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Performance-enhancing supplements

Performance-enhancing supplements

This can happen: during Body volume testing of rapid growth when first starting to Performancee-nhancing Energy balance and emotional eating when increasing Metabolism-boosting breakfast ideas intensity of workouts when recovering Performance-enhancing supplements injury Performaance-enhancing they are vegetarian or vegan In general, protein supplements do not seem to cause serious side effects. Current Health 2 29 : 6, Feb. Caffeine supplementation is known to improve endurance capacity during time to fatigue exercise tasks—for instance, during activities such as treadmill running to exhaustion French et al. LifeExtension, March Performance-enhancing supplements

Performance-enhancing supplements -

For years before ephedra was banned in the U. After eight years, the FDA banned all supplements containing ephedra in April , marking the U. With a drug, the manufacturer must prove it is safe. With a dietary supplement, the burden of proof rests more on the FDA.

To ban a dietary supplement, the FDA must demonstrate a significant or unreasonable risk to the consumer. This constraint can make it challenging for the FDA to protect the public in a timely manner.

Adding to the difficulty, if manufacturers of supplements become aware of side effects, they are not required to report them to the FDA. While it was still legal in the U. Bitter orange, or synephrine, is becoming a popular legal substitute for ephedra.

Bitter orange comes from the fruit of the Citrus aurantium plant and is chemically similar to ephedrine. There is very little research on the effectiveness or safety of bitter orange, but its stimulant properties make it likely that its side effects will be similar to those of ephedra.

Some claim that wild yams Dioscorea villosa can enhance performance due to its anabolic properties. Wild yams contain a substance called diosgenin, which can be converted to DHEA in a laboratory setting. The human body is not capable of converting diosgenin to DHEA. Yams offer no performance-enhancing benefits, but there appears to be little risk of side effects.

Gamma-oryzanol, also known as rice bran oil, is derived from sterol and ferulic acid. It has been marketed as a way to raise serum levels of testosterone, but has no proven anabolic effect.

Some claim that tribulus terrestris puncture vine can increase testosterone levels by stimulating the pituitary gland. Smilax comes from desert plants containing sarsaparilla and contains the building blocks for artificial production of anabolic steroids.

Saponins are building blocks for the laboratory production of steroids; however, the body is unable to convert smilax into testosterone or any other steroid.

Yohimbine is extracted from either yohimbe bark or the South American herb quebracho. Some claim it increases blood flow through the testes, leading to higher testosterone levels.

There is no proof that yohimbine has any anabolic effects, but it can be extremely dangerous. Combining yohimbine and tyramine found in many foods and wines can cause an acute spike in blood pressure. In addition to hypertension, side effects of yohimbine include seizures, paralysis and death.

The club drug GHB is a CNS depressant made by combining degreaser or floor solvent with drain cleaner. For some reason, a number of uninformed bodybuilders became convinced that they could build muscle mass while they slept by taking GHB.

Some extremely uninformed bodybuilders took GHB around the clock, risking an overdose. A GHB overdose, as well as unsupervised withdrawal, can be fatal. Not surprisingly, there is absolutely no research to support the idea that GHB enhances muscle mass in anyone, awake or not.

Diuretics are sometimes used to hide traces of illegal or banned substances. Competitive bodybuilders sometimes take diuretics before competition to shed excess weight and increase muscle definition. Taking diuretics, especially during increased physical activity, can lead to dehydration, syncope and heat-related emergencies.

The use of most performance-enhancing drugs and supplements appears to be at best a waste of money, and at worst fatal. For those considering a supplement, here are some tips for selecting wisely Some are ineffective and dangerous only to your pocketbook.

Some, such as anabolic steroids, will work, but pose outrageous risks. Creatine is one of the few supplements that appears to have considerable research to support the claims made of it. Thorough research, consultation with a physician and a healthy skepticism continue to be the best approach toward any drug or supplement.

