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Vitamin B requirements

Vitamin B requirements

They Requiremengs found in a variety of foods, so most people get the recommended amounts of these vitamins through Traditional remedies for health alone. This means Vitamin B requirements the quality of requirenents, like vitamin Requiremdnts Lycopene and metabolic health, may vary from one brand to the next and you can find many different brands of vitamin B supplements at drug stores, grocery stores, health food shops, and online. Vitamin B12 is naturally found in animal products like meat, dairy, eggs, and seafood. Taking mg or more a day of vitamin B6 [LK2] can lead to a loss of feeling in the arms and legs known as peripheral neuropathy.


The Ultimate Guide to Vitamin B Complex - Bursting with Benefits.

Vitamin B requirements -

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, aids in the building of genetic material, production of normal red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system. Food Sources for Vitamin B Vitamin B12 can only be found naturally in foods of animal origin such as meats, liver, kidney, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, oysters, shellfish.

Some fortified foods, like breakfast cereals and nutritional yeast may also contain vitamin B How much Vitamin B The Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA for vitamin B12 is 2. Many adults over the age of fifty do not get enough vitamin B12, the dietary guidelines recommend consuming foods fortified with vitamin B12, such as fortified cereals.

Vitamin B12 Deficiency. Vitamin B12 deficiency most commonly affects vegans, infants of vegan mothers, and the elderly. Symptoms of deficiency include anemia and neurological changes, such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.

In order to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency, a dietary supplement should be taken. Some people develop a B12 deficiency because they cannot absorb the vitamin through their stomach lining. This can be treated through vitamin B12 injections. What is Biotin. Biotin helps release energy from carbohydrates and aids in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates from food.

Food Sources for Biotin. Sources of Biotin include liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, most fresh vegetables, yeast breads and cereals.

How much Biotin. Biotin Deficiency. Biotin deficiency is uncommon. A few of the symptoms of biotin deficiency include hair loss, skin rashes, and brittle nails, and for this reason biotin supplements are often promoted for hair, skin, and nail health.

However, these claims are only a few case reports and small studies. What is Pantothenic Acid. Pantothenic Acid, also known as vitamin B5, is involved in energy production, and aids in the formation of hormones and the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates from food. Food Sources for Pantothenic Acid.

Almost all plant- and animal- based foods contain pantothenic acid in varying amounts. Richest dietary sources include fortified breakfast cereals, liver, kidney, meats, and seeds. How much Pantothenic Acid. Pantothenic Acid Deficiency. Pantothenic Acid deficiency is uncommon due to its wide availability in most foods.

Too much Pantothenic Acid. No problems with overconsumption are known for Pantothenic Acid. Rarely, diarrhea and gastrointestinal distress will occur with excessive amounts.

The body needs vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate, to remain in proper working condition.

Vitamin C benefits the body by holding cells together through collagen synthesis; collagen is a connective tissue that holds muscles, bones, and other tissues together.

Vitamin C also aids in wound healing, bone and tooth formation, strengthening blood vessel walls, improving immune system function, increasing absorption and utilization of iron, and acting as an antioxidant. Vitamin C works with vitamin E as an antioxidant, and plays a crucial role in neutralizing free radicals throughout the body.

Through its antioxidant activity, studies suggest vitamin C may help prevent or delay the development of certain cancers, heart disease, and other diseases in which oxidative stress plays a causal role.

Research continues to document the degree of these effects. Food Sources for Vitamin C. Many fruits and vegetables contain vitamin C, the best sources are citrus fruits, peppers, kiwi, strawberries, and broccoli.

For example, one orange, one kiwi, 6 oz. How much Vitamin C. Vitamin C recommendations also increase during pregnancy and lactation, see Table 1.

Vitamin C Deficiency. Although rare in the United States, severe vitamin C deficiency may result in the disease known as scurvy, causing fatigue and a loss of collagen strength throughout the body. Loss of collagen results in loose teeth, bleeding and swollen gums, and improper wound healing.

Too Much Vitamin C. Despite being a water-soluble vitamin that the body excretes when in excess, vitamin C overdoses an increase the risk of adverse health effects, like kidney stones, diarrhea, rebound scurvy, and increased oxidative damage.

The controversy over using mega doses of vitamin C to prevent or treat the common cold and other infections remains a popular topic. Vitamin C appears to have the ability to enhance various immune cell functions, however, the precise dose and ideal timing of vitamin C intake has not been fully elucidated.

