creatine has been considered one of the few dietary supplements capable of increasing muscle strength in elderly individuals.

Furthermore, there is some evidence suggesting that strength training combined with creatine supplementation promotes greater improvements in muscle function than strength training alone [ 33 ]. Our present findings do not fully support these assumptions, since the association of creatine supplementation and training did not elicit superior strength gains than training alone.

One may speculate that creatine supplementation failed to increase muscle creatine content to a level that would allow the observation of improvements in muscle function. In fact, this argument appears to be also applicable to the case of the central nervous system; if creatine supplementation did not promote sufficient increase in brain creatine content, one might expect only minor if any improvements in cognitive and emotional parameters.

Therefore, we recognized that the lack of tissue i. In fact, as stressed by Rawson et al. Further studies approaching this issue are of great relevance. To conclude, creatine supplementation per se or additively to strength training does not promote any benefit on cognitive function and emotional measures in apparently healthy elderly individuals.

In addition, strength training per se was shown to improve emotional state and muscle strength, but not cognition, in our sample. Further studies involving frailer older individuals undergoing strength training and ingesting creatine supplementation are necessary to test the efficacy of this intervention.

Conceived and designed the experiments: CRRA, SB and BG. Performed the experiments: CRRA, CAAMF, FBB, RMRP, ALSP, FRL, HR and BG. Analyzed the data: CRRA, CAAMF, FBB, SB, RMRP, ALSP, FRL, HR and BG. Wrote the manuscript: CRRA and BG.

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Abstract Purpose To assess the effects of creatine supplementation, associated or not with strength training, upon emotional and cognitive measures in older woman. Methods This is a week, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Conclusion Creatine supplementation did not promote any significant change in cognitive function and emotional parameters in apparently healthy older individuals. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials. gov NCT Introduction Aging has been associated with cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms [ 1 — 3 ], which, in turn, may lead to emotional and social isolation, and, hence, poor quality of life [ 4 , 5 ].

Material and Methods Experimental protocol and sample The protocol for this trial and supporting CONSORT checklist are available as supporting information; see Checklist S1 , Protocol S1 , and Protocol S2 Portuguese.

Download: PPT. Strength training protocol The strength training was performed in an intrahospital gymnasium School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo and consisted of twice a week sessions of supervised strength training for 24 weeks.

Assessments of muscle strength In order to assess the efficacy of the strength training in increasing muscle strength, the participants were submitted to 1-RM tests.

Food intake assessment Food intake was assessed by three h dietary recalls undertaken on separate days two week days and one weekend day using a visual aid photo album of real foods.

Emotional and cognition measures The application of the battery of cognitive and emotional tests lasted no more than 30 min. All the above described instruments were previously validated to Brazilian population. Statistical analysis and post-hoc power analysis To mitigate the impact of inter-individual data variability, all values were converted into delta scores i.

Results Sample Figure 2 illustrates the flow of participants. No statistically significant differences between groups were observed at baseline. Assessment of blinding and adherence to supplementation and training The number of the participants who correctly guessed the supplement was 8 No significant differences were observed between groups for any variable.

Emotional and cognitive measures Figure 3 shows the delta changes for the Geriatric Depression Scale. Figure 3.

Delta changes in Geriatric Depression Scale at baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention. Adverse events There were no self-reported side effects throughout the study. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate the combined effects of creatine supplementation and strength training on emotional and cognitive measures in elderly individuals.

Supporting Information. Checklist S1. CONSORT Checklist. s DOC. Protocol S1. Trial Protocol. Protocol S2. Trial Protocol Portuguese. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: CRRA, SB and BG.

References 1. Van Gool CH, Kempen GI, Bosma H, van Boxtel MP, Jolles J et al. Am J Public Health PubMed: View Article Google Scholar 2. Colcombe S, Kramer AF Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study.

Creatine deficiency syndromes are a group of inborn errors e. Individuals with creatine synthesis deficiencies have low levels of creatine and PCr in the muscle and the brain. For this reason, a number of studies have investigated the use of relatively high doses of creatine monohydrate supplementation e.

These studies generally show some improvement in clinical outcomes particularly for AGAT and GAMT with less consistent effects on CRTR deficiencies [ ]. For example, Battini et al. Stockler-Ipsiroglu and coworkers [ ] evaluated the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation 0.

The median age at treatment was The researchers found that creatine supplementation increased brain creatine levels and improved or stabilized clinical symptoms.