EMS professionals familiar with the facts are better equipped to discourage use of dangerous supplements and recognize patients who are potentially at risk. For additional information on exercise supplements, visit the following websites:. National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplements: Background Information.

Coleman E, Nelson-Steen S, Maughan R, Skinner R. Gatorade Sports Science Institute Sports Science Exchange Roundtable Rawson E, Clarkson P. Scientifically debatable: Is creatine worth its weight?

Sports Science Exchange 91 16 : 4, Shaffer I. The Science and Policy of Performance-Enhancing Products. Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Conference, Zickler P. NIDA initiatives targets increasing teen use of anabolic steroids.

NIDA Notes , August Brink W. The science and policy of performance enhancing supplements. LifeExtension, March National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Report Series: Anabolic Steroid Abuse. Kowalski K. The truth behind the hype. Current Health 2 29 : 6, Feb. Steer clear of steroid abuse.

Current Health 2 25 : 7, March Mishra R. Steroids and sports are a losing proposition. FDA Consumer 25 7 : 24, Sept. Quiz: Anabolic Steroids. Wagner C, Morgan M. FDA warns against using andro.

Chicago Tribune, March 12, Kohrt WM. The mechanisms underpinning these benefits include adenosine receptor antagonism, increased endorphin release, enhanced neuromuscular function, improved vigilance and alertness, and a reduced perception of exertion during exercise for review, see Burke, ; Goldstein et al.

Caffeine supplementation is known to improve endurance capacity during time to fatigue exercise tasks—for instance, during activities such as treadmill running to exhaustion French et al. Furthermore, ergogenic benefits are also widely reported during competitive situations, such as real or laboratory-simulated time-trial TT activities.

A systematic review by Ganio et al. In fact, such doses are likely to increase the risk of negative side effects, such as nausea, anxiousness, insomnia, and restlessness Burke, —outcomes that would clearly negate any performance-enhancing outcomes. Interestingly, similar performance outcomes are expected in both habituated caffeine users and nonusers Goldstein et al.

Low doses of caffeine consumed during endurance exercise have also been shown to enhance performance. In fact, — mg 1. The effects of caffeine on short-term, supramaximal, and repeated sprint tasks have been less well studied.

Of note, athletes who intend to use caffeine as a performance aid should trial their strategies during training or minor competitions, in order to fine-tune a protocol that achieves benefits with minimal side effects. Creatine is another widely-researched supplement, with creatine monohydrate CM being the most common form used to supplement dietary intake from meats.

Within the muscle, creatine-kinase mediates the phosphorylation of creatine to phosphocreatine PCr , a key substrate for high-intensity muscle force generation Greenhaff et al. As a result, creatine loading can acutely enhance the performance of sports involving repeated high-intensity exercise e.

There is additional, albeit equivocal, evidence of changes in cellular signaling, metabolism, and water storage associated with creatine supplementation with potential flow-on effects such as enhancements of protein synthesis, glycogen storage, and thermoregulation for review, see Cooper et al.

Therefore, there may be less well-recognized benefits of creatine supplementation for endurance sport athletes. Such protocols have been established primarily from early work investigating muscle creatine loading in males Hultman et al.

No negative health effects have been reported with the long-term use of CM up to 4 years when appropriate loading protocols are followed Schilling et al. In fact, some reports propose CM supplementation to be anti-inflammatory, and to reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress Deminice et al.

Dietary nitrate NO 3 — is a popular supplement initially found to improve oxygen uptake VO 2 kinetics during prolonged submaximal exercise Bailey et al. The ingestion of dietary NO 3 — leads to an enhanced nitric oxide NO bioavailability via the NO 3 — -nitrite-NO pathway, a reduction catalyzed initially by bacteria in the mouth and the digestive system Duncan et al.

NO plays an important role in the modulation of skeletal muscle function Jones, , with proposed mechanisms for improved exercise performance including a reduced ATP cost of muscle force production, an increased efficiency of mitochondrial respiration, increased blood flow to the muscle, and a decrease in blood flow to VO 2 heterogeneities Bailey et al.