In terms of treatment of established infections, some evidence indicates significantly higher doses grams may be beneficial in the recovery process by ameliorating the decline in leukocyte vitamin C levels; however, further research still needs to address safety concerns. Furthermore, this effect appears to have the most benefit on those with very low vitamin C levels.

Recommended Dietary Intake RDA and Adequate Intake AI for Water-Soluble Vitamins. Berdanier, C. Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism, Second Edition. Oakville: CRC Press.

Gropper, S. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, Seventh Edition. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Stipanuk, M.

Biochemical, Physiological, Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition , Fourth Edition. Louis, MO: Elsevier. Duyff R. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Complete Food and Nutrition Guide, Fifth Edition.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. National Institute of Health Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets. Clifford, Extension Nutrition Specialist, Department of Food Science Human Nutrition; J.

Curely, Graduate Student, Department of Food Science Human Nutrition. Previously updated by: Bellows and R. Our job is to determine the unique issues, concerns, and needs of each Colorado community and to help offer effective solutions.

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Colorado State University Extension. Online Directory. Providing trusted, practical education to help you solve problems, develop skills, and build a better future. Established Water-Soluble Vitamins: B-Complex and Vitamin C — 9. Print this fact sheet by J.

Clifford and J. These vitamins can be easily destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation. The B-complex group is found in a variety of foods: cereal grains, meat, poultry, eggs, fish, milk, legumes and fresh vegetables. Citrus fruits, peppers, strawberries, kiwis, and broccoli are good sources of vitamin C.

Using mega-doses of multivitamins or supplements is not recommended. What are Vitamins? What are Water-Soluble Vitamins? B-complex Vitamins Eight of the water-soluble vitamins are known as the vitamin B-complex group: thiamin vitamin B1 , riboflavin vitamin B2 , niacin vitamin B3 , vitamin B6 pyridoxine , folate folic acid , vitamin B12, biotin and pantothenic acid.

The B vitamins are also important Thiamin: Vitamin B1 What is Thiamin. Too much Thiamin. No problems with overconsumption are known for thiamin. Riboflavin: Vitamin B2 What is Riboflavin. Too much Riboflavin. No problems with overconsumption are known for riboflavin. Niacin: Vitamin B3, Nicotinamide, Nicotinic Acid.

Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine What is Vitamin B6. Folate: Folic Acid, Folacin What is Folate. Vitamin B Cobalamin What is B Too much Vitamin B No problems with overconsumption of vitamin B12 are known. Biotin What is Biotin. Too much Biotin. No problems with overconsumption are known for Biotin.

Pantothenic Acid: Vitamin B5 What is Pantothenic Acid. Vitamin C: Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbate What is Vitamin C The body needs vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate, to remain in proper working condition.

The following conditions have been shown to increase vitamin C requirements Table 1 : Environmental stress, such as air and noise pollution Tissue healing of wounds Growth children from 0- 12 months, and pregnant women Fever and infection Smoking Too Much Vitamin C.

Summary Water-soluble vitamins include the vitamin B-complex and vitamin C, and are essential nutrients needed daily by the body in very small quantities. The B-complex vitamins can be found in a variety of enriched foods like cereal grains and breads, as well as other foods such as meat, poultry, eggs, fish milk, legumes, and fresh vegetables.

Vitamin C can be found in a many fruits and vegetables. Overall, in the United States deficiency is rare for B vitamins and vitamin C; with exceptions for alcoholics, those on very limited diets, and the elderly.

The U. Food and Drug Administration FDA specifies that infant formulas sold in the United States must provide at least 0. The estimated bioavailability of vitamin B12 from food varies by vitamin B12 dose because absorption decreases drastically when the capacity of intrinsic factor is exceeded at 1—2 mcg of vitamin B12 [ 17 ].

Bioavailability also varies by type of food source. FDA developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. The DV for vitamin B12 is 2. FDA does not require food labels to list vitamin B12 content unless vitamin B12 has been added to the food.

Vitamin B12 levels are higher, generally 50— mcg, in supplements containing vitamin B12 with other B-complex vitamins and even higher, typically —1, mcg, in supplements containing only vitamin B The most common form of vitamin B12 in dietary supplements is cyanocobalamin [ 1 , 3 , 23 , 24 ].

Other forms of vitamin B12 in supplements are adenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin, and hydroxycobalamin [ 23 ]. No evidence indicates that absorption rates of vitamin B12 in supplements vary by form of the vitamin. In addition to oral dietary supplements, vitamin B12 is available in sublingual preparations as tablets or lozenges [ 23 ].