Moreover, four patients treated younger than 9 months had normal or almost normal developmental outcomes. Long-term creatine supplementation has also been used to treat patients with creatine deficiency-related gyrate atrophy [ , , , , ].

These findings and others provide promise that high-dose creatine monohydrate supplementation may be an effective adjunctive therapy for children and adults with creatine synthesis deficiencies [ 18 , , , , ]. Additionally, these reports provide strong evidence regarding the long-term safety and tolerability of high-dose creatine supplementation in pediatric populations with creatine synthesis deficiencies, including infants less than 1 year of age [ ].

A total of 1, patients took an average of 9. Results revealed no clinical benefit on patient outcomes in patients with PD or ALS. However, there was some evidence that creatine supplementation slowed down progression of brain atrophy in patients with HD although clinical markers were unaffected.

Creatine and phosphocreatine play an important role in maintaining myocardial bioenergetics during ischemic events [ 33 ]. In a recent review, Balestrino and colleagues [ 33 ] concluded that phosphocreatine administration, primarily as an addition to cardioplegic solutions, has been used to treat myocardial ischemia and prevent ischemia-induced arrhythmia and improve cardiac function with some success.

They suggested that creatine supplementation may protect the heart during an ischemic event. A growing collection of evidence supports that creatine supplementation may improve health status as individuals age [ 41 , 43 , 44 , 45 , ].

Creatine supplementation significantly decreased HbA1c and glycemic response to standardized meal as well as increased GLUT-4 translocation. These findings suggest that creatine supplementation combined with an exercise program improves glycemic control and glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients.

Candow and others [ ] reported that low-dose creatine 0. Similarly, Chilibeck et al. A recent meta-analysis [ 80 ] of elderly individuals 64 years participating in an average of These findings were corroborated in a meta-analysis of elderly participants 64 years who experienced greater gains in muscle mass and upper body strength with creatine supplementation during resistance-training compared to training alone [ 37 ].

These findings suggest that creatine supplementation can help prevent sarcopenia and bone loss in older individuals. For example, Watanabe et al. Since creatine uptake by the brain is slow and limited, current research is investigating whether dietary supplementation of creatine precursors like GAA may promote greater increases in brain creatine [ , ].

Since creatine supplementation has been shown to improve brain and heart bioenergetics during ischemic conditions and possess neuroprotective properties, there has been recent interest in use of creatine during pregnancy to promote neural development and reduce complications resulting from birth asphyxia [ , , , , , , , , , ].

The rationale for creatine supplementation during pregnancy is that the fetus relies upon placental transfer of maternal creatine until late in pregnancy and significant changes in creatine synthesis and excretion occur as pregnancy progresses [ , ]. Consequently, there is an increased demand for and utilization of creatine during pregnancy.

Maternal creatine supplementation has been reported to improve neonatal survival and organ function following birth asphyxia in animals [ , , , , , , ].

Human studies show changes in the maternal urine and plasma creatine levels across pregnancy and association to maternal diet [ , ]. Consequently, it has been postulated that there may be benefit to creatine supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth, development, and health [ , ].

This area of research may have broad implications for fetal and child development and health. Since creatine monohydrate became a popular dietary supplement in the early s, over 1, studies have been conducted and billions of servings of creatine have been ingested.

The only consistently reported side effect from creatine supplementation that has been described in the literature has been weight gain [ 5 , 22 , 46 , 78 , 91 , 92 , ]. Available short and long-term studies in healthy and diseased populations, from infants to the elderly, at dosages ranging from 0.

Additionally, assessments of adverse event reports related to dietary supplementation, including in pediatric populations, have revealed that creatine was rarely mentioned and was not associated with any significant number or any consistent pattern of adverse events [ , , ].

Unsubstantiated anecdotal claims described in the popular media as well as rare case reports described in the literature without rigorous, systematic causality assessments have been refuted in numerous well-controlled clinical studies showing that creatine supplementation does not increase the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries [ 22 , , , ], dehydration [ , , , , , , , ], muscle cramping [ 76 , , , , ], or gastrointestinal upset [ 22 , , , ].

Nor has the literature provided any support that creatine promotes renal dysfunction [ 22 , 51 , 85 , , , , , , , , , ] or has long-term detrimental effects [ 22 , 23 , 53 , , ]. Rather, as noted above, creatine monohydrate supplementation has been found to reduce the incidence of many of these anecdotally reported side effects.