Recently, nitrate supplementation has been proposed to enhance the function of type II muscle fibers Bailey et al. Differences in these findings may possibly relate to the lower dose of nitrate provided in the acute instance; indeed, a dose-response effect of NO 3 — supplement use has been shown previously, with higher NO 3 — doses having a greater impact on 2,m rowing performance Hoon et al.

However, the benefit of nitrate supplementation for very highly-trained elite athletes requires more research, with some Nyakayiru et al. Finally, chronic NO 3 — supplementation may facilitate training adaptations when taken prior to key sessions, with greater improvements 8.

Leafy green and root vegetables i. Performance benefits may manifest acutely i. Finally, performance benefits may be maintained for at least 15 days, if consumption of the supplement is continued for this duration Vanhatalo et al. Beta-alanine is the rate-limiting precursor to carnosine, an endogenous intracellular muscle buffer, and one of the immediate defenses against the accumulation of protons in the contracting musculature during exercise Lancha Junior et al.

Daily supplementation with 3. Beta-alanine supplementation may not be as effective in well-trained athletes as their lesser-trained counterparts Bellinger, , partly due to a diminishing role of carnosine toward intramuscular pH regulation in individuals with an already enhanced buffering capacity.

However, the small performance changes observed in well-trained athletes to date 0. Beta-alanine dosing strategies typically involve split doses consumed over the day i. However, in accounting for this individual variation, an in-depth analysis and summary of the available literature by Stellingwerff et al.

Regardless, it is likely that an individualized approach to beta-alanine supplementation should be considered where possible. Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate NaHCO 3 is proposed to enhance high-intensity exercise performance as an extracellular blood buffer; however, the mechanisms of action are complex Siegler et al.

Although playing an important role in the maintenance of both intracellular and extracellular pH, NaHCO 3 is unable to permeate the sarcolemma, and therefore aids intracellular pH regulation indirectly by raising both extracellular pH and HCO 3 — concentrations Katz et al.

Successful supplementation protocols typically involve acute NaHCO 3 doses of 0. However, common side effects include GI upset, which may negate any performance enhancements, likely explaining the large variability in individual responses Carr, Slater, et al.

Furthermore, sodium citrate has been proposed as an alternative to NaHCO 3 , as a result of lower reported rates albeit not in all investigations of GI upset Requena et al. Potentially, the aforementioned supplement doses and performance effects are achievable from slightly-elevated dietary consumption of commonly-consumed foods and beverages i.

Regardless, it is no doubt reassuring that each of these established performance supplements can be found in various forms on the shelves and in the fridges of the local supermarket. The following supplements are also used by athletes; however, the evidence-base for their potential to enhance athletic performance is less clear.

Similar to NaHCO 3 , sodium citrate acts as a blood buffer by increasing pH in the extracellular environment, and increasing the gradient between the blood and the active muscle.

Early studies trialed sodium citrate doses ranging from 0. Here, a dose response was seen, with ergogenic benefits requiring a minimum ingestion of 0. Subsequently, a 0. The more recent discovery that the time to peak blood pH occurs — min after sodium citrate ingestion suggests that the dosing protocol should occur at a minimum of 3 hr preexercise Urwin et al.

Despite these few positive investigations, it should be noted that the ergogenic effect of sodium citrate ingestion remains equivocal, with a previous meta-analysis highlighting a negligible benefit 0. Considering the detrimental side effects from both NaHCO 3 and citrate, and the potential for limited benefits with the latter, athletes and support staff are encouraged to carefully trial the use of these blood buffers in training before implementing an individualized and bespoke protocol in a competition setting.

Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to support the potential benefits of phosphate supplementation on athletic performance see Buck et al.