Evidence suggests no difference in efficacy between oral and sublingual forms [ 26 , 27 ]. Vitamin B12, in the forms of cyanocobalamin and hydroxycobalamin, can be administered parenterally as a prescription medication, usually by intramuscular injection [ 2 ].

Parenteral administration is typically used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency caused by pernicious anemia as well as other conditions e. Vitamin B12 is also available as a prescription nasal gel spray. This formulation appears to be effective in raising vitamin B12 blood levels in adults and children [ 28 , 29 ].

Most people in the United States consume adequate amounts of vitamin B Average daily intakes of vitamin B12 from food are 5. For children age 2—19, mean daily intakes of vitamin B12 from food range from 3. According to an analysis of NHANES data from to , people of low socioeconomic status, women, and non-Hispanic Blacks are most likely to have low vitamin B12 intakes [ 33 ].

In addition, serum vitamin B12 levels tend to drop, sometimes to subnormal levels, during pregnancy, but they usually return to normal after delivery [ 35 ]. Mean vitamin B12 intakes among supplement users from both foods and supplements were Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency include difficulty absorbing vitamin B12 from food, lack of intrinsic factor e.

Because people who have difficulty absorbing vitamin B12 from food absorb free vitamin B12 normally, their vitamin B12 deficiency tends to be less severe than that of individuals with pernicious anemia, who cannot absorb either food-bound or free vitamin B Certain congenital conditions, such as hereditary intrinsic factor defects and congenital vitamin B12 malabsorption Imerslund-Gräsbeck disease , can also cause severe vitamin B12 deficiency [ 5 ].

The effects of vitamin B12 deficiency can include the hallmark megaloblastic anemia characterized by large, abnormally nucleated red blood cells as well as low counts of white and red blood cells, platelets, or a combination; glossitis of the tongue; fatigue; palpitations; pale skin; dementia; weight loss; and infertility [ 2 , 5 , 7 ].

Neurological changes, such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, can also occur [ 7 ]. These neurological symptoms can occur without anemia, so early diagnosis and intervention is important to avoid irreversible damage [ 36 ].

In addition, some studies have found associations between vitamin B12 deficiency or low vitamin B12 intakes and depression [ ]. In pregnant and breastfeeding women, vitamin B12 deficiency might cause neural tube defects, developmental delays, failure to thrive, and anemia in offspring [ 7 ].

Because the body stores about 1 to 5 mg vitamin B12 or about 1, to 2, times as much as the amount typically consumed in a day , the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can take several years to appear [ 7 , 34 ]. Vitamin B12 deficiency with the classic hematologic and neurologic signs and symptoms is uncommon [ 11 ].

The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency varies by cutoff level and biomarker used. Typically, vitamin B12 deficiency is treated with vitamin B12 injections because this method bypasses any barriers to absorption.

However, high doses of oral vitamin B12 might also be effective. A Cochrane Review included three randomized controlled trials RCTs that compared very high doses 1,—2, mcg of oral with intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency in a total of participants [ 41 ].

The evidence from these studies, although of low quality, showed that the ability of high oral doses of vitamin B12 supplements to normalize serum vitamin B12 was similar to that of intramuscular vitamin B A third condition associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in older adults is Helicobacter pylori infection, possibly because this bacterium causes inflammation that leads to malabsorption of vitamin B12 from food [ 46 ].

Pernicious anemia is an irreversible autoimmune disease that affects the gastric mucosa and results in gastric atrophy [ 1 , 47 ]. This disease leads to attacks on parietal cells in the stomach, resulting in failure to produce intrinsic factor and malabsorption of dietary vitamin B12, recycled biliary vitamin B12, and free vitamin B12 [ 1 , 6 , 11 ].

Therefore, without treatment, pernicious anemia causes vitamin B12 deficiency, even in the presence of adequate vitamin B12 intakes.

Pernicious anemia is the most common cause of clinically evident vitamin B12 deficiency around the world [ 11 , 47 ]. The incidence of pernicious anemia in the United States is an estimated per ,, and this condition is more common in women and in people of European ancestry [ 47 ].

Surgical procedures in the gastrointestinal tract, such as for weight loss or to remove all or part of the stomach, can cause a complete or partial loss of cells that secrete hydrochloric acid and cells that secrete intrinsic factor [ 53 , 54 ].

Thus, these procedures reduce the amount of vitamin B12, particularly food-bound vitamin B12, that the body absorbs [ 53 , 54 ]. Vegans who consume no animal products and vegetarians who consume some animal products e.