These reports prompted some concern that creatine supplementation may impair renal function [ , , , ] and prompted a number of researchers to examine the impact of creatine supplementation on renal function [ 22 , 51 , 85 , , , , , , , , , , , , ]. Likewise, Baracho and colleagues [ ] reported that Wistar rats fed 0, 0.

Kreider et al. Gualono and associates [ ] reported that 12 weeks of creatine supplementation had no effects on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients. While some have suggested that individuals with pre-existing renal disease consult with their physician prior to creatine supplementation in an abundance of caution, these studies and others have led researchers to conclude that there is no compelling evidence that creatine supplementation negatively affects renal function in healthy or clinical populations [ 5 , 6 , 22 , 53 , , , ].

Performance-related studies in adolescents, younger individuals, and older populations have consistently reported ergogenic benefits with no clinically significant side effects [ 5 , 6 , 22 , 23 , 53 , , , , , ].

The breadth and repetition of these findings provide compelling evidence that creatine monohydrate is well-tolerated and is safe to consume in healthy untrained and trained individuals regardless of age. Some critics of creatine supplementation have pointed to warnings listed on some product labels that individuals younger than 18 years of age should not take creatine as evidence that creatine supplementation is unsafe in younger populations.

These studies provide no evidence that use of creatine at recommended doses pose a health risk to individuals less than 18 years of age.

For this reason, it is our view that creatine supplementation is an acceptable nutritional strategy for younger athletes who: a. are consuming a well-balanced and performance enhancing diet; c. are knowledgeable about appropriate use of creatine; and d.

do not exceed recommended dosages. After reviewing the scientific and medical literature in this area, the International Society of Sports Nutrition concludes the following in terms of creatine supplementation as the official Position of the Society:. Creatine monohydrate is the most effective ergogenic nutritional supplement currently available to athletes with the intent of increasing high-intensity exercise capacity and lean body mass during training.

Creatine monohydrate supplementation is not only safe, but has been reported to have a number of therapeutic benefits in healthy and diseased populations ranging from infants to the elderly. If proper precautions and supervision are provided, creatine monohydrate supplementation in children and adolescent athletes is acceptable and may provide a nutritional alternative with a favorable safety profile to potentially dangerous anabolic androgenic drugs.

However, we recommend that creatine supplementation only be considered for use by younger athletes who: a. At present, creatine monohydrate is the most extensively studied and clinically effective form of creatine for use in nutritional supplements in terms of muscle uptake and ability to increase high-intensity exercise capacity.

The addition of carbohydrate or carbohydrate and protein to a creatine supplement appears to increase muscular uptake of creatine, although the effect on performance measures may not be greater than using creatine monohydrate alone. The quickest method of increasing muscle creatine stores may be to consume ~0.

Initially, ingesting smaller amounts of creatine monohydrate e. Clinical populations have been supplemented with high levels of creatine monohydrate 0. Further research is warranted to examine the potential medical benefits of creatine monohydrate and precursors like guanidinoacetic acid on sport, health and medicine.

Creatine monohydrate remains one of the few nutritional supplements for which research has consistently shown has ergogenic benefits. Additionally, a number of potential health benefits have been reported from creatine supplementation.

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Creatine for improving reaction time

Creatine for improving reaction time -

There was strong evidence in favour of the null hypothesis compared to the alternative hypothesis postulating the effect size found by Rae et al. The data was insensitive BDS or weakly favoured the null hypothesis RAPM when compared to the half normal model based on Rae et al.

The half normal model based on Rae et al. Instead, the model assumes their effect size is a moderate overestimation of the true effect size. The model uses their effect size as a reference point to assign probabilities to effect sizes. It assigns most of the probability weight to effect sizes that are smaller than this effect size, and some probability to effect sizes up to twice that effect size.

This is a common alternative model when replicating studies. However, we did not use it as our only model, because we were also interested in assessing the likelihood of smaller effect sizes and of the possibility that the effect size in Rae et al.

The results were similar whether using normal or cauchy distributions. For more details on this and the aforementioned calculations see the appendix. In summary, this study provides weak evidence for a small cognitive benefit of creatine and strong evidence against the effect size by Rae et al.