The proposed mechanisms underpinning these benefits include an enhanced rate of ATP and PCr resynthesis Kreider, ; improved buffering capacity to support high rates of anaerobic glycolysis Kreider, ; improvement of myocardial contractility leading to increased cardiac efficiency Kreider et al.

Overall, there is equivocal evidence of performance enhancement from phosphate supplementation. In some instances, phosphate has been shown to enhance VO 2max Cade et al.

However, in the case of repeated sprints, the magnitude of benefit has been shown to be varied and unclear Kopec et al, Finally, there is also a large amount of contrary evidence from the same physiological and performance measures that suggests phosphate supplementation in isolation, or in combination with other buffer agents has no impact on exercise capacity or performance outcomes Brewer et al.

No doubt, the lack of clear consensus defined by this collective work is explained by variations in the supplement protocol used i. as well as individual responses to the supplement itself Peeling, This is often associated with GI distress Cade et al.

Nevertheless, current evidence regarding the efficacy of phosphate supplementation remains unclear, since there exists no evidence to suggest an accumulation of this supplement in the muscle, where a number of the reported mechanism are suggested to take effect.

As such, the use of this supplement for enhanced athletic performance is likely questionable, with further research needed to fully explore its true effect. If considered for use, individual responses should be thoroughly trialed prior to using this supplement in a competition setting.

Increased muscle carnitine stores via supplementation with L-carnitine are postulated to spare glycogen, via increased fat oxidation, at lower exercise intensities, and to promote more efficient carbohydrate oxidation and reduced lactate accumulation at higher intensities, delaying the onset of fatigue during endurance-based activity.

Research on L-carnitine supplementation has shown equivocal outcomes. Marconi et al. Of note, the lack of performance effect seen in these studies may likely result from the fact that muscle carnitine levels do not seem to increase when using these standard supplement protocols i.

More recently, Novakova et al. Importantly, there was no effect on muscle function, energy metabolism, or VO 2 during either submaximal or maximal exercise tests.

It is likely that the lack of efficacy of oral L-carnitine supplementation in many studies is due to its low bioavailability and failure to increase muscle carnitine stores.

However, Stephens, Evans, et al. In a follow-up study Wall et al. Therefore, given the limited research in this space, and the considerable effort needed to implement such a protocol, further investigation is needed to clarify the efficacy and safety of following these prolonged supplement regimes.

This section covers supplements which are emerging in both their popularity and the evidence base for athletic performance benefits. However, more work is needed before conclusive recommendations can be made on their use, and there may be some differences in the principles or mechanisms by which they could be of value.

The performance supplements outlined in the prior sections are presented in view of a strong evidence base to reflect a direct impact on athletic performance through the augmentation of various rate-limiting processes.

However, other supplements may have an indirect impact on performance via their ability to support the training process, through their influence on factors such as inflammatory modulation, oxidative stress, and signaling pathways for adaptation, or their ability to support repetitive performance by restoring homeostasis between two exercise bouts.

Such an outcome may impact athlete performance—for instance, if the supplement protocol targets an improvement in fatigue resistance during heavy competition schedules.

Similarly, food polyphenols may act in a comparable way, possessing strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties see Tsao, that may be beneficial to exercise recovery.

For instance, the high anthocyanin content of tart Montmorency cherries has been shown to reduce the inflammatory and oxidative stress responses to marathon running Howatson et al. Of note, only blood biomarkers were presented in these aforementioned studies to suggest such a benefit and, therefore, these outcomes should be further confirmed by muscle analysis in future research.

Of note, there are several issues that make it more difficult to substantiate the performance benefits of these supplements. One factor is that it may take a lengthy period before better recovery between exercise bouts or better support of training leads to a detectable improvement in competition performance.

For example, previous research on supplementation with anti-oxidant vitamins i. As such, the ultimate benefit of the use of these supplements may depend on how and when they are used; for example, they might be used in scenarios of repeated competition events to reduce exercise perturbations and enhance recovery and subsequent performance, but avoided during training bouts where optimal adaptation is driven by full exposure to oxidative or inflammatory stress.