Consumption of foods fortified with vitamin B12 such as fortified nutritional yeasts as well as vitamin B12 supplements can substantially reduce the risk of deficiency [ 56 ]. Exclusively breastfed infants of women who consume no animal products might have very limited reserves of vitamin B12 and can develop vitamin B12 deficiency, sometimes very early in life [ 57 ].

Undetected and untreated vitamin B12 deficiency in infants can result in neurological damage, failure to thrive, developmental delays, and anemia [ 2 , 57 , 58 ]. The reasons include the small amounts of vitamin B12 in the breast milk of vegan mothers as well as the limited amounts of vitamin B12 crossing the placenta in these women during fetal development.

This section focuses on areas of health in which vitamin B12 might be involved: cancer, cardiovascular disease CVD and stroke, dementia and cognitive function, and energy and endurance.

The evidence for a relationship between vitamin B12 and cancer risk is mixed. Some evidence supports a link between increased cancer risk and higher intakes or blood concentrations of vitamin B12, some supports a link with lower intakes or concentrations, and some evidence indicates no link at all.

Observational evidence supporting an association between higher vitamin B12 levels and increased cancer risk includes an analysis of data on , people median age 56 years with plasma vitamin B12 measurements [ 59 ].

The results showed that the adjusted 1-year risk of cancer was 1. An analysis by some of the same investigators of data from Danish medical registries for 25, people who had a cancer diagnosis between and found 1-year survival rates of Some observational evidence also shows an association between supplements containing vitamin B12 and a higher risk of certain types of cancer.

However, the study found no association between supplemental vitamin B12 use and cancer risk in women. Limited clinical trial evidence supports the finding that higher vitamin B12 intakes might increase cancer risk.

However, high folic acid levels are potentially linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer, so the result might be due to the folic acid rather than the vitamin B12 [ 63 ].

Furthermore, the supplements had no significant effect on overall cancer risk. Some observational evidence shows no association between high vitamin B12 concentrations or intakes and increased risk of certain cancers.

For example, higher vitamin B12 intakes or serum concentrations were not associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer [ 64 ], breast cancer [ 65 ], or esophageal cancer or gastric cancer [ 66 ].

Clinical trials support the lack of association between higher vitamin B12 intakes and cancer risk. Finally, evidence pointing to an association between lower vitamin B12 levels and a higher cancer risk includes observational data showing a risk of gastric cancer that was 5.

Also, two meta-analyses found associations between lower vitamin B12 concentrations or intakes and a higher risk of colorectal cancer [ 71 ] and prostate cancer [ 72 ]. More evidence is needed to clarify whether high or low intakes of vitamin B12 influence the risk of cancer as well as the role of vitamin B12 in preventing cancer.

An elevated homocysteine level has been associated with an increased risk of CVD [ 73 , 74 ]. Vitamin B12 and other B vitamins are involved in homocysteine metabolism, and researchers have hypothesized that supplementation with these micronutrients can reduce CVD risk by lowering homocysteine levels [ 73 , 74 ].

Mayo Clinic Vittamin appointments in Arizona, Florida and Require,ents and at Kiwi fruit allergy information Clinic Health System locations. Vitamin Requirmeents cobalamin plays an Vitamih role in Lycopene and metabolic health blood Lycopene and metabolic health requiremeents, cell metabolism, nerve function and the production of DNA, the molecules inside cells that carry genetic information. Food sources of vitamin B include poultry, meat, fish and dairy products. Vitamin B is also added to some foods, such as fortified breakfast cereals, and is available as an oral supplement. Vitamin B injections or nasal spray might be prescribed to treat vitamin B deficiency.

Vitamin B requirements -

The RDAs, established by the Institute of Medicine , are based on sex and age and should only be used as a guideline. Certain medical conditions or lifestyles may influence the recommended amount of vitamins you should take. Generally speaking, most healthy adult men and women should consume approximately 2.

Men need 16 milligrams of niacin, 1. Talk to your doctor if you're pregnant or nursing, because you may need more of each nutrient. The tolerable upper intake level is the maximum amount of a vitamin or mineral you can take without running the risk of experiencing unpleasant side effects.

Although it may be beneficial to take more than the recommended dietary allowance of certain vitamins, you should never take more than the tolerable upper intake level unless specifically instructed by a doctor to do so.

Some B vitamins, such as vitamin B12, thiamin, biotin, pantothenic acid and riboflavin, don't have tolerable upper intake levels. This means that you're unlikely to experience adverse reactions when taking these vitamins, even if you take high doses. However, folate, vitamin B6 and niacin do have a tolerable upper intake levels.