For RAPM, all of these methods gave overall similar results to that of the normal ANOVA Table 5. Creatine effect p-values two-tailed for different ANOVAs. The given trim and winsorisation percentages are applied to each side. Better score based on estimated marginal means. For BDS, whose skewness statistic was slightly further from 0 than that of RAPM, these methods gave results that differ from each other and from the normal ANOVA to a relevant extent Table 5.

Most notably, the p-value for the supplement effect was 0. This seems to suggest that in the normal ANOVA, the most extreme values made the effect of creatine appear smaller by inflating the variance, while relying on possibly unjustified assumptions of normality made the effect of creatine appear larger.

The distribution of p-values was what one would expect if there was no effect. For the exploratory cognitive tasks, Table 6 only includes the p-values of the supplement effect. For the full results, including the interaction effect reflecting a learning effect and the order of supplement effect, see the appendix.

Higher score based on estimated marginal means. This is the largest study on the cognitive effects of creatine to date. As part of our study, we aimed to replicate Rae et al. In our study, half of the participants were vegetarians and half of them were omnivores.

We found no indication that our vegetarian participants benefited more from creatine than our omnivore participants. This is in line with Solis et al , who did not find a difference in brain creatine content between omnivores and vegetarians.

Our Bayesian analysis of their data provides moderate support for the lack of a difference see appendix. In contrast, Benton and Donohoe found that creatine supplementation benefited memory in vegetarians more than in omnivores, with no difference in baseline performance.

However, given the high number of tests in that study, the chance of a false positive was high, so we regard their finding as only an exploratory hint. The conflicting findings might be due to possible differences in the amount of dietary creatine not measured in this study nor in Benton and Donohoe The Bayes factors in this study provide weak evidence for a small cognitive benefit of creatine and strong evidence against the large effect size found by Rae et al.

A larger sample size would be necessary to provide stronger evidence on the question of a small benefit. In order for the sample size to not have to be exceedingly large, we recommend being extremely careful in reducing noise and choosing participants who are likely to benefit the most.

In addition, analogous to the compounding effect of creatine over time for strength training, it might be possible to see a larger effect of creatine on cognition over time by training the tasks while on the supplement.

In their review, Avgerinos et al. In line with this, we found a weak indication for a creatine effect for the two confirmatory tasks reflecting these two domains but not for other domains.

However, two of our exploratory tasks, the forward digit span and the immediate recall part of the VLMT also tested short-term memory and there was no indication for an effect for these tasks.

Another review, Dolan et al. In line with this, we found some indication for a creatine effect for the backward digit span BDS but not for the less demanding forwards digit span.

The VLMT may also be less cognitively demanding than the BDS, but this comparison is less obvious to make. There are a number of limitations to this study. Despite the large sample size compared to other studies, a larger sample size would be needed to be powered for effects that are smaller but still relevant.

The COVID pandemic started in the middle of the study, which likely added noise to the data, and meant that we had to switch from in-person cognitive testing to testing via video call.

Adherence was self-reported and not checked with blood samples. The largest contributing factor to correct guesses was likely the difference in the solubility between the powders, followed by negative and positive side effects.

We attempted to counteract differences in solubility by recommending participants to stir the supplements into yoghurt. For future studies we recommend cellulose as the placebo and a mixture of cellulose and creatine as the treatment, as these two look extremely similar when dissolved in water.

The alternative solution with capsules would require participants to consume many capsules per day. This would likely reduce adherence and massively increase costs. Unfortunately, it is difficult to achieve perfect blinding when side effects occur with higher frequency in the creatine condition.

The side effects of creatine are well-known and not dangerous Bender et al. Supplementing creatine is safe, easy and very cheap. The real effect of creatine on cognition is likely smaller than that reported in Rae et al. However, even small improvements in cognition may be relevant, especially if accumulated over many people and over time.

The results of this study do not allow any strong conclusions, but it would be worthwhile to test for a small effect of creatine in strategically designed, larger studies.

Funding was provided by the non-profit organization Effective Ventures Foundation, Fillmore St. The trial funders had no role in the design of the study, the collection, analysis or interpretation of data, the writing of the report, or the decision to submit the article for publication.

We thank the doctors of the University Clinic Bonn who collected blood samples. We thank Dr. Lincoln Colling, Dr. Christian Stark, Jan Speller, Maximilian Meier and David Reinstein for their feedback on statistical questions. We thank Thomas Szpejewski and Tom Lieberum for their help with verifying data quality.