Alternatively, some supplements may affect a number of body systems, with positive effects on one system counteracting the minor negative effects on another.

For example, although they are considered to have anti-oxidant properties, some polyphenol subclasses e. Furthermore, numerous food polyphenols are also suggested to have a direct effect on performance, potentially a result of mechanisms relevant to flow mediated dilatation, NO production, and adenosine receptor antagonism effects Somerville et al.

However, clearly in its infancy, there exists a need for further research exploring these emerging supplements to fully examine the effects and potential efficacy of their ability to support the training process, and to provide a direct positive impact on athletic performance. This review summarizes the evidence for a number of commonly-used supplements, ingested with the aim of enhancing athletic performance.

This should be further viewed in light of the marginal, but often important, gains that may be achieved through sound use of these products, as well as practical considerations such as a lack of uniform tolerance and response to a given supplement. As such, any use of performance supplements should be thoroughly trialed in training before implementation into a competition environment, since, in some scenarios, outcomes ranging from a lack of efficacy to deleterious responses may outweigh any expected performance enhancement.

Astorino , T. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: A systematic review. PubMed doi Baguet , A. Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance. Journal of Applied Physiology , 4 , — Bailey , S.

Dietary nitrate supplementation enhances muscle contractile efficiency during knee-extensor exercise in humans.

Journal of Applied Physiology , 1 , — Inorganic nitrate supplementation improves muscle oxygenation, O 2 uptake kinetics, and exercise tolerance at high but not low pedal rates. Journal of Applied Physiology , 11 , — Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O 2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans.

Barnett , C. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle and blood carnitine content and lactate accumulation during high-intensity sprint cycling.

International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 4 3 , — Baylis , A. Inadvertent doping through supplement use by athletes: Assessment and management of the risk in Australia. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 11 3 , — Bell , P.

Montmorency cherries reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to repeated days high-intensity stochastic cycling. Nutrients, 6 12 , — Bellar , D. Effects of low-dose caffeine supplementation on early morning performance in the standing shot put throw. European Journal of Sport Science, 12 1 , 57 — Bellinger , P.

Beta-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: An update. Benesch , R. Intracellular organic phosphates as regulators of oxygen release by haemoglobin. Nature, , — Boorsma , R. Beetroot juice supplementation does not improve performance of elite m runners.

Braakhuis , A. Impact of dietary antioxidants on sport performance: A review. Sports Medicine, 45 7 , — Branch , J.

Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 13 2 , — Brewer , C. Effect of repeated sodium phosphate loading on cycling time-trial performance and VO2peak.

International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 23 2 , — Effect of sodium phosphate supplementation on cycling time trial performance and VO2 1 and 8 days post loading.

Bruce , C. Enhancement of m rowing performance after caffeine ingestion. Buck , C. Sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid. Sports Medicine, 43 6 , — Buford , T.

International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: Creatine supplementation and exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 4 , 6.

Burke , L. Caffeine and sports performance. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism, 33 6 , — Practical considerations for bicarbonate loading and sports performance. Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series, 75 , 15 — Cade , R.

These drugs also are called anabolic-androgenic steroids. They are made to work like a hormone that the body makes called testosterone. Some people use anabolic steroids for medical reasons.

But doping for sports isn't one of the uses the drugs are approved for. What makes some athletes want to use anabolic steroids? These drugs might lower the damage that happens to muscles during a hard workout.

That could help athletes bounce back faster from a workout. They might be able to exercise harder and more often. Some people also may like how their muscles look when they take these drugs. More-dangerous types of anabolic steroids are called designer steroids.

Some drug tests may not be able to spot them in a person's body. Anabolic steroids have no medical use that's approved by the government. Many athletes take anabolic steroids at doses that are too high.