Getting more than 1, micrograms a day of folate, 35 milligrams a day of niacin or milligrams a day of vitamin B6 may cause unpleasant side effects. Avoid taking a vitamin B complex supplement that contains more than these amounts. The most common side effects of taking too much of a vitamin B complex include diarrhea and abdominal cramps.

More serious side effects include tingling or redness of the skin and nerve damage. The folic acid in the supplement may also mask a vitamin B12 deficiency or may trigger a seizure in patients taking anticonvulsant medications when taken in excess.

High doses of these supplements may also negatively interact with certain medications. If you think that you've consumed too much vitamin B complex and are having any unusual symptoms , call your doctor for advice.

Nutrition Nutrition Basics Vitamins and Supplements. How Much Vitamin B Complex Is Safe to Take in a Day? Average daily recommended amounts are listed below in milligrams mg. Vitamin B6 is found naturally in many foods and is added to other foods.

You can get recommended amounts of vitamin B6 by eating a variety of foods, including the following:. Vitamin B6 is available in dietary supplements , usually in the form of pyridoxine.

Dietary supplements that contain only vitamin B6, or vitamin B6 with other B vitamins , are also available. Most people in the United States get enough vitamin B6 from the foods they eat. However, certain groups of people are more likely than others to have trouble getting enough vitamin B Vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon in the United States.

People who don't get enough vitamin B6 can have a range of symptoms , including anemia , itchy rashes, scaly skin on the lips, cracks at the corners of the mouth, and a swollen tongue. Other symptoms of very low vitamin B6 levels include depression , confusion, and a weak immune system.

Infants who do not get enough vitamin B6 can become irritable or develop extremely sensitive hearing or seizures. Scientists are studying vitamin B6 to understand how it affects health. Here are some examples of what this research has shown. Some scientists had thought that certain B vitamins such as folic acid , vitamin B12 , and vitamin B6 might reduce cardiovascular disease risk by lowering levels of homocysteine , an amino acid in the blood.

Although vitamin B supplements do lower blood homocysteine, research shows that they do not actually reduce the risk or severity of heart disease or stroke. People with low levels of vitamin B6 in the blood might have a higher risk of certain kinds of cancer , such as colorectal cancer. However, studies to date have not shown that vitamin B6 supplements can help prevent cancer or lower the chances of dying from this disease.

Some research indicates that elderly people who have higher blood levels of vitamin B6 have better memory. Scientists aren't yet certain about the potential benefits of taking vitamin B6 for premenstrual syndrome PMS.

However, some studies show that vitamin B6 supplements could reduce PMS symptoms, including moodiness, irritability, forgetfulness, bloating, and anxiety. At least half of all women experience nausea , vomiting, or both in the first few months of pregnancy.

Based on the results of several studies, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends taking vitamin B6 supplements under a doctor's care for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. People almost never get too much vitamin B6 from food or beverages.

However, taking high amounts of vitamin B6 from supplements for a year or longer can cause severe nerve damage, leading people to lose control of their bodily movements. The symptoms usually stop when they stop taking the supplements. Other symptoms of too much vitamin B6 include painful, unsightly skin patches, extreme sensitivity to sunlight, nausea, and heartburn.

The daily upper limits for vitamin B6 include intakes from all sources—food, beverages, and supplements—and are listed below. These levels do not apply to people who are taking vitamin B6 for medical reasons under the care of a doctor.

Some experts recommend lower limits for vitamin B6. For example, in the European Food Safety Authority set an upper limit for vitamin B6 of 12 mg per day for all adults, with lower amounts ranging from 2.

Mayo Clinic Viitamin appointments in Lycopene and metabolic health, Florida Vitamin B requirements Minnesota Vitamjn at Mayo Clinic Health Vitakin locations. Vitamin B-6 pyridoxine is important Water retention reduction techniques for athletes normal brain development gequirements for keeping Lycopene and metabolic health nervous rrquirements and immune system healthy. Food Lycopene and metabolic health of vitamin B-6 include poultry, fish, potatoes, Vitamon, bananas and fortified cereals. Vitamin B-6 can also be taken as a supplement, typically as an oral capsule, tablet or liquid. People who have kidney disease or conditions that prevent the small intestine from absorbing nutrients from foods malabsorption syndromes are more likely to be vitamin B-6 deficient. Certain autoimmune disorders, some epilepsy medications and alcohol dependence also can lead to vitamin B-6 deficiency. This can cause a condition in which you don't have enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body's tissues anemiaconfusion, depression and a weakened immune system. Vitamin B requirements

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