We thank all data entry helpers. View the discussion thread. Supplementary Material. Skip to main content. The effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance - a randomised controlled study View ORCID Profile Julia Fabienne Sandkühler , View ORCID Profile Xenia Kersting , Annika Faust , Eva Kathrin Königs , View ORCID Profile George Altman , View ORCID Profile Ulrich Ettinger , Silke Lux , View ORCID Profile Alexandra Philipsen , Helge Müller , View ORCID Profile Jan Brauner.

Julia Fabienne Sandkühler. Abstract Background Creatine is an organic compound that facilitates the recycling of energy-providing adenosine triphosphate ATP in muscle and brain tissue. Introduction Given the important role cognition plays in daily life, substances that enhance cognition safely and cheaply are highly desirable.

Methods Trial design We conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study. Figure 1. Participant flow through the study. Participants Participants were 18 years or older see appendix for full list of inclusion criteria.

Interventions and similarity of treatment groups Participants took the supplements daily for six weeks, including the day of the testing. Outcomes We had two primary outcomes: A standardised minute subtest of Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices RAPM Rae et al.

We had eight further exploratory outcomes: The D2 Test of Attention Brickenkamp, , a test of sustained attention The Trail-Making-Test A TMT-A , a test of visual attention Reitan, The Trail-Making-Test B TMT-B , a test of task switching Reitan, The Block-Tapping-Test BTT , a test of visuospatial working memory Schellig, The Auditory Verbal Learning Test AVLT, in German: VLMT , a word-learning test including immediate recall, delayed recall and recognition Lux et al.

Randomisation and blinding The order of the two supplements was randomised with Excel by the pharmacy of the university hospital Heidelberg. Statistical methods For each cognitive test, we conducted a mixed ANOVA with test score after supplementation as the dependent variable, supplement creatine vs placebo as the within-subjects factor and supplement order creatine-first vs placebo-first as the between-subjects factor.

Bayes factors For the calculation of the Bayes factors, we used the estimated marginal means EMMs of the creatine and placebo score. Exploratory analyses In addition to the confirmatory analyses of BDS and RAPM, we analysed the other cognitive tasks in the same way in an exploratory fashion.

Results Participant flow. Baseline data We analysed all available participant data apart from one task in the case of two participants see appendix.

View this table: View inline View popup Download powerpoint. Table 1. Blinding, adherence and side effects The last 73 participants were asked to guess the order of their supplements. Table 2. Adherence and negative side effects. Confirmatory analysis There was a significant interaction between supplement and supplement order for both BDS and RAPM.

Table 3. Figure 2. Bayes factors To facilitate the interpretation of the results of the confirmatory analysis, we provide Bayes factors.

Table 4. Table 5. Exploratory cognitive tasks There was no indication that creatine improved the performance of our exploratory cognitive tasks. View this table: View inline View popup. Table 6. Discussion This is the largest study on the cognitive effects of creatine to date.

Conclusion Supplementing creatine is safe, easy and very cheap. Funding Funding was provided by the non-profit organization Effective Ventures Foundation, Fillmore St. Acknowledgements We thank the doctors of the University Clinic Bonn who collected blood samples. Potential for use of creatine supplementation following mild traumatic brain injury.

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Geller AI, et al. Emergency department visits for adverse events related to dietary supplements. Zorzela L, et al. Serious adverse events associated with pediatric complementary and alternative medicine. Eur J Integr Med. CFSAN Adverse Event Reporting System CAERS. Accessed 18 Apr Creatine supplementation patterns and perceived effects in select division I collegiate athletes.

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Creatine is a natural supplement reation used to Maintaining a healthy gut athletic performance. It may also boost Forr function, Creafine certain neurological diseases, and accelerate muscle growth. Creatine is a natural supplement used Online healthy eating resources boost imptoving performance 1. Phosphocreatine aids Creatine for improving reaction time formation of adenosine triphosphate ATPthe key molecule your cells use for energy and all basic life functions 8. The rate of ATP resynthesis limits your ability to continually perform at maximum intensity, as you use ATP faster than you reproduce it 9 Creatine supplements increase your phosphocreatine stores, allowing you to produce more ATP energy to fuel your muscles during high-intensity exercise 10 Creatine is a popular and effective supplement for adding muscle mass 14.

Author: Gutilar

1 thoughts on “Creatine for improving reaction time

  1. Absolut ist mit Ihnen einverstanden. Darin ist etwas auch mir scheint es die ausgezeichnete Idee. Ich bin mit Ihnen einverstanden.

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