These doses are much higher than those that health care providers use for medical reasons. Anabolic steroids have serious side effects too. Teens who take anabolic steroids might grow less than usual too. They also might raise their risk of health problems later in life.

Doping with anabolic steroids is banned by most sports leagues and groups. And it is not legal. It's never safe to buy anabolic steroids from a drug dealer. The drugs could be tainted or labeled the wrong way. Androstenedione, also called andro, is a hormone everyone's body makes.

The body turns andro into the hormone testosterone and a form of the hormone estrogen. Andro can be made in a lab. Some drugmakers and workout magazines claim that andro products help athletes train harder and recover faster.

But some studies show that andro doesn't boost testosterone. They also show that muscles don't get stronger. Andro is legal to use only if a health care provider prescribes it. It's not legal to use as a doping drug in the United States. Andro can damage the heart and blood vessels in anyone who takes it.

This raises the risk of a serious problem that can happen when the heart doesn't get enough blood, called a heart attack. It also raises the risk of a condition that keeps the brain from getting enough oxygen, called a stroke.

Heart attack and stroke can be deadly. Athletes take human growth hormone, also called somatotropin, to build more muscle and do better at their sports.

But studies don't clearly prove that human growth hormone boosts strength or helps people exercise longer. A health care provider can prescribe human growth hormone for some health reasons.

It is given as a shot. Erythropoietin is a type of hormone. It treats anemia in people with severe kidney disease. It raises the level of red blood cells.

It also raises the levels of the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body's organs, called hemoglobin. Taking erythropoietin improves how oxygen moves to the muscles. It's common for athletes who exercise for long amounts of time to use a lab-made type of erythropoietin called epoetin.

In the s, it was common for pro cyclists to use erythropoietin. But the drug may have played a role in at least 18 deaths. Doping with erythropoietin may raise the risk of serious health problems. These include stroke, heart attack and blocked arteries in the lung. Diuretics are drugs that change the body's balance of fluids and salts.

They can cause the body to lose water, which can lower an athlete's weight. Diuretics also may help athletes pass drug tests that check for signs of drugs in the urine.

They dilute the urine and may hide traces of drugs. Diuretics can cause side effects when you take them at any dose — even at doses that health care providers suggest.

These drugs make athletes more likely to have side effects such as:. Nutrients are vitamins and minerals in foods that are good for you. Some people try to get more nutrients from products called supplements.

Supplements are sold in stores and online as powders or pills. One supplement that's popular with athletes is called creatine monohydrate. The body makes its own creatine too. It helps muscles release energy. Creatine supplements may help athletes gain small, short-term bursts of power.

Creatine seems to help muscles make more of an energy source called adenosine triphosphate ATP.

com "], "filter": Performance-enhancing supplements "nextExceptions": "img, blockquote, div", Perfornance-enhancing Performance-enhancing supplements, Performance-enhancig, a. btn, a. Always check with your doctor before trying Ginseng growing tips new supplement, especially if you are taking prescription medications. Beets are a rich source of antioxidants. Consuming beetroot juice prior to exercise has been shown to diminish the muscular fatigue associated with high-intensity exercise. We love drinking green teaespecially before a workout. When American runner Thomas Hicks Red pepper snapper Performance-enhancing supplements Olympic marathon in St. Louis, Mo. Metabolism-boosting breakfast ideas instead Performace-enhancing probably sipping Performance-fnhancing a high-carb or electrolyte-packed drink or gel Performance-enhancint remain hydrated. The 10 best gym bag essentials, from self-cleaning water bottles to resistance bands. Still, the idea that a supplement could improve our health or sport performance continues to tantalize us, regardless of our individual fitness levels. A study revealed that one in 10 recreational athletes used over-the-counter medication for performance enhancement.

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What are the best performance enhancing supplements for ultra runners? - Dr Greg Potter

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3 thoughts on “Performance-enhancing supplements

  1. Ich denke, dass Sie den Fehler zulassen. Ich kann die Position verteidigen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden besprechen.

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